Measuring Transport Equity

Measuring Transport Equity
Author: Karen Lucas,Karel Martens,Floridea Di Ciommo,Ariane Dupont-Kieffer
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2019-06-15
ISBN 10: 0128148187
ISBN 13: 9780128148181
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Measuring Transport Equity Book Review:

Measuring Transport Equity provides a methodology with the potential to shape the transportation decision-making processes, thus allowing for the adoption of more equitable transport solutions. Focusing on numerous applied methodological approaches to transport equity assessment, the book formalizes the disciplinary practice, definitions and methodologies for transport equity. In addition, it recognizes the different types of equity and acknowledges that each requires their own assessment methodologies. Bringing together the most up-to-date perspectives and practical approaches for assessing transportation accessibility, environmental impacts, health and wellbeing, the book sets standards for researchers, policymakers and practitioners for conducting social impact analyses. Written by a collection of top researchers in the transport field Shows how to apply transport equity measurement ideas in the real-world through case study examples Covers emerging transport topics, including the use of the Gini index for measuring inequality Includes learning aids, such as methodology, application, policy relevance and further reading

Measuring Transport Equity

Measuring Transport Equity
Author: Karen Lucas,Karel Martens,Floridea Di Ciommo,Ariane Dupont-Kieffer
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2019-05-30
ISBN 10: 0128148195
ISBN 13: 9780128148198
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Measuring Transport Equity Book Review:

Measuring Transport Equity provides a range of methods with the potential to shape transport decision-making processes, thus allowing for the adoption of more equitable transport solutions. Presenting numerous applied methods and applications of transport equity assessment, this book formalizes the disciplinary practice, definitions, and methodologies for transport equity. In addition, it recognizes the different types of equity and acknowledges that each requires its own assessment methodologies. Bringing together the most up-to-date perspectives and practical approaches for assessing equity in relation to accessibility, environmental impacts, health, and wellbeing, the book sets standards for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners for conducting social impact analyses and is an ideal reference for those involved in transport planning. Written by a collection of top researchers and upcoming scholars in the transport field. Shows how to apply transport equity measurement ideas in the real world through case study examples. Covers emerging transport topics, including the use of advanced measures of inequality. Includes learning aids, such as methodology, application, policy relevance, and further reading.

Transport Justice

Transport Justice
Author: Karel Martens
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2016-07-01
ISBN 10: 1317599578
ISBN 13: 9781317599579
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transport Justice Book Review:

Transport Justice develops a new paradigm for transportation planning based on principles of justice. Author Karel Martens starts from the observation that for the last fifty years the focus of transportation planning and policy has been on the performance of the transport system and ways to improve it, without much attention being paid to the persons actually using – or failing to use – that transport system. There are far-reaching consequences of this approach, with some enjoying the fruits of the improvements in the transport system, while others have experienced a substantial deterioration in their situation. The growing body of academic evidence on the resulting disparities in mobility and accessibility, have been paralleled by increasingly vocal calls for policy changes to address the inequities that have developed over time. Drawing on philosophies of social justice, Transport Justice argues that governments have the fundamental duty of providing virtually every person with adequate transportation and thus of mitigating the social disparities that have been created over the past decades. Critical reading for transport planners and students of transportation planning, this book develops a new approach to transportation planning that takes people as its starting point, and justice as its end.

Accessibility Equity and Efficiency

Accessibility  Equity and Efficiency
Author: Karst T. Geurs,Roberto Patuelli,Tomaz Ponce Dentinho
Publsiher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Total Pages: 264
Release: 2016-02-26
ISBN 10: 1784717894
ISBN 13: 9781784717896
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Accessibility Equity and Efficiency Book Review:

