Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Fruits and Vegetables

Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Fruits and Vegetables
Author: Amit K. Jaiswal
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 766
Release: 2020-08-17
ISBN 10: 0128127805
ISBN 13: 9780128127803
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Fruits and Vegetables Book Review:

Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Fruits and Vegetables provides an overview of the nutritional and anti-nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, and health benefits of a wide range of commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The book presents a comprehensive overview on a variety of topics, including inflorescence, flowers and flower buds (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage), bulb, stem and stalk (onion, celery, asparagus, celery), leaves (watercress, lettuce, spinach), fruit and seed (peppers, squash, tomato, eggplant, green beans), roots and tubers (red beet, carrots, radish), and fruits, such as citrus (orange, lemon, grapefruit), berries (blackberry, strawberry, lingonberry, bayberry, blueberry), melons (pumpkin, watermelon), and more. Each chapter, contributed by an international expert in the field, also discusses the factors influencing antioxidant content, such as genotype, environmental variation and agronomic conditions. Contains detailed information on nutritional and anti-nutritional composition for commonly consumed fruits and vegetables Presents recent epidemiological information on the health benefits of fresh produce Provides in-depth information about the antioxidant properties of a range of fruits and vegetables

Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Fruits and Vegetables

Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Fruits and Vegetables
Author: Amit K. Jaiswal
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 766
Release: 2020-07-30
ISBN 10: 0128127813
ISBN 13: 9780128127810
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Fruits and Vegetables Book Review:

Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Fruits and Vegetables provides an overview of the nutritional and anti-nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, and health benefits of a wide range of commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The book presents a comprehensive overview on a variety of topics, including inflorescence, flowers and flower buds (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage), bulb, stem and stalk (onion, celery, asparagus, celery), leaves (watercress, lettuce, spinach), fruit and seed (peppers, squash, tomato, eggplant, green beans), roots and tubers (red beet, carrots, radish), and fruits, such as citrus (orange, lemon, grapefruit), berries (blackberry, strawberry, lingonberry, bayberry, blueberry), melons (pumpkin, watermelon), and more. Each chapter, contributed by an international expert in the field, also discusses the factors influencing antioxidant content, such as genotype, environmental variation and agronomic conditions. Contains detailed information on nutritional and anti-nutritional composition for commonly consumed fruits and vegetables Presents recent epidemiological information on the health benefits of fresh produce Provides in-depth information about the antioxidant properties of a range of fruits and vegetables

Nutritional Composition of Fruit Cultivars

Nutritional Composition of Fruit Cultivars
Author: Monique Simmonds,Victor R. Preedy
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 796
Release: 2015-10-16
ISBN 10: 0124080642
ISBN 13: 9780124080645
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nutritional Composition of Fruit Cultivars Book Review:

Nutritional Composition of Fruit Cultivars provides readers with the latest information on the health related properties of foods, making the documentation of the nutritive value of historical cultivars especially urgent, especially before they are lost and can't be effectively compared to modern cultivars. Because there is considerable diversity and a substantial body of the compositional studies directed towards commercial varieties, this information is useful for identifying traits and features that may be transposed from one variety to another. In addition, compositional and sensory features may also be used for commercialization and to characterize adulteration. Detailed characterization of cultivars can be used to identify "super-foods". Alternatively, unmasked historical cultivars may be the focus of reinvigorated commercial practices. Each chapter in this book has sections on the botanical aspects, the composition of traditional or ancient cultivars, the composition of modern cultivars, a focus on areas of research, the specialty of the communicating author of each chapter, and summary points. Presents the botanical aspects and composition of both traditional and modern plants, including in-depth insight into current research, and overall summary points for each fruit for consistent comparison and ease of reference Provides important information in the consideration of preservation, transference, or re-introduction of historical/traditional cultivars into current crop science Provides details on compositional and sensory parameters, from aroma and taste to micro- and macronutrients Includes data on nutraceuticals and novel components that have proven to impact on, or be important in, food quality, storage, processing, storage, and marketing

Bioactive Compounds Biosynthesis and Metabolism in Fruit and Vegetables

Bioactive Compounds Biosynthesis and Metabolism in Fruit and Vegetables
Author: Antonio Ferrante,George Manganaris,Maria Manuela Pintado,Alessandra Francini
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-03-23
ISBN 10: 2889636038
ISBN 13: 9782889636037
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioactive Compounds Biosynthesis and Metabolism in Fruit and Vegetables Book Review:

Antioxidants in Vegetables and Nuts Properties and Health Benefits

Antioxidants in Vegetables and Nuts   Properties and Health Benefits
Author: Gulzar Ahmad Nayik,Amir Gull
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 572
Release: 2020-12-01
ISBN 10: 9811574707
ISBN 13: 9789811574702
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Antioxidants in Vegetables and Nuts Properties and Health Benefits Book Review:

This book covers the nutritional and nutraceutical profiles of a wide range of popularly consumed vegetables and nuts. The first half of the book focuses on popular vegetables, and describes how higher vegetable consumption reduces the risk of diseases ranging from diabetes to osteoporosis, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. The book also includes an interesting section on the antioxidant potential of mushrooms. In turn, the second half discusses the nutritional value of various nuts. Nuts are nutrient-dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fats, high-quality protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols and phenolics. The respective chapters illustrate how the consumption of nuts could ward off chronic diseases like hypertension, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease etc. In order to effectively promote vegetable and nut consumption, it is necessary to know and understand the nutritional and nutraceutical profiles of vegetables & nuts. Given its scope, the book will be of interest to students, researchers, food scientists, olericulturists, dietitians and agricultural scientists alike. Those working in the vegetable and nut processing industries, horticultural departments and other agricultural departments will also find the comprehensive information relevant to their work.

Antioxidant Antidiabetic Agents and Human Health

Antioxidant Antidiabetic Agents and Human Health
Author: Oluwafemi Oguntibeju
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 382
Release: 2014-02-05
ISBN 10: 9535112155
ISBN 13: 9789535112150
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Antioxidant Antidiabetic Agents and Human Health Book Review:

The human system employs the use of endogenous enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant defence systems against the onslaught of free radicals and oxidative stress. Enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants work synergistically with each other, using different mechanisms against different free radicals and stages of oxidative stress. Dietary and lifestyle modifications are seen as the mainstay of treatment and management of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The major aims of dietary and lifestyle changes are to reduce weight, improve glycaemic control and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, which accounts for 70- 80% of deaths among those with diabetes. It is also important to note that medicinal plants have been used as medicines since ancient time, and continue to play significant role even in modern medicine in management and treatment of chronic diseases. Impressive numbers of modern therapeutic agents have been developed from plants. Phytochemicals have been isolated and characterised from fruits such as grapes and apples, vegetables such as broccoli and onion, spices such as turmeric, beverages such as green tea and red wine, as well as many other sources. The WHO estimates that approximately 80% of the worlds inhabitants rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care and many medicinal plants have ethno-medical claims of usefulness in the treatment of diabetes and other chronic diseases globally, and have been employed empirically in antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive, antinflammatory and antiparasitic remedies. This book examines the role of antioxidant-rich natural products in management and treatment of diabetes and other chronic diseases.

Packaging and Storage of Fruits and Vegetables

Packaging and Storage of Fruits and Vegetables
Author: Tanweer Alam
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 326
Release: 2021-12-16
ISBN 10: 1000369455
ISBN 13: 9781000369458
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Packaging and Storage of Fruits and Vegetables Book Review:

This new volume shares a plethora of valuable information on the recent advances in packaging and storage technologies used for quality preservation of fresh fruits and vegetables. This book, with chapters from eminent researchers in the field, covers several essential aspects of packaging and storage methods and techniques generally used in fruit and vegetables. Important considerations on selection and characteristics of packaging materials, new packaging methods, storage hygiene and sanitation issues along with recent trends in storage technology are discussed in this volume. Key features: Provides an inclusive overview of fruit and vegetable requirements and available packaging materials and storage systems Imparts an understanding of the fundamentals of the impact of packaging on the evolution of quality and safety of fruits and vegetables Includes examples of mathematical modeling and mechanical and engineering properties of packaging materials Provides an in-depth discussion of innovative packaging and storage technologies, such as MA/CA packaging, active packaging, intelligent packaging, eco-friendly materials, etc., applied to fruit and vegetables Packaging and Storage of Fruits and Vegetables: Emerging Trends will be useful for graduate and postgraduate students and teaching professionals of horticultural science, food science and technology, packaging technology etc. It will also provide valuable scientific information to the academic scientific research community as well as to the packaging and storage industries for preservation of quality characteristics of fruits and vegetables. The professional community involved in handling processing and commercialization of horticultural crops will benefit as well.

