Natural Hosts of SIV

Natural Hosts of SIV
Author: Aftab A. Ansari,Guido Silvestri
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2014-07-04
ISBN 10: 0124051677
ISBN 13: 9780124051676
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Natural Hosts of SIV Book Review:

Natural Hosts of SIV: Implications in AIDS thoroughly reviews the possible mechanisms by which African nonhuman primate natural hosts of lentiviruses remain essentially disease-free while other hosts exhibit disease and death. The book ultimately indicates directions for further research and potential translations of this compelling phenomenon into novel approaches to treat and prevent HIV. When Asian non-human primate non-natural hosts are experimentally infected with viruses isolated from African species, disease and death normally results. Meanwhile, these African nonhuman primate natural hosts maintain similar levels of plasma and cellular viremia and exhibit compellingly different, essentially disease-free, states. This work attempts to answer the question of how the natural host remains disease resistant. Summarizes the past 30 years of research in this field and describes the latest developments in AIDS research using nonhuman primate animal models Provides insights into how this large body of scientific work can be translated into novel approaches to treat and prevent HIV Highlights the areas that merit future pursuit, focusing on potential applications for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection

Experimentally induced Immune Activation in Natural Hosts of SIV Induces Significant Increases in Viral Replication and CD4 T Cell Depletion

Experimentally induced Immune Activation in Natural Hosts of SIV Induces Significant Increases in Viral Replication and CD4  T Cell Depletion
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2008
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:727226404
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Experimentally induced Immune Activation in Natural Hosts of SIV Induces Significant Increases in Viral Replication and CD4 T Cell Depletion Book Review:

Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4 T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

AIDS Pathogenesis

AIDS Pathogenesis
Author: H. Schuitemaker,Frank Miedema
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 282
Release: 2000-03-31
ISBN 10: 9780792361961
ISBN 13: 0792361962
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

AIDS Pathogenesis Book Review:

Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus is characterized by the destruction of the host immune system as also reflected by a progressive loss of CD4-positive T-cells. This finally results in the host's incapacity to deal with opportunistic infections and the immune surveillance of tumors, a clinical status known as the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The book AIDS Pathogenesis provides the reader with a complete overview of the clinical course of HIV-1 infection. It describes the clinical aspects of primary infection, the different clinical outcomes of HIV-1 infection, and strategies for anti-viral treatment. In addition, more fundamental aspects of HIV-1 infection are reviewed. These include the biology of the virus and the novel insights in AIDS pathogenesis. Not only is the significance of an HIV-specific cellular and humoral immune response discussed, but also the possible incapacity of the adult human host to deal with T-cell destruction. Finally, the book discusses the currently used laboratory markers that allow for monitoring of the clinical course of infection.

Distinct Patterns of CCR5 Versus Alternative Coreceptor Dependence in Non natural Host Versus Natural Host Simmian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Distinct Patterns of CCR5 Versus Alternative Coreceptor Dependence in Non natural Host Versus Natural Host Simmian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Author: Sarah T. C. Elliott
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 366
Release: 2014
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:908273855
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Distinct Patterns of CCR5 Versus Alternative Coreceptor Dependence in Non natural Host Versus Natural Host Simmian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Book Review:

Natural host sooty mangabeys infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) exhibit high plasma viral loads without widespread CD4+ T cell loss. By contrast, non-natural host rhesus macaques experimentally infected with related SIV exhibit high viral loads but display subsequent CD4+ T cell loss and progression to AIDS, analogous to the effects of HIV-1 infection in humans. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these discrepant outcomes, including infection of distinct target cells in vivo. Cell targeting is substantially determined at the level of viral entry. Prior work demonstrated that sooty mangabey infection occurs in the absence of functional coreceptor CCR5, implicating alternative SIV entry pathways in this natural host. In this thesis, I identified host-dependent patterns of SIV coreceptor use that distinguish viral entry in sooty mangabeys from viral entry in rhesus macaques. I cloned and characterized a panel of putative sooty mangabey coreceptors. Transfected target cells expressing species-specific CD4 and coreceptors identified sooty mangabey CCR5, CXCR6, and GPR15 as functional coreceptors of SIV in vitro. While rhesus macaque CCR5 and GPR15 also supported robust SIV infection in vitro, rhesus macaque CXCR6 was a remarkably poor coreceptor of SIV. Using CCR5 antagonist Maraviroc to block CCR5-mediated infection in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), I determined that SIV were highly CCR5-dependent in rhesus macaque PBMCs, whereas SIV were partially CCR5-independent in sooty mangabey PBMCs, implicating alternative coreceptors in infection of the natural host primary cells. A chemokine ligand of CXCR6, CXCL16, partially attenuated SIV infection of sooty mangabey PBMCs, indicating that sooty mangabey CXCR6 was indeed an alternative coreceptor of some SIV in primary sooty mangabey cells. Collectively, these data define coreceptor use as a host determinant distinguishing sooty mangabey SIV infection from rhesus macaque SIV infection in primary cells. Because CD4 + T cells from sooty mangabeys express exceedingly low levels of CCR5 relative to CD4+ T cells from rhesus macaques, the expression patterns of CXCR6 and other alterative coreceptor(s) in sooty mangabey CD4+ cell subsets may classify host target cells that maintain high levels of SIV replication without leading to loss of CD4+ T cell homeostasis.

Viral Sex

Viral Sex
Author: Jaap Goudsmit
Publsiher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Total Pages: 260
Release: 1998
ISBN 10: 0195124960
ISBN 13: 9780195124965
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Viral Sex Book Review:

Leading AIDS researcher Jaap Goudsmit illuminates the origins and nature of the world's most lethal epidemic. Goudsmit takes us on a journey from the African rainforest to ancient Egypt to pioneering research labs in the U.S. and Europe. Impeccably researched, VIRAL SEX instills readers with a new sense of the urgent need to contain HIV and other similarly lethal viruses. Illustrated.

The Evolution of HIV

The Evolution of HIV
Author: Keith A. Crandall
Publsiher: JHU Press
Total Pages: 504
Release: 1999-04-26
ISBN 10: 9780801861512
ISBN 13: 0801861519
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Evolution of HIV Book Review:

"As a model for viral evolution, this book is a gold mine." -- European Molecular Biology Organization Reports

Encyclopedia of AIDS

Encyclopedia of AIDS
Author: Thomas J. Hope,Mario Stevenson,Douglas Richman
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN 10: 9781461496106
ISBN 13: 1461496101
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encyclopedia of AIDS Book Review:

Models of Protection Against HIV SIV

Models of Protection Against HIV SIV
Author: Gianfranco Pancino,Guido Silvestri,Keith Fowke
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2011-11-02
ISBN 10: 0123877164
ISBN 13: 9780123877161
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Models of Protection Against HIV SIV Book Review:

A successful vaccine for the prevention and/or immunotherapy against HIV/AIDS is one of the prominent challenges of the 21st century. To date, all human vaccine trials against this virus/disease have resulted in failure, or at best have shown very low efficacy. The scientific community dealing with HIV/AIDS has unanimously proposed a focus on basic science, with the intention of identifying correlates of protection that can serve as guides in developing and evaluating vaccine preparation. However, Nature seems to have already found several ways of dealing with infections by HIV and related primate lentiviruses, either by resisting infection or, once infected, avoiding immune damage and immunodeficiency. Models of Protection Against HIV/SIV will allow for an in-depth reflection on the perspectives for vaccine and therapy research derived from important recent studies. It will be authored by some of the most well known specialists in the field of HIV resistance/protection: including F. Barré-Sinoussi (2008 Nobel Prize for Medicine winner), B. Walker, S. Rowland-Jones, A. Telenti, M. Lederman and F. Plummer. This book is structured in a unique way, looking at three models of resistance/protection separately and then comparing the models against one another to provide its readership with a detailed examination of the research that is most predominant in the search for a vaccine. This structure presents the information in an easy-to-understand format and gives the book a cross-discipline appeal -- an important reference for those in the scientific community, medical care, public health and academia alike. Provides extensive descriptions and comparisons on the different models of protection agains HIV/AIDS Comprehensive writing and illustrations Contributors are among the most eminent specialists in the field