Leading researchers from around the world show, in this volume, the importance of accessibility in contemporary issues such as rural depopulation, investments in public services and public transport, and transport infrastructure investments in Europe. The trade-offs between accessibility, economic development and equity are comprehensively examined, and a variety of approaches to measuring accessibility and equality presented. The book’s interdisciplinary contributions also provide different geographical contexts, from the US to various European and developing countries, and cover ex ante and ex post evaluation of transport investment. Improving transport accessibility is a main objective in transport policy and planning in developed and developing countries all over the world. Investment is motivated by the need to develop and/or reduce spatial or social inequalities. However, the economic and equity implications of investments in transport are not straightforward. The concepts of accessibility and equity can be defined and operationalized in many different ways, influencing outcomes and conclusions. Moreover, equity and efficiency goals are often conflicting. Accessibility models not only help to explain spatial and transport patterns in developed and developing countries but are also powerful tools to explain the equity and efficiency impacts of urban and transport policies and projects. This state-of-the-art overview of the accessibility–economic efficiency–equity relationship will appeal to researchers as well as transport and urban planners interested in accessibility issues and transport/regional developments.

Handbook of Sustainable Transport

Handbook of Sustainable Transport
Author: Carey Curtis
Publsiher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2020-12-25
ISBN 10: 1789900476
ISBN 13: 9781789900477
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Sustainable Transport Book Review:

Exploring the need for a sustainable transport paradigm, which has been sought after by local and national authorities internationally over the last 30 years, this illuminating and timely Handbook offers insights into how this can be secured more broadly and what it may involve, as well as the challenges that the sustainable transport approach faces. The Handbook offers readers a holistic understanding of the paradigm by drawing on a wide range of research and relevant case studies that showcase where the principles of sustainable transport have been implemented.

A Companion to Transport Space and Equity

A Companion to Transport  Space and Equity
Author: Robin Hickman,Beatriz Mella Lira,Moshe Givoni,Karst Geurs
Publsiher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2019
ISBN 10: 1788119827
ISBN 13: 9781788119825
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Companion to Transport Space and Equity Book Review:

With social inequity in urban spaces becoming an increasing concern in our modern world, The Elgar Companion to Transport, Space and Equity explores the relationships between transport and social equity. Transport systems and infrastructure investment can lead to inequitable travel behaviours, with certain socio-demographic groups using particular parts of the transport system and accessing particular activities and opportunities.

Measuring Transportation Network Performance

Measuring Transportation Network Performance
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Transportation Research Board
Total Pages: 76
Release: 2010-01-01
ISBN 10: 0309154928
ISBN 13: 9780309154925
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Measuring Transportation Network Performance Book Review:

This guidebook provides methods for integrating performance measures from individual transportation modes and multiple jurisdictions and for developing new measures, if needed, to monitor transportation network performance. These network performance measures can be used to improve system management, planning, and investment decisions and can be applied to various scenarios. The guidebook should be of immediate use to practitioners in state, regional, or local governments; specially designated authorities; or those in the private sector who are responsible for measuring, operating, and investing in the performance of multimodal and/or multijurisdictional transportation networks.

Enhancing Equity in Public Transportation Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Optimization

Enhancing Equity in Public Transportation Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Optimization
Author: Ho-Seop Cha
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2008
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:669186910
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Enhancing Equity in Public Transportation Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Optimization Book Review:

Abstract: Public transportation is a vital part of urban living. Public transportation agencies receive substantial governmental subsidies due to the significance of their impact on society. For instance, public transportation services help reduce road congestion, oil consumption and air pollution, and they serve people who need to travel throughout urban environments at the same time do not have access to private vehicles. The latter aspect is an important matter of social justice. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss how the issue of equity is addressed in public transportation. It is important to understand why the interest in equity in transport is growing, why public transportation should favor the transport disadvantaged, and why analyses of equity measurement and improvement are needed. Measuring the level of access to public transportation among the transport disadvantaged provides a theoretical basis for analyzing potential improvements in access by adjusting public transportation facility locations. This research will focus on examining what equity issues in transport are present, how they are implemented in current public transportation systems, and their limitations. Another aspect of this research is modeling approaches used in establishing public transportation infrastructure and systems. Using GIS and spatial optimization models, the level of access to public transportation in terms of equity will be evaluated and improvement of the level of access will be attempted by offering new service stop locations. To this end, the Polygon Intersection with Network Point Set (PINPS) method is developed to locate potential facilities along a continuous road network ensuring complete coverage of polygon demand objects. Using the Maximal Covering Location Problem (MCLP), the optimal locations of potential facilities to cover equity favoring origin- and destination-based demand are identified. This research finally provides a set of optimal service stop locations maximizing coverage of origin- and destination-based demand simultaneously through implementation of a bi-objective model, applied to the City of Hilliard, Ohio. In addition the capabilities of coverage models utilizing PINPS and randomly obtained potential facilities are compared. Also, the use of models that represent polygon-based demand versus those depending on only typical point-represented demand will be discussed.

