Nuclear Architecture and Dynamics

Nuclear Architecture and Dynamics
Author: Christophe Lavelle,Jean-Marc Victor
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 618
Release: 2017-10-27
ISBN 10: 012803503X
ISBN 13: 9780128035030
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nuclear Architecture and Dynamics Book Review:

Nuclear Architecture and Dynamics provides a definitive resource for (bio)physicists and molecular and cellular biologists whose research involves an understanding of the organization of the genome and the mechanisms of its proper reading, maintenance, and replication by the cell. This book brings together the biochemical and physical characteristics of genome organization, providing a relevant framework in which to interpret the control of gene expression and cell differentiation. It includes work from a group of international experts, including biologists, physicists, mathematicians, and bioinformaticians who have come together for a comprehensive presentation of the current developments in the nuclear dynamics and architecture field. The book provides the uninitiated with an entry point to a highly dynamic, but complex issue, and the expert with an opportunity to have a fresh look at the viewpoints advocated by researchers from different disciplines. Highlights the link between the (bio)chemistry and the (bio)physics of chromatin Deciphers the complex interplay between numerous biochemical factors at task in the nucleus and the physical state of chromatin Provides a collective view of the field by a large, diverse group of authors with both physics and biology backgrounds

Nuclear Architecture and Dynamics of Stably Integrated Retroviral Sequences

Nuclear Architecture and Dynamics of Stably Integrated Retroviral Sequences
Author: Jens Nagel
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 147
Release: 2011
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:806996893
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nuclear Architecture and Dynamics of Stably Integrated Retroviral Sequences Book Review:

Dynamics of Nuclear Architecture Investigated by Live Cell Microscopy and Quantitative 4 D Reconstruction

Dynamics of Nuclear Architecture Investigated by Live Cell Microscopy and Quantitative 4 D Reconstruction
Author: Daniel Gerlich
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 68
Release: 2002
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:76380322
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dynamics of Nuclear Architecture Investigated by Live Cell Microscopy and Quantitative 4 D Reconstruction Book Review:

Nuclear Architecture and Structural Dynamics

Nuclear Architecture and Structural Dynamics
Author: Josef H. Exler
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 181
Release: 2010
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:750787672
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nuclear Architecture and Structural Dynamics Book Review:

Dynamics and Manipulation of Nuclear Architecture and Gene Expression

Dynamics and Manipulation of Nuclear Architecture and Gene Expression
Author: Katharina Thanisch
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2015
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:985428148
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dynamics and Manipulation of Nuclear Architecture and Gene Expression Book Review:

Nuclear Dynamics

Nuclear Dynamics
Author: K. Nagata,K. Takeyasu
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 279
Release: 2007-12-03
ISBN 10: 9784431301301
ISBN 13: 4431301305
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nuclear Dynamics Book Review:

The dynamics of nuclear structures described in this book furnish the basis for a comprehensive understanding of how the higher-order organization and function of the nucleus is established and how it correlates with the expression of a variety of vital activities such as cell proliferation and differentiation. The resulting volume creates an invaluable source of reference for researchers in the field.

Dynamics of Nuclear Architecture of Oocytes Throughout Folliculogenesis and Embryos During Preimplantation Development in the Mouse

Dynamics of Nuclear Architecture of Oocytes Throughout Folliculogenesis and Embryos During Preimplantation Development in the Mouse
Author: Valeria Merico
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 178
Release: 2004
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1045903914
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dynamics of Nuclear Architecture of Oocytes Throughout Folliculogenesis and Embryos During Preimplantation Development in the Mouse Book Review:

Visualizing the Dynamics of 4D Nuclear Architecture During Enhancer Promoter Transcription Activation Using Live Imaging Techniques

Visualizing the Dynamics of 4D Nuclear Architecture During Enhancer Promoter Transcription Activation Using Live Imaging Techniques
Author: Leah Kim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 31
Release: 2020
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1196208376
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Visualizing the Dynamics of 4D Nuclear Architecture During Enhancer Promoter Transcription Activation Using Live Imaging Techniques Book Review:

The transcription machinery requires spatiotemporal coordination of its regulatory elements for precise gene expression. It is believed that the dynamics in the nuclear architecture like enhancer:promoter looping interaction is essential for the regulation of the transcription machinery. However, the detail of the change in 4D nuclear architecture during transcription is poorly understood. Here we seek to visualize a pair of enhancer and its associated target gene based on a real time, live cell imaging that uses optimized CRISPR-Cas9 and MS2/PP7 system. Our prior work on measuring TFF1 transcription bursting in MCF7 cells confirmed the efficiency and sensitivity of our imaging techniques. In this study, we aim to visualize c-MYC enhancer(c-MYCe) and c-MYC gene in live HeLa cells based on our preliminary data proving that c-MYC enhancer is a functional enhancer. We plan to measure the relative timing of signal, the duration of activity, and the distribution of intensity over the course of activity. The spatial kinetics between c-MYCe and c-MYC over time will be measured, and their motion relative to transcriptional activity (on/off signal) will be examined. Collectively, we hope to advance the understanding of the precise 4D dynamics of the events underlying enhancer-mediated transcription regulation.

Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics

Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics
Author: Anita Göndör
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2016-10-25
ISBN 10: 0128034025
ISBN 13: 9780128034026
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics Book Review:

Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics integrates knowledge on the dynamic regulation of primary chromatin fiber with the 3D nuclear architecture, then connects related processes to circadian regulation of cellular metabolic states, representing a paradigm of adaptation to environmental changes. The final chapters discuss the many ways chromatin dynamics can synergize to fundamentally contribute to the development of complex diseases. Chromatin dynamics, which is strategically positioned at the gene-environment interface, is at the core of disease development. As such, Chromatin Regulation and Dynamics, part of the Translational Epigenetics series, facilitates the flow of information between research areas such as chromatin regulation, developmental biology, and epidemiology by focusing on recent findings of the fast-moving field of chromatin regulation. Presents and discusses novel principles of chromatin regulation and dynamics with a cross-disciplinary perspective Promotes crosstalk between basic sciences and their applications in medicine Provides a framework for future studies on complex diseases by integrating various aspects of chromatin biology with cellular metabolic states, with an emphasis on the dynamic nature of chromatin and stochastic principles Integrates knowledge on the dynamic regulation of primary chromatin fiber with 3D nuclear architecture, then connects related processes to circadian regulation of cellular metabolic states, representing a paradigm of adaptation to environmental changes

Nuclear Architecture Dynamics in Tadpole Tail Regeneration

Nuclear Architecture Dynamics in Tadpole Tail Regeneration
Author: Jessica Kay Chang
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2019
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1119003230
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nuclear Architecture Dynamics in Tadpole Tail Regeneration Book Review:

Mammals possess very limited regeneration capabilities, where the few examples of scarless healing tend to be restricted to early development. In light of this, it is of great interest to study animals that can faithfully regrow complete appendages, and uncover the biological properties that facilitate regeneration. Xenopus tropicalis is an excellent vertebrate model of regeneration, as tadpoles rapidly regenerate amputated tails, a process that has an interesting developmental history that may be widely informative as to why mammals selectively heal through scarring as they age. Though we have some understanding of what processes are required for tail regeneration, we have yet to systematically chronicle the molecular and regulatory events that must set up an apparently coordinated response. In this dissertation, I address two primary questions in the field of regeneration—what molecular events occur in the first 24 hours to set up a potent regenerative bud, and how is this process regulated? In Chapter 2, I chronicle the transcriptional history of tadpole tail regeneration, focusing primarily within the first 24 hours post amputation. In Chapter 3, I describe a novel nuclear morphology I identified in the tadpole tail, detail how nuclei change shape as an early regeneration response, and investigate the relationship between nuclear shape and chromatin state. Finally, in Chapter 4, I address several future directions with respect to this thesis.

Architecture and Dynamics of Isotopically Labelled Macromolecules by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Architecture and Dynamics of Isotopically Labelled Macromolecules by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1979
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:727296550
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Architecture and Dynamics of Isotopically Labelled Macromolecules by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Book Review:

The use of 13C is considered using NMR spectra of cell suspensions. Biochemical reaction kinetics are still unclear in the study of environmental and structural perturbations of amino acids and peptides; thus needs still exist for this labelling technique. (PCS).

Nuclear Envelope Dynamics in Embryos and Somatic Cells

Nuclear Envelope Dynamics in Embryos and Somatic Cells
Author: Philippe Collas
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 174
Release: 2012-11-01
ISBN 10: 9781461349372
ISBN 13: 1461349370
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nuclear Envelope Dynamics in Embryos and Somatic Cells Book Review:

This volume provides an exhaustive review of the most current knowledge of the composition, architecture and dynamics of the nuclear envelope. In contrast to other comprehensive works on cellular membranes in general, this book is the first to specifically address the nuclear envelope. Experts in the field relate the different domains of the nuclear envelope, their biogenesis, their composition, their mode of targeting to chromosomes and how they dissociate from chromosomes upon cell division. A wealth of information from several experimental systems is provided, such as dividing somatic cells, embryos and nuclear assembly assays in cell-free extracts, in a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms ranging from humans to yeast. The book also contains up-to-date reviews on the relationship between mutations in proteins of the nuclear envelope and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. The breadth of topics covered in what may seem to be a field as narrow as the nuclear envelope makes this volume a valuable reference.

