Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy
Author: Benjamin Bonavida,Anahid Jewett
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 538
Release: 2021-06-23
ISBN 10: 0128243961
ISBN 13: 9780128243961
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy Book Review:

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy: Increasing Anti-tumor Efficacy describes the unique therapeutic applications of NK cells to fight cancers and eliminate the bulk and subset of cancer stem cells responsible for metastasis, relapse and recurrences. The book provides information on the development, engineering, mechanisms of action, response to various preclinical models, and applications in various clinical trials. Sections cover the development of highly engineered cytotoxic NK cells, their mechanisms of action, preclinical and clinical applications, the development and application of CAR-NK cells, and new NK-drug conjugates, also emphasizing that activated NK cells can target and kill highly resistant cancer stem cells. Written by the leading experts on NK immunotherapy worldwide, this is a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians and members of the biomedical field who are interested in understanding novel and efficient therapies to fight cancers. Discusses the unique developmental applications of NK immunotherapy against cancers, which differs greatly from other types of immunotherapies Provides up-to-date and highly relevant information through chapters written by the leading researchers in the field Presents a significant number of schematic diagrams for easy understanding and reproducibility

NK Cell Based Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Cell Based Cancer Immunotherapy
Author: Francisco Borrego,Susana Larrucea,Rafael Solana,Raquel Tarazona
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2016-09-08
ISBN 10: 2889199347
ISBN 13: 9782889199341
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

NK Cell Based Cancer Immunotherapy Book Review:

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that have a significant role in regulating the defenses against cancer development and certain viral infections. They are equipped with an array of activating and inhibitory receptors that stimulate or diminish NK cell activity, respectively. Inhibitory receptors include, among others, the MHC class I ligands killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) in humans, and members of the Ly49 family of receptors in mice, and CD94/NKG2A. Activating receptors include cytokine and chemokine receptors, and those that interact with ligands expressed on target cells, such as the natural cytotoxicity receptors or NCRs (NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46), NKG2D, CD244 and DNAM-1. In addition, NK cells express Fc?RIIIA or CD16, the receptor that exerts antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). NK cells also express the death ligands FasL and TRAIL. The killing or sparing of target cells depends on the integration of distinct signals that originate from NK cell receptors. NK cells spare healthy cells that express normal levels of MHC class I molecules and low amounts of stress-induced self-molecules, whereas they kill target cells that down-regulate MHC class I molecules and/or up-regulate stress-induced self-molecules. The latter are common signatures of virus-infected cells and tumors. All the accumulated knowledge on NK cell biology, along with many clinical observations, is driving multiple efforts to improve the arsenal of NK cell-based therapeutic tools in the fight against malignant diseases. Indeed, NK cell-based immunotherapy is becoming a promising approach for the treatment of many cancers. It is well known that NK cells have a significant role in the anti-tumor effect of therapeutic antibodies that use ADCC as a mechanism of action. In addition to this, administration of autologous and allogeneic NK cells after activation and expansion ex vivo is used in the treatment of cancer. Moreover, adoptive transfer of NK cell lines has been tested in humans, and genetically modified NK cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors are being studied in preclinical models for potential use in the clinic.

NK Myeloid Cell Interactions in the Tumor Microenvironment Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Myeloid Cell Interactions in the Tumor Microenvironment  Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy
Author: Erik Wennerberg,Andreas Lundqvist,Yumeng Mao,Dimitrios Mougiakakos
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021-09-08
ISBN 10: 2889712710
ISBN 13: 9782889712717
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

NK Myeloid Cell Interactions in the Tumor Microenvironment Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy Book Review:

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy
Author: Lynda Addou-Klouche
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2017
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1154268044
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy Book Review:

Natural killer (NK) cells are crucial components of the innate immune system and play critical roles in host immunity against viral infections and cancer. NK cells' activity is controlled by the interaction of a wide range of receptors expressed on their surfaces with cell surface ligands. Opposite signals delivered by inhibitory and activating receptors tightly regulate NK cells' cytotoxicity. Natural killer cells can discriminate between normal and cancer cells. NK cells are known to directly recognize and kill malignant cells or induce apoptosis. However, tumor cells have the ability to evade those attacks. The main mechanisms involve the lack of expression or downregulation of the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and secretion of soluble NKG2D ligands by tumor cells. Furthermore, tumors harbor a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can drive tumor progression and therapeutical resistance. This chapter highlights the roles of NK cells in tumor immunosurveillance and their applications for cancer immunotherapy. NK cell biology and function as well as the role of their receptor interactions will be described. We will discuss the therapeutic applications of NK cells in cancer and NK cells targeting CSCs as a promising strategy for cancer therapy.

Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer Cells
Author: Srinivas S. Somanchi
Publsiher: Humana Press
Total Pages: 365
Release: 2016-05-13
ISBN 10: 9781493936823
ISBN 13: 1493936824
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Natural Killer Cells Book Review:

This volume contains collection of Natural Killer Cell methodologies relevant for both basic and translational research. These methodologies present new developments in the natural killer (NK) cell field, such as understanding the influence of NK cells metabolism on its function, identifying complexity of NK cell subsets through mass cytometry, and determining the emergence of memory NK cells in murine model of MCMV infection. Methods that study NK cell migration and cytotoxicity through endpoint analysis or live single cell imaging are also discussed. Chapters also describe methods pertaining to translational application of NK cells, such as ex vivo expansion of NK cells on K562 cell lines genetically modified to express either membrane bound IL-15 or membrane bound IL-21, large scale NK cell culture, current techniques for engineering NK cells to express chimeric antigen receptors or chemokine receptors using retroviral vectors, electroporation of mRNA, and the natural phenomenon of trogocytosis. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, these chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting edge and thorough, Natural Killer Cells: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for researchers who not only want to understand mechanisms that govern NK cell behavior and diversity, but also for those who want to understand how to systematically evaluate NK cells for adoptive immunotherapy applications.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy
Author: Krassimir Metodiev
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 414
Release: 2017-04-26
ISBN 10: 9535131052
ISBN 13: 9789535131052
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Immunotherapy Book Review:

This is another attempt of InTechOpen to continue the dissemination of international knowledge and experience in the field of immunology. The present book includes a number of modern concepts of specialists and experts in the field of immunotherapy, covering the major topics and analyzing the history, current stage, and future ideas of application of modern immunomodulation. It is always a benefit, but also a compliment, to gather a team of internationally distinguished authors and to motivate them to reveal their expertise for the benefit of medical science and health practice. On behalf of all readers, immunologists, immunogeneticists, biologists, oncologists, microbiologists, virologists, hematologists, chemotherapists, health-care experts, as well as students and medical specialists, also on my personal behalf, I would like to extend my gratitude and highest appreciation to InTechOpen for giving me the unique chance to be the editor of this exclusive book.

Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer Cells
Author: Jacques Zimmer
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 428
Release: 2010-01-12
ISBN 10: 3642023096
ISBN 13: 9783642023095
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Natural Killer Cells Book Review:

Natural killer (NK) cells have been at the forefront of immunology for two decades. During that time, a great amount of information about these cells has been obtained. They are important in antiinfectious and antitumoral defense and shape the adaptive immune response. In addition, they can act as immunoregulatory cells. In recent years, the therapeutic potential of NK cells in cancer immunotherapy has become increasingly evident. This book describes in detail current knowledge about NK cells and covers a broad range of NK cell-related topics, including those that are not frequently reviewed, e.g. NK cells and allergy or NK cells and skin diseases.

