Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Human Health and Diseases

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Human Health and Diseases
Author: Ahmed El-Hashash
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 228
Release: 2020-01-06
ISBN 10: 0128197137
ISBN 13: 9780128197134
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Human Health and Diseases Book Review:

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Human Health and Diseases provides a contemporary overview of the fast-moving field of MSC biology, regenerative medicine and therapeutics. MSCs offer the potential to dramatically reduce human suffering from disease. Numerous MSC-based studies are ongoing each year, each offering hope for novel treatments in human disease. This book provides information on MSC application in well-studied human diseases and tissue repair/regeneration and recent advances in their research and treatment. These discoveries are placed within the structural context of tissue and developmental biology in sections dealing with recent advances in our understanding of MSC biology. Includes insights ranging from MSC biology and development through the derivation and identification and properties of MSCs Helps to identify potential innovative solutions for restoring normal morphogenesis and/or regeneration of diseased organs Discusses the fact-based promise of MSC therapeutics and regenerative medicine in the real world

Lung Stem Cells in Development Health and Disease

Lung Stem Cells in Development  Health and Disease
Author: Nikolic, Marko Z.,Hogan, Brigid L.M.
Publsiher: European Respiratory Society
Total Pages: 392
Release: 2021-04-01
ISBN 10: 1849841349
ISBN 13: 9781849841344
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lung Stem Cells in Development Health and Disease Book Review:

Most organs in the adult human body are able to maintain themselves and undergo repair after injury; these processes are largely dependent on stem cells. In this Monograph, the Guest Editors bring together leading authors in the field to provide information about the different classes of stem cells present both in the developing and adult lung: where they are found, how they function in homeostasis and pathologic conditions, the mechanisms that regulate their behaviour, and how they may be harnessed for therapeutic purposes. The book focuses on stem cells in the mouse and human lung but also includes the ferret as an increasingly important new model organism. Chapters also discuss how lung tissue, including endogenous stem cells, can be generated in vitro from pluripotent stem cell lines. This state-of-the-art collection comprehensively covers one of the most exciting areas of respiratory science

Stem Cells and Human Diseases

Stem Cells and Human Diseases
Author: Rakesh K. Srivastava,Sharmila Shankar
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 630
Release: 2012-02-01
ISBN 10: 940072800X
ISBN 13: 9789400728004
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stem Cells and Human Diseases Book Review:

The main objective of this book is to provide a comprehensive review on stem cells and their role in tissue regeneration, homeostasis and therapy. In addition, the role of cancer stem cells in cancer initiation, progression and drug resistance are discussed. The cell signaling pathways and microRNA regulating stem cell self-renewal, tissue homeostasis and drug resistance are also mentioned. Overall, these reviews will provide a new understanding of the influence of stem cells in tissue regeneration, disease regulation, therapy and drug resistance in several human diseases.

Developmental and Stem Cell Biology in Health and Disease

Developmental and Stem Cell Biology in Health and Disease
Author: Ahmed El-Hashash
Publsiher: Bentham Science Publishers
Total Pages: 260
Release: 2016-07-14
ISBN 10: 1681082195
ISBN 13: 9781681082196
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developmental and Stem Cell Biology in Health and Disease Book Review:

Research into stem cells started in the 1960s with experiments on spleen cultures. Evans and Kaufman made a breakthrough in mouse embryo culturing and embryonic stem cell extraction in 1981, followed by the work of Thomson in 1998 on the technique for extracting human embryonic stem cells. Since then, stem cell research has rapidly expanded as a therapeutic avenue for different diseases in humans. This book explains the basic developmental biology of stem cells including the development of stem cells during the implantation stage in utero to the regulation of stem cell division. Medical applications of stem cells in the therapy of diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and bone diseases are also explained in subsequent chapters. The book also explains the effect of parasitic cells on stem cell growth. Concepts in the book are explained in a simple clear manner, making this book an informative reference for non-experts, students and professionals in the field of biology and medicine.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy
Author: Lucas G. Chase,Mohan C Vemuri
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 456
Release: 2012-12-12
ISBN 10: 1627032002
ISBN 13: 9781627032001
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Book Review:

Over the past decade, significant efforts have been made to develop stem cell-based therapies for difficult to treat diseases. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), appear to hold great promise in regards to a regenerative cell-based therapy for the treatment of these diseases. Currently, more than 200 clinical trials are underway worldwide exploring the use of MSCs for the treatment of a wide range of disorders including bone, cartilage and tendon damage, myocardial infarction, graft-versus-host disease, Crohn’s disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, critical limb ischemia and many others. MSCs were first identified by Friendenstein and colleagues as an adherent stromal cell population within the bone marrow with the ability to form clonogenic colonies in vitro. In regards to the basic biology associated with MSCs, there has been tremendous progress towards understanding this cell population’s phenotype and function from a range of tissue sources. Despite enormous progress and an overall increased understanding of MSCs at the molecular and cellular level, several critical questions remain to be answered in regards to the use of these cells in therapeutic applications. Clinically, both autologous and allogenic approaches for the transplantation of MSCs are being explored. Several of the processing steps needed for the clinical application of MSCs, including isolation from various tissues, scalable in vitro expansion, cell banking, dose preparation, quality control parameters, delivery methods and numerous others are being extensively studied. Despite a significant number of ongoing clinical trials, none of the current therapeutic approaches have, at this point, become a standard of care treatment. Although exceptionally promising, the clinical translation of MSC-based therapies is still a work in progress. The extensive number of ongoing clinical trials is expected to provide a clearer path forward for the realization and implementation of MSCs in regenerative medicine. Towards this end, reviews of current clinical trial results and discussions of relevant topics association with the clinical application of MSCs are compiled in this book from some of the leading researchers in this exciting and rapidly advancing field. Although not absolutely all-inclusive, we hope the chapters within this book can promote and enable a better understanding of the translation of MSCs from bench-to-bedside and inspire researchers to further explore this promising and quickly evolving field.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Author: Phuc Van Pham
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2017-11-29
ISBN 10: 9535136151
ISBN 13: 9789535136156
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Book Review:

Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Isolation, Characterization, and Applications thoroughly presents the isolation, characterization, and some applications of mesenchymal stem cells in the clinic. The book has two parts: "Isolation and Characterization" and "Clinical Perspectives and Applications." In Part I, the subsequent chapters introduce some techniques in isolation, characterization, and purification of mesenchymal stem cells in different tissues. In Part II, some applications of mesenchymal stem cells in the popular diseases, which include cartilage regeneration, spinal cord injury, and osteoarthritis, are discussed. This book provides a succinct yet comprehensive overview of mesenchymal stem cells for advanced students, graduate students, and researchers.

Autophagy in Health and Disease

Autophagy in Health and Disease
Author: Kursad Turksen
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 177
Release: 2018-10-06
ISBN 10: 3319981463
ISBN 13: 9783319981468
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Autophagy in Health and Disease Book Review:

This timely volume explores the impact of autophagy in various human diseases, emphasizing the cell biological aspects and focusing on therapeutic approaches to these diseases. The chapters cover autophagy and its potential applications on diseases ranging from obesity, osteoarthritis, pulmonary fibrosis, and inflammation, through ALS, Parkinson's, retinal degeneration, breast cancer, alcoholic liver disease and more. The final chapters round out the book with a discussion of autophagy in drug discovery and 'bench to bedside'. Chapters are contributed by leading authorities and describe the general concepts of autophagy in health and disease, marrying cell biology and pharmacology and covering: studies derived from preclinical experiments, manufacturing considerations,and regulatory requirements pertaining to drug discovery and manufacturing and production. This volume will be useful for basic scientists as well as already practicing clinicians and advanced graduate students.

Pluripotent Stem Cells

Pluripotent Stem Cells
Author: Minoru Tomizawa
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 532
Release: 2016-07-20
ISBN 10: 9535124714
ISBN 13: 9789535124719
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pluripotent Stem Cells Book Review:

Pluripotent stem cells have distinct characteristics: self-renewal and the potential to differentiate into various somatic cells. In recent years, substantial advances have been made from basic science to clinical applications. The vast amount knowledge available makes obtaining concise yet sufficient information difficult, hence the purpose of this book. In this book, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells are discussed. The book is divided into five sections: pluripotency, culture methods, toxicology, disease models, and regenerative medicine. The topics covered range from new concepts to current technologies. Readers are expected to gain useful information from expert contributors.

Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Therapy

Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Therapy
Author: India. Department of Biotechnology,Indian Council of Medical Research
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 66
Release: 2007
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: LCCN:2009346305
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Therapy Book Review:

Stem cell research holds great promise for improving human health by control of degenerative diseases and restoration of damage to organs by various injuries; but at the same time it also raises several ethical and social issues such as destruction of human embryos to create human embryonic stem (hES) cell lines, potential for introducing commodification in human tissues and organs with inherent barriers of access to socioeconomically deprived and possible use of technology for germ-line engineering and reproductive cloning. The research in this field, therefore, needs to be regulated to strike a balance. Of utmost importance is assurance of safety, and rights of those donating gametes/ blastocysts/ somatic cells for derivation of stem cells; or fetal tissues/umbilical cord cells/ adult tissue (or cells) for use as stem cells. Safeguards have also to be in place to protect research participants receiving stem cell transplants, and patients at large from unproven therapies/remedies. With success of growing human embryonic stem cells without feeder layer, derivation of histocompatible hES from embryos created by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) and tissue specific differentiation of umbilical cord/bone marrow derived mesenchymal and haematopoeitic stem cells, there is a need to generate public confidence in potential benefit of stem cell research to human health and disease. As stem cell therapy is poised to enter into clinical practice, there is an urgent need to formulate guidelines for Stem cell Research and Therapy (SCRT). The aims and scope of this document are to lay down general principles for stem cell research and therapy keeping in view the ethical issues. To formulate specific guidelines for derivation, propagation, differentiation, characterization, banking, and use of human stem cells for research and therapy. These guidelines provide a mechanism to ensure that research with human stem cells is conducted in a responsible and ethically sensitive manner and complies with all regulatory requirements pertaining to biomedical research in general and stem cell research in particular.

Neural Stem Cells in Health and Disease

Neural Stem Cells in Health and Disease
Author: Ashok K Shetty
Publsiher: World Scientific Publishing Company
Total Pages: 572
Release: 2015-08-28
ISBN 10: 9814623199
ISBN 13: 9789814623193
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neural Stem Cells in Health and Disease Book Review:

This book is a comprehensive guide on neural stem cell behavior in health and disease. The book confers the altered behavior of endogenous neural stem cells in neurodegenerative disease conditions and the prospects of neural stem cell therapy for alleviating brain dysfunction in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Neural stem cell activity and neurogenesis in the adult brain is now confirmed in virtually all mammalian species including humans. Hence, a series of chapters in the first half of the book discusses the current knowledge on mechanisms of neural stem cell activity, the extent and functional significance of neurogenesis in the adult brain under normal, aged and disease environments, the susceptibility of neural stem cells and the plasticity of neurogenesis to alcohol, drugs of abuse and anesthetic agents, and advanced techniques that trigger neurogenesis in non-neurogenic regions. A second series of chapters in this book are focused on discussing the promise and efficacy of grafting of neural stem cells and/or other stem cells for treating neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, temporal lobe epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease and spinal cord injury. The final chapter confers on advances that are made in manufacturing a variety of neural cell types from human pluripotent stem cells that can be used as donor cells for cell transplantation.

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Author: Mitchell Khan
Publsiher: Nova Science Publishers
Total Pages: 134
Release: 2021
ISBN 10: 9781536192247
ISBN 13: 1536192244
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Book Review:

"In Chapter 1, the COVID-19 pandemic and the damage mechanisms on the cellular level which can be ameliorated with the cellular therapies is thoroughly evaluated. Previous and ongoing stem cell clinical trial data from diseases with similar symptoms is gathered. All this accumulated data and current clinical trial results indicate that the cellular therapies could be the most effective treatment option for COVID-19 patients to ameliorate the damaged tissues and save lives. In Chapter 2, the authors examine activated mesenchymal stem cells for stroke repair. Stem Cell treatment has shown recovery in animal models of stroke, indicating an improved regenerative and repair potential. Though stem cells are still being used in clinical trials, there is no evidence that they enhance recovery in ischemic stroke patients. Nevertheless, the multipotent mesenchymal stem has widely been explored for stroke recovery. An'Activated MSC' as a therapeutic alternative to tackling ischemic stroke is proposed, thereby the activation of MSCs by cytokines, growth factors, hypoxia, pharmacological drugs, etc., could be a novel approach to improving stroke patients' responses to receiving MSCs. In Chapter 3, the potential benefits of in vitro culture of therapeutic stem cells in the presence of HB along with the ketogenic diet, whereby higher physiological concentrations of ketone bodies can be achieved in vivo, as an adjuvant to stem cell transplantation is assessed"--

Stem Cell Innovation in Health Disease The Lung Volume 2

Stem Cell Innovation in Health   Disease  The Lung  Volume 2
Author: Ahmed El-Hashash
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 174
Release: 2021-06-10
ISBN 10: 0128212071
ISBN 13: 9780128212073
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stem Cell Innovation in Health Disease The Lung Volume 2 Book Review:

In the lung, more recent data have been accumulated on lung stem cell biology/function and the potential applications of stem cells in pulmonary diseases that are facilitated by the recent development of a broad range of cutting edge in vitro and in vivo research tools and approaches, including mouse and human organoid cultures, genetic editing in vitro and in vivo, human induced pluripotent cell (iPS cell) models of disease, haploid cells for genetic as well as compound screening paradigms, genetically engineered mice, and stem cell transplantation to cure diseases. Stem Cell Innovation in Health and Disease: Volume 2: The Lung, contains two major sections describing cutting edge research for understanding stem cell functions in the lung and respiratory system, and for developing methods to bring stem cells from bench to bedside; respectively. Each section includes insights ranging from using mouse and human organoid cultures, genetic editing in vitro and in vivo, and human induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs) to study stem cell functions and model lung diseases, through the cutting-edge research aiming to bring stem cells from bench to bedside, including the potential application of iPSCs, ESCs and blood stem cells (stem cell transplants) in the treatment of lung diseases/disorders. This book, therefore, discusses the fact-based promise of stem cells and regenerative medicine in the lung in the real world. Provides intensive scientific background and most recent information on cutting edge research to understand respiratory stem cell functions and develop methods to bring stem cells from bench to bedside for different lung diseases Analyzes the current state, opportunities, and challenges of innovative technologies and stem cells from bench to bed, including organoids and iPSC-derived alveolar epithelia cell therapy in the lung Contains two major sections describing cutting-edge research for understanding stem cell functions and for developing methods specific to the lung

Microbiome in Human Health and Disease

Microbiome in Human Health and Disease
Author: Pallaval Veera Bramhachari
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN 10: 9811631565
ISBN 13: 9789811631566
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbiome in Human Health and Disease Book Review:

RNA Based Regulation in Human Health and Disease

RNA Based Regulation in Human Health and Disease
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 444
Release: 2020-08-19
ISBN 10: 0128171944
ISBN 13: 9780128171943
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

RNA Based Regulation in Human Health and Disease Book Review:

RNA-based Regulation in Human Health and Disease offers an in-depth exploration of RNA mediated genome regulation at different hierarchies. Beginning with multitude of canonical and non-canonical RNA populations, especially noncoding RNA in human physiology and evolution, further sections examine the various classes of RNAs (from small to large noncoding and extracellular RNAs), functional categories of RNA regulation (RNA-binding proteins, alternative splicing, RNA editing, antisense transcripts and RNA G-quadruplexes), dynamic aspects of RNA regulation modulating physiological homeostasis (aging), role of RNA beyond humans, tools and technologies for RNA research (wet lab and computational) and future prospects for RNA-based diagnostics and therapeutics. One of the core strengths of the book includes spectrum of disease-specific chapters from experts in the field highlighting RNA-based regulation in metabolic & neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, viral and bacterial infections. We hope the book helps researchers, students and clinicians appreciate the role of RNA-based regulation in genome regulation, aiding the development of useful biomarkers for prognosis, diagnosis, and novel RNA-based therapeutics. Comprehensive information of non-canonical RNA-based genome regulation modulating human health and disease Defines RNA classes with special emphasis on unexplored world of noncoding RNA at different hierarchies Disease specific role of RNA - causal, prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic Features contributions from leading experts in the field

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
Author: Walter C. Low,Catherine M. Verfaillie
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 551
Release: 2008
ISBN 10: 9812775773
ISBN 13: 9789812775771
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Book Review:

The commercialization of biotechnology has resulted in an intensive search for new biological resources for the purposes of increasing food productivity, medicinal applications, energy production, and various other applications. Although biotechnology has produced many benefits for humanity, the exploitation of the planet's natural resources has also resulted in some undesirable consequences such as diminished species biodiversity, climate change, environmental contamination, and intellectual property right and patent concerns.This book discusses the role of biological, ecological, environmental, ethical, and economic issues in the interaction between biotechnology and biodiversity, using different contexts. No other book has discussed all of these issues in a comprehensive manner. Of special interest is their impact when biotechnology is shared between developed and developing countries, and the lack of recognition of the rights of indigenous populations and traditional farmers in developing countries by large multinational corporations.

