Misleading DNA Evidence

Misleading DNA Evidence
Author: Peter Gill
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 100
Release: 2014-06-01
ISBN 10: 9780124172142
ISBN 13: 0124172148
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Misleading DNA Evidence Book Review:

DNA has become the gold standard by which a person can be placed at the scene of a crime, and the past decade has seen great advances in this powerful crime solving tool. But the statistics that analysts can attach to DNA evidence often vary, and in some cases the statistical weight assigned to that match, can vary enormously. The numbers provided to juries often overstate the evidence, and can result in a wrongful conviction. In addition to statistics, the way the evidence is collected, stored and analyzed can also result in a wrongful conviction due to contamination. This book reviews high-profile and somewhat contentious cases to illustrate these points, including the death of Meredith Kercher. It examines crucial topics such as characterization of errors and determination of error rates, reporting DNA profiles and the source and sub-source levels, and the essentials of statement writing. It is a concise, readable resource that will help not only scientists, but legal professionals with limited scientific backgrounds, to understand the intricacies of DNA use in the justice system.

Misleading DNA Evidence

Misleading DNA Evidence
Author: Peter Gill
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 100
Release: 2014-06-18
ISBN 10: 0124172202
ISBN 13: 9780124172203
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Misleading DNA Evidence Book Review:

Misleading DNA Evidence: A Guide for Scientists, Judges, and Lawyers presents the reasons miscarriages of justice can occur when dealing with DNA, what the role of the forensic scientist is throughout the process, and how judges and lawyers can educate themselves about all of the possibilities to consider when dealing with cases that involve DNA evidence. DNA has become the gold standard by which a person can be placed at the scene of a crime, and the past decade has seen great advances in this powerful crime solving tool. But the statistics that analysts can attach to DNA evidence often vary, and in some cases the statistical weight assigned to that match, can vary enormously. The numbers provided to juries often overstate the evidence, and can result in a wrongful conviction. In addition to statistics, the way the evidence is collected, stored and analyzed can also result in a wrongful conviction due to contamination. This book reviews high-profile and somewhat contentious cases to illustrate these points, including the death of Meredith Kercher. It examines crucial topics such as characterization of errors and determination of error rates, reporting DNA profiles and the source and sub-source levels, and the essentials of statement writing. It is a concise, readable resource that will help not only scientists, but legal professionals with limited scientific backgrounds, to understand the intricacies of DNA use in the justice system. Ideal reference for scientists and for those without extensive scientific backgrounds Written by one of the pioneers in forensic DNA typing and interpretation of DNA profiling results Ideal format for travel, court environments, or wherever easy access to reference material is vital

The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence

The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Committee on DNA Forensic Science: An Update
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 272
Release: 1996-12-12
ISBN 10: 9780309134408
ISBN 13: 0309134404
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence Book Review:

In 1992 the National Research Council issued DNA Technology in Forensic Science, a book that documented the state of the art in this emerging field. Recently, this volume was brought to worldwide attention in the murder trial of celebrity O. J. Simpson. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence reports on developments in population genetics and statistics since the original volume was published. The committee comments on statements in the original book that proved controversial or that have been misapplied in the courts. This volume offers recommendations for handling DNA samples, performing calculations, and other aspects of using DNA as a forensic tool--modifying some recommendations presented in the 1992 volume. The update addresses two major areas: Determination of DNA profiles. The committee considers how laboratory errors (particularly false matches) can arise, how errors might be reduced, and how to take into account the fact that the error rate can never be reduced to zero. Interpretation of a finding that the DNA profile of a suspect or victim matches the evidence DNA. The committee addresses controversies in population genetics, exploring the problems that arise from the mixture of groups and subgroups in the American population and how this substructure can be accounted for in calculating frequencies. This volume examines statistical issues in interpreting frequencies as probabilities, including adjustments when a suspect is found through a database search. The committee includes a detailed discussion of what its recommendations would mean in the courtroom, with numerous case citations. By resolving several remaining issues in the evaluation of this increasingly important area of forensic evidence, this technical update will be important to forensic scientists and population geneticists--and helpful to attorneys, judges, and others who need to understand DNA and the law. Anyone working in laboratories and in the courts or anyone studying this issue should own this book.