Parasite Diversity and Diversification

Parasite Diversity and Diversification
Author: Serge Morand,Boris R. Krasnov,Tim Littlewood,D. Timothy J. Littlewood
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 488
Release: 2015-02-26
ISBN 10: 1107037654
ISBN 13: 9781107037656
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Parasite Diversity and Diversification Book Review:

By joining phylogenetics and evolutionary ecology, this book explores the patterns of parasite diversity while revealing diversification processes.

Foamy Viruses

Foamy Viruses
Author: Axel Rethwilm
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 214
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 3642557015
ISBN 13: 9783642557019
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Foamy Viruses Book Review:

The aberrant replication pathway of foamy viruses distinguishes them from all other retroviruses. Many details have been accumulated over the past ten or so years. Most of the findings on foamy viruses were obtained by research on a single virus isolate previously called "human foamy virus", which appeared to be the first to be investigated on a molecular level. However, to the editor's knowledge, genuine human foamy viruses do not exist, but several trans-species transmissions of different simian foamy viruses from monkeys and apes to human hosts.

Vesicular Diseases

Vesicular Diseases
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 40
Release: 1997
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OSU:32435055664650
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Vesicular Diseases Book Review:

Spillover Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic

Spillover  Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic
Author: David Quammen
Publsiher: W. W. Norton & Company
Total Pages: 592
Release: 2012-10-01
ISBN 10: 0393239225
ISBN 13: 9780393239225
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spillover Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic Book Review:

"[Mr. Quammen] is not just among our best science writers but among our best writers, period." —Dwight Garner, New York Times The next big human pandemic—the next disease cataclysm, perhaps on the scale of AIDS or the 1918 influenza—is likely to be caused by a new virus coming to humans from wildlife. Experts call such an event “spillover” and they warn us to brace ourselves. David Quammen has tracked this subject from the jungles of Central Africa, the rooftops of Bangladesh, and the caves of southern China to the laboratories where researchers work in space suits to study lethal viruses. He illuminates the dynamics of Ebola, SARS, bird flu, Lyme disease, and other emerging threats and tells the story of AIDS and its origins as it has never before been told. Spillover reads like a mystery tale, full of mayhem and clues and questions. When the Next Big One arrives, what will it look like? From which innocent host animal will it emerge? Will we be ready?

The Chimp and the River How AIDS Emerged from an African Forest

The Chimp and the River  How AIDS Emerged from an African Forest
Author: David Quammen
Publsiher: W. W. Norton & Company
Total Pages: 144
Release: 2015-02-16
ISBN 10: 0393350851
ISBN 13: 9780393350852
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Chimp and the River How AIDS Emerged from an African Forest Book Review:

In this "frightening and fascinating masterpiece" (Walter Isaacson), David Quammen explores the true origins of HIV/AIDS. The real story of AIDS—how it originated with a virus in a chimpanzee, jumped to one human, and then infected more than 60 million people—is very different from what most of us think we know. Recent research has revealed dark surprises and yielded a radically new scenario of how AIDS began and spread. Excerpted and adapted from the book Spillover, with a new introduction by the author, Quammen's hair-raising investigation tracks the virus from chimp populations in the jungles of southeastern Cameroon to laboratories across the globe, as he unravels the mysteries of when, where, and under what circumstances such a consequential "spillover" can happen. An audacious search for answers amid more than a century of data, The Chimp and the River tells the haunting tale of one of the most devastating pandemics of our time.

The River

The River
Author: Edward Hooper
Publsiher: Back Bay
Total Pages: 1118
Release: 2000
ISBN 10: 9780316371377
ISBN 13: 0316371378
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The River Book Review:

A British medical journalist offers a meticulously researched look at HIV and its potential source, discussing the history of this lethal epidemic, analyzing a number of theories concerning its origins, and investigating current scientific inquiries into HIV, AIDS, and the search for a cure. Reprint. 15,000 first printing.