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy
Author: Sarah S. Donatelli,Julie Y. Djeu
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 684
Release: 2013-06-04
ISBN 10: 0128059052
ISBN 13: 9780128059050
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cancer Immunotherapy Book Review:

Natural Killer (NK) cells are a unique subset of lymphocytes genetically programmed to locate and destroy cellular malignancies. They accomplish this through unique cell surface receptors that, upon contacting a target cell, transmit either inhibitory or activating intracellular signals, ultimately determining whether the target cell will be killed or spared. Acquisition of the capacity to kill comes only after the NK cell is rendered tolerant to healthy self cells through interaction with naturally expressed MHC I molecules. The resulting functional NK cell is endowed with both repressive and stimulatory receptors that recognize MHC I or MHC I-related proteins, and stress-induced proteins that are not normally expressed by healthy cells, respectively. The respective signaling pathways are generally conserved among receptors; consequently, mechanisms that dysregulate NK-cell surface receptor density may directly impair NK responsiveness towards cancerous cells by affecting the ratio of inhibitory-to-activating signals. Furthermore, activating receptors can be downregulated, suggesting a targeted evasion strategy that specifically converts the NK cell towards an inhibitory phenotype.

Molecular Strategies Aimed to Boost NK Cell based Immunotherapy of Cancer

Molecular Strategies Aimed to Boost NK Cell based Immunotherapy of Cancer
Author: Loredana Cifaldi,Daniel Olive,James Di Santo
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-07-31
ISBN 10: 2889638766
ISBN 13: 9782889638765
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Molecular Strategies Aimed to Boost NK Cell based Immunotherapy of Cancer Book Review:

In this Research Topic, we would like to honor the memory of Prof. Vito Pistoia and pay tribute to his scientific contributions to the field of Cancer Immunity and Immunotherapy. Topic Editor Daniel Olive is the co-founder and shareholder of company Imcheck Therapeutics. All other topic editors declare no competing interests with regards to the Research Topic subject.

NKT Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy 2nd Edition

NKT Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy  2nd Edition
Author: Tonya J. Webb,Paolo Dellabona,Weiming Yuan,Everett Meyer
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 178
Release: 2020-11-20
ISBN 10: 2889661539
ISBN 13: 9782889661534
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

NKT Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy 2nd Edition Book Review:

Immune Surveillance

Immune Surveillance
Author: Richard T. Smith
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 552
Release: 2012-12-02
ISBN 10: 0323146260
ISBN 13: 9780323146265
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Immune Surveillance Book Review:

Immune Surveillance deals with the issues regarding tumor immunology and surveillance, in which the central theme is all about the life span of the mammalian host that is depleted by the environment with mutagenic agents and solutions. The book is divided into six chapters. It includes discussions on the organization and modulation of cell membrane receptors, as well as the origin and expression of membrane antigens. It also covers the topics on the triggering mechanisms for and effector mechanisms activated by the cellular recognition. These topics analyze and evaluate alternatives for the recognition and destruction mechanisms in the knowledge of cell cooperation and requirements for immune recognition. A chapter provides discourse on a solution for the paradox of thriving tumors based on the demonstrable in vitro host immunity. Another discusses the generation of antibody diversity and the theory of self-tolerance. The last chapter explains the evaluation of the evidence for immune surveillance. This reference will be invaluable to those who specialize in immunology.

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy Successes and Challenges

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy  Successes and Challenges
Author: Anahid Jewett
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2021-03-15
ISBN 10: 9780128226209
ISBN 13: 012822620X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy Successes and Challenges Book Review:

NK cells in cancer immunotherapy: Successes and Challenges explains the latest immunotherapeutic strategies focusing on NK cells to allow the best and precise combination treatment to be offered to cancer patients. It provides existing background knowledge in the field of immunotherapy and discusses the future areas of research required to carry out cutting edge validated therapies for patients. Immunotherapy is fast becoming the method of choice for cancer therapy. Although remarkable advances have been made in the field of immunotherapy, there are significant challenges and difficulties ahead since many of the current immunotherapeutic strategies do not provide long-lasting treatment strategies, and therefore are not very effective. This book provides recent advances in the immunotherapeutic strategies, in particular the use of NK cells with and without T cell therapy in the treatment of cancer and discusses the problems and challenges that are facing the field and the practitioners. The book is a valuable resource for cancer researchers, oncologists, graduate students and several members of biomedical field who are interested in learning more about novel strategies to treat cancer patients. Covers CAR/T and CAR/NK and adoptive NK cell therapy with and without T cell therapies Discusses basic biology of NK cells and mouse models of human cancers, and the role of NK cells in metastatic cancer and in cancer stem cells Encompasses information on combination therapies using check point inhibition, adoptive transfer of cytotoxic effector cells, chemotherapeutic drugs and activating and inhibitory antibodies

Immunopathogenesis and Immune based Therapy for Selected Autoimmune Disorders

Immunopathogenesis and Immune based Therapy for Selected Autoimmune Disorders
Author: Mourad Aribi
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 182
Release: 2017-03-22
ISBN 10: 9535130218
ISBN 13: 9789535130215
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Immunopathogenesis and Immune based Therapy for Selected Autoimmune Disorders Book Review:

The book Immunopathogenesis and Immune-Based Therapy for Selected Autoimmune Disorders is a synthesis work that discusses two main aspects of autoimmunity: Immunopathogenesis and therapeutic approaches essentially based on the immunotherapies. This book deals with different topics on a number of autoimmune disorders, including type 1 diabetes, autoimmune cardiomyopathy, autoimmunity of gastrointestinal tract, systemic sclerosis, and myasthenia gravis. This book will be useful to clinicians, biologists, researchers, teachers, and students who are interested in immunology and immunopathology.

Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer Cells
Author: Michael T. Lotze,Angus W. Thomson
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 660
Release: 2009-11-12
ISBN 10: 9780080919294
ISBN 13: 0080919294
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Natural Killer Cells Book Review:

Natural Killer Cells explains the importance of killer cells and how they are produced. It mentions that the most likely explanation for killer cell production is that they serve as a complementary system for T cells as a primary defense against viruses. However, these cells defend against certain viruses only, such as herpes viruses and influenza viruses. The book also explains the primary functions of killer cells, and it discusses how these cells help recognize damaged tissues, limit further damage to tissues, and regenerate damaged tissues. It discusses how these cells mature and develop, and it covers the different isolation, culture, and propagation methods of these cells. Furthermore, it focuses on the different killer cells that are present in various parts of the human body. The book concludes by explaining that natural killer cells are utilized for clinical therapy of malignancies, and that they have led to positive outcomes in the field of biology and medicine. Provides a broad, detailed coverage of the biology and interactions of NK cells for students, fellows, scientists, and practitioners Includes figures, histologic sections, and illustrations of the ontogeny of NK cells

Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer
Author: Alba Fabiola Costa Torres
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 204
Release: 2018-10-31
ISBN 10: 1789843499
ISBN 13: 9781789843491
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lung Cancer Book Review:

Among the deadliest type of cancers, lung cancer faces several challenges in diagnosis and treatment: late diagnosis and misdiagnosis, inadequate tumor sampling, and resistance development to current therapies, among others. Together with advances in the understanding of molecular features, factors, and mechanisms involved in initiation and tumor progression, important improvements have occurred in diagnostics and therapeutics in the shape of advances in molecular genotyping, procedures for sampling, new potential, and less invasive sources of samples for the diagnosis and development of new targeted therapies. The aim of this book is to provide an exciting read on strategies in the diagnosis and therapy of lung cancer.