Using DNA to Solve Cold Cases

Using DNA to Solve Cold Cases
Author: U.s. Department of Justice,Office of Justice Programs,National Institute of Justice
Publsiher: Createspace Independent Pub
Total Pages: 34
Release: 2012-07-18
ISBN 10: 9781478268123
ISBN 13: 1478268123
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Using DNA to Solve Cold Cases Book Review:

DNA has proven to be a powerful tool in the fight against crime. DNA evidence can identify suspects, convict the guilty, and exonerate the innocent. Throughout the Nation, criminal justice professionals are discovering that advancements in DNA technology are breathing new life into old, cold, or unsolved criminal cases. Evidence that was previously unsuitable for DNA testing because a biological sample was too small or degraded may now yield a DNA profile. Development of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) at the State and national levels enables law enforcement to aid investigations by effectively and efficiently identifying suspects and linking serial crimes to each other. The National Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence made clear, however, that we must dedicate more resources to empower law enforcement to use this technology quickly and effectively. Using DNA to Solve Cold Cases is intended for use by law enforcement and other criminal justice professionals who have the responsibility for reviewing and investigating unsolved cases. This report will provide basic information to assist agencies in the complex process of case review with a specific emphasis on using DNA evidence to solve previously unsolvable crimes. Although DNA is not the only forensic tool that can be valuable to unsolved case investigations, advancements in DNA technology and the success of DNA database systems have inspired law enforcement agencies throughout the country to reevaluate cold cases for DNA evidence. As law enforcement professionals progress through investigations, however, they should keep in mind the array of other technology advancements, such as improved ballistics and fingerprint databases, which may substantially advance a case beyond its original level.

DNA Technology in Forensic Science

DNA Technology in Forensic Science
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Committee on DNA Technology in Forensic Science
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 200
Release: 1992-02-01
ISBN 10: 0309045878
ISBN 13: 9780309045872
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

DNA Technology in Forensic Science Book Review:

Matching DNA samples from crime scenes and suspects is rapidly becoming a key source of evidence for use in our justice system. DNA Technology in Forensic Science offers recommendations for resolving crucial questions that are emerging as DNA typing becomes more widespread. The volume addreses key issues: Quality and reliability in DNA typing, including the introduction of new technologies, problems of standardization, and approaches to certification. DNA typing in the courtroom, including issues of population genetics, levels of understanding among judges and juries, and admissibility. Societal issues, such as privacy of DNA data, storage of samples and data, and the rights of defendants to quality testing technology. Combining this original volume with the new update--The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence--provides the complete, up-to-date picture of this highly important and visible topic. This volume offers important guidance to anyone working with this emerging law enforcement tool: policymakers, specialists in criminal law, forensic scientists, geneticists, researchers, faculty, and students.

Investigation of the Effect of Time and Surface Type on Amplicon Contamination of DNA Profiles

Investigation of the Effect of Time and Surface Type on Amplicon Contamination of DNA Profiles
Author: Arwa Hashem Mohamed Al-Hanbali,University of Western Australia. Centre for Forensic Science
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 230
Release: 2010
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:903685025
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Investigation of the Effect of Time and Surface Type on Amplicon Contamination of DNA Profiles Book Review:

Forensic analysis of the Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) obtained from biological evidence, such as blood or cellular samples, commonly known as DNA profiling or DNA typing , has become an important tool for individual identification in the criminal justice system. However, the disturbing possibility of deliberate contamination of the DNA evidence at the crime scene still exists. Accidental DNA contamination is widely researched and many preventative procedures have been put in place to eliminate this form of DNA contamination. On the other hand, deliberate DNA contamination of the DNA evidence at the crime scene has not been discussed in much detail. The deliberate contamination of the DNA either by planting a person s DNA at a crime scene or by contaminated the forensic evidence samples using another person s DNA amplicons still exists. Both can produce misleading DNA profiles. The current study shows that the deliberate contamination of the biological samples with amplicons under simulated crime scene conditions resulted in an alteration to the DNA profile of the original genomic DNA. Not only do immediate additions of PCR amplicons to samples alter the genomic DNA profiles, amplicons remain present in the genomic DNA profiles even after a period of up to seven weeks under the conditions used in this study. However, the alteration of the genomic DNA with amplicons contamination is not obvious after a period of five weeks. Amplicons alleles were still present but there was a drop-off of fluorescence intensity of the alleles and these peaks could be dismissed as stutter peaks. The study also showed that the surface type can influence the recovery of biological samples; however, in all cases the recovery of contaminant amplicons was observed from the swabbed surfaces. Previous studies show that the use of substrate controls in DNA analysis has limited value (Gill, 1996) in contrast, this study suggest that swabs an area adjacent to a sample or stain at the crime scene, may be useful in detecting the presence of amplicon contamination at crime scenes. Finally this study has verified that a hair washing step before DNA extraction can eliminate amplicon contamination of hair samples.

Forensic DNA Evidence Interpretation Second Edition

Forensic DNA Evidence Interpretation  Second Edition
Author: John S. Buckleton,Jo-Anne Bright,Duncan Taylor
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2016-04-21
ISBN 10: 1482258927
ISBN 13: 9781482258929
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic DNA Evidence Interpretation Second Edition Book Review:

Now in its second edition, Forensic DNA Evidence Interpretation is the most comprehensive resource for DNA casework available today. Written by leaders in the fields of biology and statistics, including a contribution from Peter Gill, the father of DNA analysis, the book emphasizes the interpretation of test results and provides the necessary formulae in an easily accessible manner. This latest edition is fully updated and includes current and emerging techniques in this fast-moving field. The book begins by reviewing all pertinent biology, and then provides information on every aspect of DNA analysis. This includes modern interpretation methods and contemporary population genetic models available for estimating DNA frequencies or likelihood ratios. Following a chapter on procedures for validating databases, the text presents overviews and performance assessments of both modern sampling uncertainty methods and current paternity testing techniques, including new guidelines on paternity testing in alignment with the International Society for Forensic Genetics. Later chapters discuss the latest methods for mixture analysis, LCN (ultra trace) analysis and non-autosomal (mito, X, and Y) DNA analysis. The text concludes with an overview of procedures for disaster victim identification and information on DNA intelligence databases. Highlights of the second edition include: New information about PCR processes, heterozygote balance and back and forward stuttering New information on the interpretation of low template DNA, drop models and continuous models Additional coverage of lineage marker subpopulation effects, mixtures and combinations with autosomal markers This authoritative book provides a link among the biological, forensic, and interpretative domains of the DNA profiling field. It continues to serve as an invaluable resource that allows forensic scientists, technicians, molecular biologists and attorneys to use forensic DNA evidence to its greatest potential.

Interpreting Evidence

Interpreting Evidence
Author: Bernard Robertson,G. A. Vignaux,Charles E. H. Berger
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 214
Release: 2016-09-19
ISBN 10: 111849248X
ISBN 13: 9781118492482
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Interpreting Evidence Book Review:

This book explains the correct logical approach to analysis of forensic scientific evidence. The focus is on general methods of analysis applicable to all forms of evidence. It starts by explaining the general principles and then applies them to issues in DNA and other important forms of scientific evidence as examples. Like the first edition, the book analyses real legal cases and judgments rather than hypothetical examples and shows how the problems perceived in those cases would have been solved by a correct logical approach. The book is written to be understood both by forensic scientists preparing their evidence and by lawyers and judges who have to deal with it. The analysis is tied back both to basic scientific principles and to the principles of the law of evidence. This book will also be essential reading for law students taking evidence or forensic science papers and science students studying the application of their scientific specialisation to forensic questions.

DNA in the Courtroom

DNA in the Courtroom
Author: Howard Coleman,Eric Swenson
Publsiher: DNA in the Courtroom
Total Pages: 131
Release: 1994
ISBN 10: 9780964450707
ISBN 13: 0964450704
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

DNA in the Courtroom Book Review:

A clear and comprehensive guide to the scientific and legal issues surrounding forensic DNA testing.