Hypoxia and Human Diseases

Hypoxia and Human Diseases
Author: Jing Zheng,Chi Zhou
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 454
Release: 2017-02-01
ISBN 10: 9535128957
ISBN 13: 9789535128953
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hypoxia and Human Diseases Book Review:

This book contains a total of 21 chapters, each of which was written by experts in the corresponding field. The objective of this book is to provide a comprehensive and updated overview of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypoxia's impacts on human health, as well as current advances and future directions in the detection, recognition, and management of hypoxia-related disorders. This collection of articles provides a clear update in the area of hypoxia research for biomedical researchers, medical students, nurse practitioners, and practicing clinicians in the fields of high altitude biology, cardiovascular biology and medicine, tumor oncology, obstetrics, pediatrics, and orthodontics and for others who may be interested in hypoxia.

Stem Cell Biology in Health and Disease

Stem Cell Biology in Health and Disease
Author: Thomas Dittmar,Kurt S. Zänker
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 426
Release: 2009-10-13
ISBN 10: 9048130409
ISBN 13: 9789048130405
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stem Cell Biology in Health and Disease Book Review:

Stem Cell Biology in Health and Disease presents an up-to-date overview about the dual role of stem cells in health and disease. The Editors have drawn together an international team of experts providing chapters which, in this fully-illustrated volume, discuss: - the controversial debate on the great expectations concerning stem cell based regeneration therapies raised by the pluripotency of various stem cells. - the advantages and concerns about embryonic stem cells (ES cells), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) and adult stem cells, such as bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDCs). - the type of stem cells, which has become of interest in the past decade, namely so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are now in the focus of cancer research since the eradication of tumour initiating cells would raise the changes of definitely cure cancer. Professor Dittmar and Professor Zänker have edited a must-read book for researchers and professionals working in the field of regenerative medicine and/or cancer.

Update on Mesenchymal and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Update on Mesenchymal and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Author: Khalid Ahmed Al-Anazi
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 148
Release: 2020-04-22
ISBN 10: 1789238072
ISBN 13: 9781789238075
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Update on Mesenchymal and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Book Review:

This book represents an updated overview on selected topics related to mesenchymal stem cells as well as induced pluripotent stem cells. The book is divided into three main sections that cover several topics including: sources of both stem cell types, their preparation and general properties, as well as their therapeutic indications and clinical utilization with particular attention given to their use in infectious diseases, osteoarthritis, as well as immunological disorders.

Mechanobiology in Health and Disease

Mechanobiology in Health and Disease
Author: Stefaan Verbruggen
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 527
Release: 2018-08-09
ISBN 10: 0128129530
ISBN 13: 9780128129531
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mechanobiology in Health and Disease Book Review:

Mechanobiology in Health and Disease brings together contributions from leading biologists, clinicians, physicists and engineers in one convenient volume, providing a unified source of information for researchers in this highly multidisciplinary area. Opening chapters provide essential background information on cell mechanotransduction and essential mechanobiology methods and techniques. Other sections focus on the study of mechanobiology in healthy systems, including bone, tendons, muscles, blood vessels, the heart and the skin, as well as mechanobiology studies of pregnancy. Final chapters address the nascent area of mechanobiology in disease, from the study of bone conditions, skin diseases and heart diseases to cancer. A discussion of future perspectives for research completes each chapter in the volume. This is a timely resource for both early-career and established researchers working on mechanobiology. Provides an essential digest of primary research from many fields and disciplines in one convenient volume Covers both experimental approaches and descriptions of mechanobiology problems from mathematical and numerical perspectives Addresses the hot topic of mechanobiology in disease, a particularly dynamic field of frontier science

Stellate Cells in Health and Disease

Stellate Cells in Health and Disease
Author: Chandrashekhar Gandhi,Massimo Pinzani
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2015-04-10
ISBN 10: 0128005440
ISBN 13: 9780128005446
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stellate Cells in Health and Disease Book Review:

Stellate Cells in Health and Disease is a comprehensive reference providing the most up-to-date knowledge and perspectives on the function of stellate cells affecting the liver and other organs. The text presents comprehensive coverage of their already established role in hepatic fibrosis along with the newer emerging evidence for stellate cell participation in the liver cell (hepatocyte) survival and regeneration, hepatic immunobiology, transplant tolerance, and liver cancer. Chapters describe both animal and human research and the relevance of findings from animal research to human pathophysiology, and also contain sections on future directions which will be of special interest to basic and clinical researchers working on liver fibrosis, hepatic biology, and pathobiology. Presents coverage of the mechanisms of liver fibrosis with stellate cells as a target for therapy. Shows stellate cells as a major participant in hepatic immunobiology, including transplantation immunology. Key illustrations show the phenotypical changes in stellate cells in situ and tissue culture, their interactions with other cell types, signaling pathways and demonstrate the functions and roles of stellate cell in pathological processes.