Nuclear Architecture in Normal and Cloned Bovine Early Embryos

Nuclear Architecture in Normal and Cloned Bovine Early Embryos
Author: Andrey Pichugin
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2008
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:690489566
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nuclear Architecture in Normal and Cloned Bovine Early Embryos Book Review:

Developmental reprogramming during mammalian fertilization and pre-implantation development in in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos is a complex process that allows the highly differentiated gametes to revert to undifferentiated cell types following syngamy and then gradually differentiate into individual cell lineages. These processes involve changes in chromatin structure, in global epigenetic modifications and in nuclear architecture of embryonic nuclei. The objective of the present study was to develop approaches for understanding these series of phenomena in early embryos. We used the possibility to compare normal (IVF) and nuclear tranfer (NT) embryos in bovine species where the pre-implantation development is long enough to assess the nuclear dynamics of reprogramming events before major embryonic genome activation. In a first approach, we studied the establishment of heterochromatin pattern specific for embryo during the reprogramming period in IVF and NT bovine embryos. We applied two markers of pericentric heterochromatin: heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1beta) and tri methylated histone H3 (H3K9me3); and a marker of centromeres (CENPA/B), in order to characterize structural parameters of constitutive heterochromatin in early stages of development. Using immunofluorescence technique, we were able to observe dynamic changes in heterochromatin organization in connection with embryos origin. In IVF and some NT embryos, heterochromatin was observed in dispersed state up to the 8-cell stage, and then in a condensed pattern corresponding to the well characterized chromocenters constituted by blocks of HP1beta and H3K9me3 associated with centromeres. However, a significant part of NT embryos underwent an altered dynamics of heterochromatinization characterized by a precocious heterochromatin condensation as soon as the 2-cell stage. In a second approach, we used senescent somatic cells as donors for nuclear transfer experiments in order to assess the influence of structural organization of donor cell nucleus on structural organization of nuclei in cloned embryos. Surprisingly, the large-scale three-dimensional arrangement of heterochromatin within the senescent-NT nucleus recapitulated the dynamics observed in IVF or somatic non-senescent NT embryos, with comparable percentages of embryos with dispersed and precociously condensed heterochromatin similar to those observed in the previous investigation. These results suggest that a robust process of epigenetic reprogramming is piloted by bovine oocyte in early embryos. The altered kinetics in genome restructuring in some NT embryos might be linked to the precocious transcriptional activation and precocious increase of DNA methylation level reported in other studies. The present work allowed us to point out the distinction between NT embryos with correct developmental reprogramming and abnormal, at least temporally, epigenetic reprogramming, as well as to demonstrate that the impact of nuclear organization of heterochromatin in the donor cell on structural organization of nucleus in NT embryos is relatively low. This may account for the relatively high development efficiency in bovine cloning as compared to other species.

Nuclear Dynamics of Radiation induced Foci in Euchromatin and Heterochromatin

Nuclear Dynamics of Radiation induced Foci in Euchromatin and Heterochromatin
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 11
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1066378847
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nuclear Dynamics of Radiation induced Foci in Euchromatin and Heterochromatin Book Review:

Repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) is essential for cell survival and genome integrity. While much is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in DSB repair and checkpoint activation, the roles of nuclear dynamics of radiation-induced foci (RIF) in DNA repair are just beginning to emerge. Here, we summarize results from recent studies that point to distinct features of these dynamics in two different chromatin environments: heterochromatin and euchromatin. We also discuss how nuclear architecture and chromatin components might control these dynamics, and the need of novel quantification methods for a better description and interpretation of these phenomena. These studies are expected to provide new biomarkers for radiation risk and new strategies for cancer detection and treatment.