The Origins of AIDS

The Origins of AIDS
Author: Jacques Pépin
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 392
Release: 2021-01-21
ISBN 10: 1108487491
ISBN 13: 9781108487498
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Origins of AIDS Book Review:

An updated edition of Jacques Pépin's acclaimed account of the events that transformed a chimpanzee virus into a global pandemic.

A Novel CCR5 Mutation in Sooty Mangabeys Reveals SIVsmm Infection of CCR5 null Natural Hosts

A Novel CCR5 Mutation in Sooty Mangabeys Reveals SIVsmm Infection of CCR5 null Natural Hosts
Author: Nadeene E. Riddick
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 140
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:799153630
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Novel CCR5 Mutation in Sooty Mangabeys Reveals SIVsmm Infection of CCR5 null Natural Hosts Book Review:

Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates

Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research,Committee on Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 180
Release: 2003-07-13
ISBN 10: 030908914X
ISBN 13: 9780309089142
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates Book Review:

The field of occupational health and safety constantly changes, especially as it pertains to biomedical research. New infectious hazards are of particular importance at nonhuman-primate facilities. For example, the discovery that B virus can be transmitted via a splash on a mucous membrane raises new concerns that must be addressed, as does the discovery of the Reston strain of Ebola virus in import quarantine facilities in the U.S. The risk of such infectious hazards is best managed through a flexible and comprehensive Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) that can identify and mitigate potential hazards. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates is intended as a reference for vivarium managers, veterinarians, researchers, safety professionals, and others who are involved in developing or implementing an OHSP that deals with nonhuman primates. The book lists the important features of an OHSP and provides the tools necessary for informed decision-making in developing an optimal program that meets all particular institutional needs.

Swine Influenza

Swine Influenza
Author: Jürgen A. Richt,Richard J. Webby
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 303
Release: 2014-07-08
ISBN 10: 3642368719
ISBN 13: 9783642368714
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Swine Influenza Book Review:

From the first detailed clinical description of the disease in the Midwestern United States in 1918, to the isolation of the causative agent, the first of any influenza virus, in 1930 to its role in the genesis of the 2009 human pandemic, swine have played a central role in the ecology of influenza. Although not considered the major natural reservoir for influenza A viruses, swine are host to a limited but dynamic assortment of viruses. A number of subtypes of influenza A viruses of human and avian origin, including H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H7, and H9, have been isolated from global swine populations. Most of these isolations have, however, been limited in number and it is only H1 and H3 influenza viruses that are known to have formed stable lineages in swine. In this respect, swine influenza viruses (SIV) are similar to their counterparts in humans where H1 and H3 viruses have also been maintained. The nature of these H1 and H3 viruses differ between the two host populations, however, and, as discussed throughout this book, are even different in swine populations in different geographic regions of the world due to multiple introductions of avian and human influenza viruses.

Lentiviruses and Macrophages

Lentiviruses and Macrophages
Author: Moira Desport
Publsiher: Horizon Scientific Press
Total Pages: 345
Release: 2010
ISBN 10: 9781904455608
ISBN 13: 1904455603
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lentiviruses and Macrophages Book Review:

In this timely book, top lentivirus and macrophage specialists comprehensively review cutting-edge topics in the molecular and cellular biology of the lentivirus-macrophage interaction. Topics include: lentivirus tropism and disease, macrophage biology, m

Current Perspectives in HIV Infection

Current Perspectives in HIV Infection
Author: Shailendra K. Saxena
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 482
Release: 2013-04-10
ISBN 10: 9535110578
ISBN 13: 9789535110576
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Current Perspectives in HIV Infection Book Review:

This book gives a comprehensive overview of HIV and AIDS including NeuroAIDS, as well as general concepts of pathology, immunity and immunopathology, diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology and etiology to current clinical recommendations in management of HIV/AIDS including NeuroAIDS, highlighting the ongoing issues, recent advances and future directions in diagnostic approaches and therapeutic strategies.