Natural Killer Cells the Future of Cancer Immunotherapy

Natural Killer Cells  the Future of Cancer Immunotherapy
Author: Priyanka Senthil
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 53
Release: 2020-04-20
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: 9798638783372
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Natural Killer Cells the Future of Cancer Immunotherapy Book Review:

Cellular therapeutics is an emerging field with significant advances in the engineering of immune effector cells that play a revolutionary role in treatment for cancer. Up until now, most immunomodulatory strategies focus on enhancing T cells, which are lymphocyte immune cells that are important for cell-mediated immunity to fight pathogens and cancer. T cells have proven their ability in successful cellular therapies against leukemia, but may soon face competition. Through several preclinical studies, researchers have discovered new guardian immune cells called chimeric antigen receptor-modified natural killer (CAR NK) cells that have been genetically engineered to produce an artificial T-cell receptor for use in immunotherapy. With chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), CAR NK cells can specifically recognize antigen-expressing tumors and show cytotoxic activity against various solid tumor types. Natural killer (NK) cells target cells that lack expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I like tumors and virus-infected cells. The preclinical evidence suggests that NK cells have the same cancer-homing receptors as T cells and the ability to effectively recognize and kill targets through genetic modification. However, for the cell to be effective, scientists need to provide antigen specificity, for which they have found strategies to introduce CARs into NK cells and cell lines. If scientists can overcome the challenge of properly manufacturing engineered NK cells, CAR NK cells could be safer, cheaper, easier to produce, and more widely applicable than T cells. This book focuses on recent advances in NK cell engineering and discusses how NK cells contribute to new immunotherapeutic approaches for treatment against refractory hematological malignancies.

Systemic Drug Delivery Strategies

Systemic Drug Delivery Strategies
Author: Mansoor M. Amiji,Lara Scheherazade Milane
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 588
Release: 2021-08-21
ISBN 10: 0323909256
ISBN 13: 9780323909259
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Systemic Drug Delivery Strategies Book Review:

Systemic Drug Delivery Strategies: Delivery Strategies and Engineering Technologies in Cancer Immunotherapy, Volume 2 examines the challenges of delivering immuno-oncology therapies, focusing specifically on the multiple technologies of affective drug delivery strategies. Immuno-oncology (IO) is a growing field of medicine at the interface of immunology and cancer biology leading to development of novel therapeutic approaches, such as chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) and immune checkpoint blockade antibodies, that are clinically approved approaches for cancer therapy. Although currently approved IO approaches have shown tremendous promise for select types of cancers, broad application of IO strategies could even further improve the clinical success, especially for diseases such as pancreatic cancer, brain tumors where the success of IO so far has been limited. This volume of Delivery Strategies and Engineering Technologies in Cancer Immunotherapy discusses methods of targeting tumors, CRISPR technology, and vaccine delivery among many other delivery strategies. Systemic Drug Delivery Strategies: Delivery Strategies and Engineering Technologies in Cancer Immunotherapy, Volume 2 creates a comprehensive treaty that engages the scientific and medical community who are involved in the challenges of immunology, cancer biology, and therapeutics with possible solutions from the nanotechnology and drug delivery side. Comprehensive treaty covering all aspects of immuno-oncology (IO) Novel strategies for delivery of IO therapeutics and vaccines Forecasting on the future of nanotechnology and drug delivery for IO

The Added Value of Natural Killer Cells in Immunotherapy for Leukemia

The Added Value of Natural Killer Cells in Immunotherapy for Leukemia
Author: Eva Lion,Evelien Smits,Viggo Van Tendeloo
Publsiher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Total Pages: 260
Release: 2012-07
ISBN 10: 9783659156717
ISBN 13: 365915671X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Added Value of Natural Killer Cells in Immunotherapy for Leukemia Book Review:

The ultimate goal of tumor immunotherapy is the eradication of tumor cells by the immune system. Both innate and adaptive immune responses can contribute to the elimination of tumor cells, with natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes as pivotal players, respectively. Dendritic cells (DC) are the most professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, bridging innate and adaptive immune responses through interaction with NK cells and presenting tumor-associated antigens to T cells. A major hurdle in anti-tumor immunity, however, is the low immunogenicity and immunosuppressive character of tumor cells resulting in an immunotolerant environment. Here, the primary scope was to increase the immunogenicity of leukemic cells by introducing a danger signal to break immune tolerance. We clearly demonstrate that transfection of leukemic cells with the synthetic double-stranded RNA agonist poly(I: C) provides a way to overcome immune evasion, evidenced by their enhanced capacity to activate both NK cells and DC. We draw particular attention to the significance of NK cells, advocating for reinforcement of both cytotoxic and regulatory NK cell functions in cancer immunotherapy