Advances in Nuclear Architecture

Advances in Nuclear Architecture
Author: Niall M. Adams,Paul S. Freemont
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 210
Release: 2010-10-17
ISBN 10: 9789048198993
ISBN 13: 9048198992
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Nuclear Architecture Book Review:

This book provides a snapshot of the state-of-the art in the study of mammalian cell nuclear architecture, and features a diverse range of chapters written by top researchers. A key aspect is an emphasis on precise and repeatable quantitative analysis and simulation in addition to the more familiar biological perspective. The fusion of such material frames the future of the discipline. Quantitative contributions stress reproducible and robust 3D analysis, using a variety of tools ranging from point pattern analysis to shape registration methods. Biological insights include the role of nuclear subdomains in cancer, nuclear molecular motors, and a holistic view of gene transcription.

High content and Super resolution Microscopy Reveals the Dynamic Nuclear Architecture Aand Mobile Epigenetic Marks in Plasmodiumfalciparum

High content and Super resolution Microscopy Reveals the Dynamic Nuclear Architecture Aand Mobile Epigenetic Marks in Plasmodiumfalciparum
Author: Caron Griffiths (A.)
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:956380492
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

High content and Super resolution Microscopy Reveals the Dynamic Nuclear Architecture Aand Mobile Epigenetic Marks in Plasmodiumfalciparum Book Review:

The malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum 1s dependent on tightly regulated gene expression for its progression through the intra-erythrocytic life cycle, pathogenesis and establishment of persistent infection by evasion of the human host's immune system. Evidence points towards P. falciparum being unusually dependent on nuclear architecture and genomic organisation for the control of gene expression. Spatially defined nuclear regions of transcriptional activity have been detected and the spatial positioning of loci may determine their transcriptional potential. Additionally, a number of epigenetic markers have been shown to occupy spatially distinct subcompartments of the nuclear volume. Limitations of microscopic assays used until now have left us with a stereotyped and incomplete image of the organisation of the parasite nucleus and the transcriptional and epigenetic factors involved in the regulation of parasite gene expression, and the possible dynamics thereof. This work focused on the use of high-content and super-resolution fluorescent microscopy for the study and graphical representation of the spatial organisation of various nuclear factors involved in transcriptional regulation in P. falciparum parasites. The first objective (chapter 2) establishes P. falciparum parasite sample preparation and fluorescent labeling techniques for microscopy. Immunofluorescent labeling of var gene associated transcription repressive and permissive histone modifications, H3K9me3 and H3K9ac, respectively, as well as serine 2- phosphorylated RNA polymerase II and the putative transcription and splicing factor PfMyb2, was optimised. DNA fluorescent in situ hybridisation was also optimised for labeling of var gene exons. In the second objective (chapter 3), the assays established in the previous chapter are used for high-content combinatorial labeling in thousands of nuclei, followed by analysis using a bespoke computational algorithm for the detection and classification of different labeling patterns. This approach revealed a high level of diversity in the nuclear distributions of each assayed target. Superresolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy was used to further study the sub-diffraction organisation of selected labeling patterns. The data presented in this dissertation reveal that the complex spatial organisation of certain nuclear factors is subject to greater diversity within the nucleus of P. falciparum parasites than previously thought.

Organization Dynamics and Modification of Chromatin in Plants

Organization  Dynamics and Modification of Chromatin in Plants
Author: A. Houben,T. Naranjo,M. J. Puertas
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 220
Release: 2014-08-19
ISBN 10: 9783318027259
ISBN 13: 3318027251
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Organization Dynamics and Modification of Chromatin in Plants Book Review:

This special topic issue is divided into two sections, and each of them presents its own set of reviews and research articles. 'Organization and dynamics of plant chromatin' is the title of the first section which explores an ample variety of subjects. The topics covered include the structure and function of meiotic chromosomes, open chromatin, nuclear architecture and chromatin dynamics and proteomic analysis of plant cell nuclei. 'Epigenetic modification of plant chromatin' is the title of the second section. This provides a broad array of studies on various plant species and epigenetic modification of plant chromatin. This novel approach represents one of the most interesting developments in research in the field of modern cytogenetics.'Organization, Dynamics and Modification of Chromatin in Plants' is of particular interest to researchers and teachers in genetics and cytology.