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 348
Release: 2009-07-29
ISBN 10: 0309142393
ISBN 13: 9780309142397
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Book Review:

Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.

Convicted by Juries Exonerated by Science

Convicted by Juries  Exonerated by Science
Author: Edward F. Connors
Publsiher: DIANE Publishing
Total Pages: 85
Release: 1996
ISBN 10: 9780788131257
ISBN 13: 0788131257
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Convicted by Juries Exonerated by Science Book Review:

The development of DNA technology furthers the search for truth by helping police & prosecutors in the fight against violent crime. Most of the individuals whose stories are told in the report were convicted after jury trials & were sentenced to long prison terms. They successfully challenged their convictions, using DNA tests on existing evidence. They had served, on average, seven years in prison. By highlighting the importance & utility of DNA evidence, this report presents challenges to the scientific & justice communities. A task ahead is to maintain the highest standards for the collection & preservation of DNA evidence.

The Future of Forensic DNA Testing

The Future of Forensic DNA Testing
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 82
Release: 2000
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:1057110946
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Future of Forensic DNA Testing Book Review:

Forensic Science Evidence and Expert Witness Testimony

Forensic Science Evidence and Expert Witness Testimony
Author: Paul Roberts,Michael Stockdale
Publsiher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2018-11-30
ISBN 10: 1788111036
ISBN 13: 9781788111034
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Science Evidence and Expert Witness Testimony Book Review:

Forensic science evidence plays a pivotal role in modern criminal proceedings. Yet such evidence poses intense practical and theoretical challenges. It can be unreliable or misleading and has been associated with miscarriages of justice. In this original and insightful book, a global team of prominent scholars and practitioners explore the contemporary challenges of forensic science evidence and expert witness testimony from a variety of theoretical, practical and jurisdictional perspectives. Chapters encompass the institutional organisation of forensic science, its procedural regulation, evaluation and reform, and brim with comparative insight.

Inside the Cell

Inside the Cell
Author: Erin E Murphy
Publsiher: Hachette UK
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2015-10-06
ISBN 10: 1568584709
ISBN 13: 9781568584706
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Inside the Cell Book Review:

Josiah Sutton was convicted of rape. He was five inches shorter and 65 pounds lighter than the suspect described by the victim, but at trial a lab analyst testified that his DNA was found at the crime scene. His case looked like many others -- arrest, swab, match, conviction. But there was just one problem -- Sutton was innocent. We think of DNA forensics as an infallible science that catches the bad guys and exonerates the innocent. But when the science goes rogue, it can lead to a gross miscarriage of justice. Erin Murphy exposes the dark side of forensic DNA testing: crime labs that receive little oversight and produce inconsistent results; prosecutors who push to test smaller and poorer-quality samples, inviting error and bias; law-enforcement officers who compile massive, unregulated, and racially skewed DNA databases; and industry lobbyists who push policies of "stop and spit." DNA testing is rightly seen as a transformative technological breakthrough, but we should be wary of placing such a powerful weapon in the hands of the same broken criminal justice system that has produced mass incarceration, privileged government interests over personal privacy, and all too often enforced the law in a biased or unjust manner. Inside the Cell exposes the truth about forensic DNA, and shows us what it will take to harness the power of genetic identification in service of accuracy and fairness.

Forensic Analysis

Forensic Analysis
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on Scientific Assessment of Bullet Lead Elemental Composition Comparison
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 226
Release: 2004-03-26
ISBN 10: 9780309166430
ISBN 13: 0309166438
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Analysis Book Review:

Since the 1960s, testimony by representatives of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in thousands of criminal cases has relied on evidence from Compositional Analysis of Bullet Lead (CABL), a forensic technique that compares the elemental composition of bullets found at a crime scene to the elemental composition of bullets found in a suspect’s possession. Different from ballistics techniques that compare striations on the barrel of a gun to those on a recovered bullet, CABL is used when no gun is recovered or when bullets are too small or mangled to observe striations. Forensic Analysis: Weighing Bullet Lead Evidence assesses the scientific validity of CABL, finding that the FBI should use a different statistical analysis for the technique and that, given variations in bullet manufacturing processes, expert witnesses should make clear the very limited conclusions that CABL results can support. The report also recommends that the FBI take additional measures to ensure the validity of CABL results, which include improving documentation, publishing details, and improving on training and oversight.

Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing Interpretation

Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing  Interpretation
Author: John M. Butler
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2014-07-28
ISBN 10: 012405854X
ISBN 13: 9780124058545
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing Interpretation Book Review:

Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing: Interpretation builds upon the previous two editions of John Butler’s internationally acclaimed Forensic DNA Typing textbook with forensic DNA analysts as its primary audience. Intended as a third-edition companion to the Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing volume published in 2010 and Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing: Methodology published in 2012, this book contains 16 chapters with 4 appendices providing up-to-date coverage of essential topics in this important field. Over 80 % of the content of this book is new compared to previous editions. Provides forensic DNA analysts coverage of the crucial topic of DNA mixture interpretation and statistical analysis of DNA evidence Worked mixture examples illustrate the impact of different statistical approaches for reporting results Includes allele frequencies for 24 commonly used autosomal STR loci, the revised Quality Assurance Standards which went into effect September 2011

Genetic Policing

Genetic Policing
Author: Robin Williams,Paul Johnson
Publsiher: Willan
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2013-05-13
ISBN 10: 1134005679
ISBN 13: 9781134005673
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetic Policing Book Review:

This book is about the increasing significance of DNA profiling for crime investigation in modern society. It focuses on developments in the UK as the world-leader in the development and application of forensic DNA technology and in the construction of DNA databases as an essential element in the successful use of DNA for forensic purposes. The book uses data collected during the course of Wellcome Trust funded research into police uses of the UK National DNA Database (NDNAD) to describe the relationship between scientific knowledge and police investigations. It is illustrated throughout by reference to some of the major UK criminal cases in which DNA evidence has been presented and contested.

Blood Evidence

Blood Evidence
Author: Henry Lee,Frank Tirnady
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 418
Release: 2003-04-17
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015060646026
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Blood Evidence Book Review:

Uses case studies to examine how investigators collect genetic evidence and discusses how DNA has altered crime-solving and the court system as well as the ethical ramifications of cloning, genetic modification, and the death penalty.

The Future of Forensic Science

The Future of Forensic Science
Author: Daniel A. Martell
Publsiher: Wiley
Total Pages: 208
Release: 2019-05-13
ISBN 10: 1119226678
ISBN 13: 9781119226673
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Future of Forensic Science Book Review:

Offers a diverse, interdisciplinary, and eye-opening view of the future direction of forensic science This one-of-a-kind book is a collection of content from the Past and Current Presidents of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences—providing readers with all of their forensic science experience, knowledge, insight, and wisdom. It envisions where forensic science will be a decade from now and the impact of these emerging advances on the law (along with our place in it), emphasizing theoretical advances, innovative leads from the laboratory, and emerging technologies. Filled with information from some of the greatest forensic minds of their generation, The Future of Forensic Science covers all of the eleven sections that comprise the AAFS. It discusses new directions in forensic anthropology, and looks at the future of such disciplines as criminalistics, forensic engineering science, forensic psychiatry and behavioral science, forensic toxicology, and forensic document examination. It also touches on the current and future state of digital and multimedia sciences. Contains contributions from an eminent group of forensic science experts Presents a valuable repository of forensic science experience, knowledge, insight, and wisdom Offers an insightful interdisciplinary look at the future of forensic science and how it is changing forensic science for the better Timed to coincide with the NIST forensic science initiative and the OSAC process The Future of Forensic Science is a must-have book for practicing forensic science professionals, academics, and advanced undergraduate and graduate students in forensic science. This book is published as part of the AAFS series ‘Forensic Science in Focus’.

DNA and the Criminal Justice System

DNA and the Criminal Justice System
Author: David Lazer
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 414
Release: 2004
ISBN 10: 9780262621861
ISBN 13: 026262186X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

DNA and the Criminal Justice System Book Review:

Examines the impact of DNA technology on issues of ethics, civil liberties, privacy, and security.