Critical Issues in Head and Neck Oncology

Critical Issues in Head and Neck Oncology
Author: Jan B. Vermorken,Volker Budach,C. René Leemans,Jean-Pascal Machiels,Piero Nicolai,Brian O'Sullivan
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 363
Release: 2018-11-12
ISBN 10: 3319988549
ISBN 13: 9783319988542
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Critical Issues in Head and Neck Oncology Book Review:

This book provides an overview of the latest advances in head and neck cancer using a multidisciplinary approach. Commencing with a discussion of epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, including the role of vaccination and key pathological features, the book then follows by examining the role of oncogenomics, proteomics, next generation sequencing and homologous recombination function in predicting outcomes. The topics are presented by epidemiologists, pathologists and basic scientists with further contributions from medical oncologists, head and neck cancer surgical specialists (ORL /HNS), and radiation oncologists in chapters that discuss therapeutic approaches for oral, oropharyngeal and thyroid cancer. Special topics such as the development of novel staging classifications, optimal larynx preservation approaches for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer, surgical reconstruction, new surgical approaches in oropharynx cancer, potential for treatment de-escalation, systemic therapy in nasopharyngeal cancer and salivary gland tumors and treatment approaches for tumors of unknown primary site are discussed in detail. Finally, the role of immunotherapy in the field is highlighted. The chapters are based on the latest data presented at the 6th Trends in Head and Neck Oncology Conference and reflect the most up-to-date information in the field. They are written by many of the most internationally acclaimed authors in the field and are therefore an excellent source for all those interested or actively working in the field of head and neck cancer.

Expansion of Highly Cytotoxic Human Natural Killer Cells by Osteoclast for Cancer Immunotherapy

Expansion of Highly Cytotoxic Human Natural Killer Cells by Osteoclast for Cancer Immunotherapy
Author: So-Hyun Park
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 105
Release: 2015
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:926076523
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Expansion of Highly Cytotoxic Human Natural Killer Cells by Osteoclast for Cancer Immunotherapy Book Review:

Natural Killer (NK) cells have a crucial role in immune surveillance against a variety of infectious microorganisms and tumors. NK cells are known to mediate direct cytotoxicity as well as antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against a variety of tumor cells. Also, they are known to regulate the functions of other cells by producing key cytokines and chemokines. In the tumor microenvironment, cytotoxic function of NK cells is suppressed by a number of distinct effectors and their secreted factors. It has been shown that many cancer patients have decreased peripheral blood NK cell function, so NK cell-based immunotherapy has been used as a treatment in order to enhance NK cell function. However, limited availability of NK cells and ability to expand has restricted development of NK cell immunotherapy. Overcoming NK cell tolerance against tumors by developing new ways of activating endogenous NK cells that increase the expression of ligands for activating NK cell receptors or that render them more sensitive to NK cell mediated killing is crucial. In this study, we found the novel way to expand NK cells and the functionality of NK cells generated under this condition demonstrated enhanced expression of activating NK receptors. Also, significant cytotoxic killing potential after culture was discovered as well as augmented cytokine secretion. Therefore, these expanded NK cells are highly functional in comparison to primary NK cells. Through the help of cytokines, sAJ2 bacteria and osteoclast, NK cells can be expanded and activated in vitro and furthermore, these expanded NK cells can be used to target tumors in vivo. Expanded NK cells can be used in combination with other treatment modalities, potentially leading to synergistic antitumor activities.