Genomic Imprinting

Genomic Imprinting
Author: Rolf Ohlsson
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 330
Release: 2013-06-29
ISBN 10: 3540691111
ISBN 13: 9783540691112
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genomic Imprinting Book Review:

The form and function of every living organism on the earth depends on the complex regulation of gene expression. This is carried out by controlling and interdigitating spatial and temporal patterns of gene activity during the life time of eukaryotic organisms. This is most dramatically apparent during early stages of development, when new types of cells and organs are being formed, often during very short time spans. To achieve this, it is vital that developmentally important genes can be kept in inactive or active states which are stably inherited in the soma. Indeed, it is now wellknown that the propen sity for a gene to be transcribed or silenced is stably propagated through many cell generations, even from parent to progeny. This phenomenon constitutes a type of extragenetic or epigenetic memory of cell identity and developmental potential which has been fundamental to the evolution of complex lifeforms, such as the reader of this book. This monograph focuses on a particular aspect of the epigenetic control of gene function: genomic imprinting. This defines a phenomenon where some genes or whole chromosomes can be silenced, activated, or even deleted depending on their parental origin. The impact of genomic imprinting is most clearly seen in the areas of cancer, clinical genetics, and development. Many of the processes associated with genomic imprinting can be observed in plants, yeast and man, for example, and may constitute, therefore, principles which are very conserved on an evolutionary scale.

Annual Plant Reviews Plant Nuclear Structure Genome Architecture and Gene Regulation

Annual Plant Reviews  Plant Nuclear Structure  Genome Architecture and Gene Regulation
Author: David Evans,Katja Graumann,John A. Bryant
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2013-03-27
ISBN 10: 1118472489
ISBN 13: 9781118472484
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Annual Plant Reviews Plant Nuclear Structure Genome Architecture and Gene Regulation Book Review:

This timely volume brings together expert reviews of the recentsignificant advances in our knowledge and understanding of theorganisation of the higher plant nucleus, and in particular in therelationship between nuclear organisation and the regulation ofgene expression. Rapid progress has been made in a number of keyareas over the last five years, including description andcharacterization of proteins of the nuclear envelope and nuclearpore complex, novel insights into nucleoskeletal structures, aswell as developments related to chromatin organization, functionand gene expression. These advances open the way for new researchinto areas such as stress tolerance, plant-pathogen interactionsand ultimately crop improvement and food security. Continuedresearch into plant nuclear structure, genome architecture and generegulation also enriches our understanding of the origin andevolution of the nucleus and its envelope. Edited by world-class researchers in plant cell biology, andcomprising contributions from internationally-renowned academics,this latest volume in the prestigious Annual Plant Reviews seriesbrings together a wealth of knowledge in the burgeoning field ofplant nuclear structure and genetics. Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 46: Plant Nuclear Structure,Genome Architecture and Gene Regulation is a vitalresource for advanced students, researchers and professionals inplant science and related disciplines. Libraries in all researchestablishments where plant science, biochemistry, molecularbiology, genetics and genomics and agricultural science are taughtand studied will find this excellent volume an essential additionto their shelf.

Establishing Tissue specific Chromatin Organization During Development of the Epidermis

Establishing Tissue specific Chromatin Organization During Development of the Epidermis
Author: Michal Ryszard Gdula
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:784565377
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Establishing Tissue specific Chromatin Organization During Development of the Epidermis Book Review:

During development, multipotent stem cells establish tissue-specific programmes of gene expression that underlie a process of differentiation into specialized cell types. It was shown in the study that changes in the nuclear architecture during terminal keratinocyte differentiation show correlation with the dynamics of the transcriptional and metabolic activity. In particular, terminal differentiation is accompanied by the decrease of nuclear volume, elongation of its shape, reduction of the number and fusion of nucleoli, increase in the number of centromeric clusters and a dramatic decrease of the transcriptional activity. Global changes in the nuclear architecture of epidermal keratinocytes are associated with marked remodelling of the higher-order chromatin structure of the epidermal differentiating complex (EDC). EDC is positioned peripherally in the epidermal nuclei at E11.5 when its genes show low expression levels and relocates towards the nuclear interior at E16.5 when EDC genes are markedly upregulated. P63 transcription factor serving as a master regulator of epidermal development is involved in the control of EDC relocation in epidermal progenitor cells. The epidermis of E16.5 p63KO exhibits significantly more peripheral positioning of the EDC loci, compared to wild-type. The genome organizer Satb1 serving as a direct p63 target controls higher order chromatin folding of the central part of EDC and Satb1 knockout mice show alterations of epidermal development and expression of the EDC encoded genes. Thus, this study shows that the programme of epidermal development and terminal differentiation is regulated by p63 and other factors and include marked remodelling of three-dimensional nuclear organization and positioning of tissue specific gene loci. In addition to the direct involvement of p63 in controlling the expression of tissue-specific genes, p63 via regulation of the chromatin remodelling factors such as Satb1 promotes establishing specific conformation of the EDC locus required for efficient expression of terminal differentiation-associated genes.