Flavonoids

Flavonoids
Author: José Justino
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 484
Release: 2017-08-23
ISBN 10: 953513423X
ISBN 13: 9789535134237
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Flavonoids Book Review:

Flavonoids are abundant secondary metabolites found in plants and fungi that have various roles in these organisms, including pigmentation, cell signalling, plant defence and inter-organism communication. Due to their abundance in nature, flavonoids are also important components of the human diet, and the last four decades have seen an intense study focused on the structure characterization of flavonoids and on their roles in mammal metabolism. This book reviews most of the well-established activities of flavonoids, and we also present more recent research studies on the area of flavonoids, including the chemical aspects of structure characterization of flavonoids, the biosynthesis of flavonoids in model plants as well as their role in abiotic stress situations and in agriculture, the role of flavonoids in metabolism and health and their importance in foods, from consumption to their use as bioactive components.

Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals

Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals
Author: Laura A. de la Rosa,Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla,Gustavo A. Gonzalez-Aguilar
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 380
Release: 2009-10-13
ISBN 10: 9780813809489
ISBN 13: 0813809487
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals Book Review:

Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals: Chemistry, Nutritional Value and Stability provides scientists in the areas of food technology and nutrition with accessible and up-to-date information about the chemical nature, classification and analysis of the main phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables – polyphenols and carotenoids. Special care is taken to analyze the health benefits of these compounds, their interaction with fiber, antioxidant and other biological activities, as well as the degradation processes that occur after harvest and minimal processing.

Health Promoting Properties of Fruits and Vegetables

Health Promoting Properties of Fruits and Vegetables
Author: Leon Terry
Publsiher: CABI
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2011
ISBN 10: 9781845935290
ISBN 13: 1845935292
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Health Promoting Properties of Fruits and Vegetables Book Review:

Fruits and vegetables are one of the richest sources of ascorbic acid, other antioxidants and produce-specific bioactive compounds. A general consensus from health experts has confirmed that an increased dietary intake of antioxidant compounds found in most fresh produce types may protect against oxidative damage caused by free radicals and reduce the incidence of certain cancers and chronic diseases. Currently there is no book available which collectively discusses and reviews empirical data on health-promoting properties of all fresh produce types. This book will provide detailed information on identity, nature, bioavailablity, chemopreventative effects, and postharvest stability of specific chemical classes with known bioactive properties. In addition, chapters discuss the various methodologies for extraction, isolation, characterization and quantification of bioactive compounds and the in-vitro and in-vivo anticancer assays. It will be an essential resource for researchers and students in food science, nutrition and fruit and vegetable production.

Phytochemicals

Phytochemicals
Author: Toshiki Asao,Md Asaduzzaman
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 218
Release: 2018-11-07
ISBN 10: 1789843774
ISBN 13: 9781789843774
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phytochemicals Book Review:

Phytochemicals provides original research work and reviews on the sources of phytochemicals, and their roles in disease prevention, supplementation, and accumulation in fruits and vegetables. The roles of anthocyanin, flavonoids, carotenoids, and taxol are presented in separate chapters. Antioxidative and free radicle scavenging activity of phytochemicals is also discussed. The medicinal properties of Opuntia, soybean, sea buckthorn, and gooseberry are presented in a number of chapters. Supplementation of plant extract with phytochemical properties in broiler meals is discussed in one chapter. The final two chapters include the impact of agricultural practices and novel processing technologies on the accumulation of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables. This book mainly focuses on medicinal plants and the disease-preventing properties of phytochemicals, which will be a useful resource to the reader.

Vegetables I

Vegetables I
Author: Jaime Prohens-Tomás,Fernando Nuez
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 428
Release: 2007-12-06
ISBN 10: 0387304436
ISBN 13: 9780387304434
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Vegetables I Book Review:

This major work has but one aim: to provide breeders and researchers from the public and private sectors with all the latest information on the breeding of crops of economic relevance. Also, it serves as a major reference book for post-graduate courses and PhD courses on breeding vegetable crops, as well a one-stop-shop for horticulturists and extension agents interested in current advancements in the development of new vegetable crops varieties. Each chapter incorporates the most up-to-date information on the crops examined, and an important novelty is that, in comparison to other books already published on this subject this one contains the most cutting-edge information on molecular breeding techniques.

Strawberry

Strawberry
Author: Toshiki Asao,Md Asaduzzaman
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 156
Release: 2019-10-02
ISBN 10: 1839622539
ISBN 13: 9781839622533
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Strawberry Book Review:

This book mainly deals with pre- and postharvest management practices of the strawberry to ensure that high-quality fruits are delivered to the consumer. The influence of climatic variables, cultural practices, harvesting techniques, and use of chemicals and other natural compounds on fruit quality are discussed. Factors affecting fruit growth and development and processes regarding maturation and biochemical changes during fruit ripening are also presented in one of the chapters of this book. Some chapters provide information regarding harvesting, storing, packaging, transporting, and also selling that affect strawberry quality greatly. Enhancement of yield and antioxidant contents in the strawberry by various natural products, including chitosan and probiotic bacterial, are also included in this book. The final chapter states that antioxidants present in strawberry fruit play a dietary role in alleviating oxidative stress in experimental liver models. This book focuses on the postharvest quality management of the strawberry and provides a useful resource to educationists, traders, and commercial strawberry growers.

Antioxidant Properties of Spices Herbs and Other Sources

Antioxidant Properties of Spices  Herbs and Other Sources
Author: Denys J. Charles
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 612
Release: 2012-11-27
ISBN 10: 1461443105
ISBN 13: 9781461443100
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Antioxidant Properties of Spices Herbs and Other Sources Book Review:

The scientific world and modern society today is experiencing the dawning of an era of herbal medicine. Extensive research has shown that aromatic plants are important anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti aging and immune boosting delectable foods, with the magic and miracle to boost our immune system providing us with extended and an improved quality of life. Apart from making bland recipes into welcoming or interesting victories, herbs and spices have stirred the minds of the research community to look deeper into its active components from a functional perspective. It is essential to present the scientific and medicinal aspect of herbs and spices together with the analysis of constituents, its medicinal application, toxicology and its physiological effects. Herbs and spices with high levels of antioxidants are in great demand as they tend to promote health and prevent diseases naturally assuring increased safety and reliability for consumers. Herbs and spices are not only known for taste and flavor, but today research has opened up a new realm in which the antioxidant properties of these aromatic plants provide preservation for foods and health benefits for consumers who look forward to concrete scientific research to guide them further and explore herbal medicine. The aim of this book is to create awareness in society about the reliability of medicinal properties of certain herbs and spices through scientific and scholarly research.

Vegetables and Fruits

Vegetables and Fruits
Author: Thomas S. C. Li
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2008-01-24
ISBN 10: 9781420068733
ISBN 13: 1420068733
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Vegetables and Fruits Book Review:

The modern synthetic diet, formulated to appeal to our inherent attraction to sugar, salt, fats, and calories at the expense of nutrition, leaves us over-fed and under-nourished. A considerable portion of chronic human diseases, including diabetes and heart disease, appear to be related largely to a diet that is inadequate in the essential vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, and other constituents found in natural, unprocessed foods. Employing a no-nonsense, tabular format, Vegetables and Fruits: Nutritional and Therapeutic Values presents detailed information on nutritional and therapeutic constituents and their applications for more than 200 vegetables and fruits currently available in North American markets. Edited by one of the world’s best known and respected researchers, this comprehensive reference guide begins with a general introduction to essential human values such as protein, minerals, vitamins, and fiber. Five tables list nutritional and therapeutic values, vitamin and mineral content, and flavonoid, isoflavone, and carotenoid presence in raw vegetables. The sixth presents uses of vegetables and fruits to maintain health and fight disease. Five appendices provide lists of scientific and English names, as well as a review of chemical compounds and their sources. Today, dietitians agree that plant foods should comprise the major part of the healthy human diet. Moreover, they have determined that fruits and vegetables are the keys to obtaining not just adequate vitamins and minerals, but a wide variety of other elements that can contribute therapeutically to human health. With the increasing emphasis on good nutrition and healthy eating, this handy guide is crucial to ensuring optimal nutrition from a plant-based diet.

Advances in Postharvest Technologies of Vegetable Crops

Advances in Postharvest Technologies of Vegetable Crops
Author: Bijendra Singh,Sudhir Singh
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 534
Release: 2018-05-24
ISBN 10: 1351664166
ISBN 13: 9781351664165
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Postharvest Technologies of Vegetable Crops Book Review:

This book presents a selection of innovative postharvest management practices for vegetables. It covers technologies in harvesting, handling, and storage of vegetables, including strategies for low-temperature storage of vegetables, active and smart packaging of vegetables, edible coatings, application of nanotechnology in postharvest technology of vegetable crops, and more. It considers most of the important areas of vegetable processing while maintaining nutritional quality and addressing safety issues. Fruits and vegetables are important sources of nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds, which provide many health benefits. However, due to poor postharvest management—such as non-availability of cold chain management and low-cost processing facilities, large quantities of vegetables perish before they reach the consumer. Furthermore, higher temperatures in some regions also contribute to an increased level of postharvest losses. With chapters written by experts in the postharvest handling of vegetable, this volume addresses these challenges. It is devoted to presenting both new and innovative technologies as well as advancements in traditional technologies.

Natural Bioactive Compounds from Fruits and Vegetables as Health Promoters Part II

Natural Bioactive Compounds from Fruits and Vegetables as Health Promoters Part II
Author: Luis Rodrigues da Silva,Branca Maria Silva
Publsiher: Bentham Science Publishers
Total Pages: 255
Release: 2016-05-03
ISBN 10: 1681082438
ISBN 13: 9781681082431
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Natural Bioactive Compounds from Fruits and Vegetables as Health Promoters Part II Book Review:

Plants have been widely used to treat diseases, owing to the presence of bioactive compounds (phytochemicals) which play important roles in health promotion and disease prevention. In recent years, advances in chemical extraction techniques, lifestyle and dietary choices for human health have increased the interest in the consumption and study of fruits, vegetables, and foods enriched with bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. Thousands of dietary phytochemicals, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, glucosinolates, terpenes and alkaloids, have been identified and categorized further according to a diverse array of biochemical properties. Many of these phytochemicals have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of several pathological conditions which include life threatening diseases such as heart disease and cancer, to name a few. Natural Bioactive Compounds from Fruits and Vegetables as Health Promoters is a 2 book set which presents a summary of different classes of phytochemicals commonly found in common edible food sources. Each chapter details the general chemical structures of compounds, naturally present in specific fruits, vegetables and grains, their biological importance and mechanisms of action. The book set is an essential handbook for anyone interested in the natural product chemistry of these common crops. Part 1 of this set covers details about different fruits (banana, citrus fruits, pears, etc.). Part 2 covers legumes, nuts, seeds and cereals.

Grain Legumes

Grain Legumes
Author: Aakash Goyal
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 188
Release: 2016-10-19
ISBN 10: 9535127209
ISBN 13: 9789535127208
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Grain Legumes Book Review:

Grain legumes are a main source of nitrogen-rich edible seeds and constitute a major source of dietary protein in the diets of human population especially for vegetarian diet. Legumes comprise the third largest family of flowering plants and provide important sources of food, fodder, oil, and fiber products. This book focuses on grain legumes production challenges, progress, and prospects. The book comprises a vast array of topics including diversity, biofortification, importance and antioxidant properties of pulse proteins, etc. This volume will serve as an excellent resource for students, researchers, and scientists interested and working in the area of sustainable crop production.

Antioxidants in Fruits Properties and Health Benefits

Antioxidants in Fruits  Properties and Health Benefits
Author: Gulzar Ahmad Nayik,Amir Gull
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 637
Release: 2020-12-15
ISBN 10: 9811572852
ISBN 13: 9789811572852
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Antioxidants in Fruits Properties and Health Benefits Book Review:

This book provides a comprehensive review of the antioxidant value of widely consumed fruits. Each chapter covers the botanical description, nutritional & health properties of these popular fruits. Fruits are one of the most important indicators of dietary quality and offer protective effects against several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and various types of cancer. In order to effectively promote fruit consumption, it is necessary to know and understand the components of fruits. In addition to underscoring the importance of fruit consumption’s effects on human diet, the book addresses the characterization of the chemical compounds that are responsible for the antioxidant proprieties of various fruits. Given its scope, the book will be of interest to graduate and post-graduate students, research scholars, academics, pomologists and agricultural scientists alike. Those working in various fruit processing industries and other horticultural departments will also find the comprehensive information relevant to their work.

Superfood and Functional Food

Superfood and Functional Food
Author: Viduranga Waisundara,Naofumi Shiomi
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 356
Release: 2017-03-01
ISBN 10: 9535129198
ISBN 13: 9789535129196
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Superfood and Functional Food Book Review:

This book focuses on the usage and application of plant- and animal-based food products with significant functional properties and health benefits as well as their development into processed food. Many chapters in this book contain overviews on superfood and functional food from South America. Details on the functional properties of apiculture products are also included herein. Additionally, an area that is not widely discussed in academia - pet food with functional properties - is also covered. It is hoped that this book will serve as a source of knowledge and information to make better choices in food consumption and alterations to dietary patterns. It is also recommended for readers to take a look at a related book, Superfood and Functional Food - The Development of Superfoods and Their Roles as Medicine.