Equity and Well Being

Equity and Well Being
Author: Hyun Hwa Son
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2013-04-03
ISBN 10: 113657932X
ISBN 13: 9781136579325
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Equity and Well Being Book Review:

Equity is an abstract concept covering philosophical issues such as fairness and social justice, making its definition and measurement complex. This volume tackles these complexities head-on. The book is enriched with many empirical analyses and provides a comprehensive analysis of equity ranging from concepts and measurements to empirical illustrations and policy implications. After an extensive discussion on equity in the introduction, this volume begins with a chapter on well-being where the concepts of functioning and capability are discussed. This is followed by a few chapters on what an equitable distribution is and how equity can be measured. The volume then provides a definition and a methodology to measure equitable growth, examining the relationship between growth, inequality, and poverty. It also presents various empirical illustrations and country-specific experiences with three country case studies which assess whether publicly provided health and education services are equitable in developing Asia, examining the extent to which these social services favor the poor as well as the policy challenges to a more equitable delivery of these services. Finally, these country studies provide evidence–based policy recommendations to improve equity in social service delivery in developing countries. Achieving social equity has long been an important policy goal. There are relatively few studies on equity. This book aims to help fill this gap with an in-depth analysis of the issues associated with equity, covering its concept, measurement, and policy practices and implications.

Transport Access Manual

Transport Access Manual
Author: Cotam
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 230
Release: 2020-12-16
ISBN 10: 9781715886578
ISBN 13: 1715886577
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transport Access Manual Book Review:

Transportation and Health

Transportation and Health
Author: Mark Nieuwenhuijsen,Haneen Khreis
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2020-04
ISBN 10: 0128191368
ISBN 13: 9780128191361
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transportation and Health Book Review:

Transportation and Health provides state-of-the-art knowledge on the many linkages between transport and health, the available tools needed to estimate and evaluate the health impacts of transport, future technologies, the developments that can change the direction and magnitude of the health impacts, and the policy and education issues that can result in better practice and knowledge translation. The book provides valuable information on how and why to take health into consideration in transport planning and policy, showing how to estimate the impacts of transport on health in planning, policymaking, education and workforce development.

CITY HUBs

CITY HUBs
Author: Andres Monzon-de-Caceres,Floridea Di Ciommo
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2016-03-23
ISBN 10: 1498740855
ISBN 13: 9781498740852
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

CITY HUBs Book Review:

Explore the Design and Operation of Urban Transport Interchanges Transport planners throughout the world can implement a range of policies to influence travelers’ behavior, and encourage a move to public transport to achieve urban sustainability and social inclusion. At the same time population growth and urban sprawl exert their own pressures. Quality, accessible and reliable public transport through intermodal trips provides a solution. More than 20% of current commuting trips in Europe are intermodal, and typically between 20% and 30% of trip time is spent in intermodal transfer. Interchange stations are becoming important parts of city infrastructure where people spend time on social or economic activities. Includes Contributions from Numerous Experts in the Field CITY-HUBs: Sustainable and Efficient Urban Transport Interchanges focuses on urban transport interchanges from more than 20 European researchers demonstrates why transport interchanges are crucial for a seamless public transport system. It is based on a broad consultation process to stakeholders of 26 interchanges in 10 different countries, and on tailored surveys to travelers in five of them. It shows travelers how to reduce the negative aspects of transfer by improving information provision and by delivering convenient services and facilities. The book outlines the required steps from interchange planning to operation, and defines the functions, the design of the space for transfer, stay and services, and assesses the needs for different types of interchange. It introduces the evaluation of urban and economic impacts and the identification of users’ perceptions to improve interchange efficiency. The most important factors from the user point of view are safety and security, transfer conditions, information, design, services and facilities, environmental quality and comfort. These define the efficiency of the interchange from two different perspectives: as a transport node and as a place. Packed with relevant data and offering step-by-step instruction, this book: Proposes innovative operating strategies for an intermodal services organization (i.e. innovative business model) Explores pilot and test case studies for defining interchanges good practice, and tests them in validation case studies Sets out urban planning guidelines for urban integration of a transport interchange As an advanced guide CITY-HUBs: Sustainable and Efficient Urban Transport Interchanges caters to transport operators, authorities, end-users’ organizations and policy makers who are challenged to implement new urban interchanges or to upgrade them.

Advancing Accessibility

Advancing Accessibility
Author: Anson Forest Stewart
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 220
Release: 2017
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1003292864
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advancing Accessibility Book Review:

After decades of academic research, urban accessibility metrics are beginning to see adoption in transportation and metropolitan planning practice. Such metrics capture the potential for reaching destinations enabled by transport (e.g. number of jobs available within a given commute time), not just the mobility benefits accruing from the use of transport (e.g. time and emissions reductions for a given commute), and have well-established advantages. From a transportation equity perspective, for example, measuring the potential for reaching destinations instead of actual travel avoids bias against groups who travel infrequently due to current or historical barriers to access. This dissertation elaborates on how accessibility concepts complement theories of urban planning and social space before considering two related extensions of accessibility metrics for public transport planning. First, drawing on collaborative planning literature, and using mixed-methods including pre-test/post-test survey designs, various versions of interactive mapping tools were tested in public workshop settings. The outcomes of these workshops suggest that accessibility concepts can improve public involvement in transit planning. Suitability for broad public participation applications, however, requires accessibility to be easily customizable and tailored to constraints that users find salient. Constrained accessibility metrics are the second focus of this dissertation. Adjusting accessibility metrics to account for unreliability in actual transit operations, matching and competition in destination opportunities (e.g. jobs), and capacity in transit networks, may help align these metrics more closely with users' personal experience. Spatial analysis techniques are used to implement some of these adjustments and show that they strengthen correlations with broader urban outcomes of interest, such as employment and use of healthcare resources. The concluding part of the dissertation discusses how these findings can inform substantive and procedural dimensions of public transport planning and urban policy.

New Methods Reflections and Application Domains in Transport Appraisal

New Methods  Reflections and Application Domains in Transport Appraisal
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 306
Release: 2021-04-28
ISBN 10: 0323855601
ISBN 13: 9780323855600
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Methods Reflections and Application Domains in Transport Appraisal Book Review:

New Methods, Reflections and Application Domains in Transport Appraisal, Volume 7 in the Advances in Transport Policy and Planning series, assesses both successful and unsuccessful practices and policies from around the world. Chapters in this new release include Evaluating transport equity, Participatory Value Evaluation, Sustainability assessment of transport policies, plans and projects, Deliberative appraisal methods, Appraisal methods of public transport projects, Appraisal of cycling and pedestrian projects, Appraisal of Freight Project, Project appraisal methods: tools for optimizing or for informed political debate?, and Research agenda for appraisal methods. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Advances in Transport Policy and Planning series

Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Transport Economics and Policy

Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Transport Economics and Policy
Author: Chris Nash
Publsiher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2015-09-25
ISBN 10: 0857937936
ISBN 13: 9780857937933
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Transport Economics and Policy Book Review:

Transport economics and policy analysis is a field which has seen major advances in methodology in recent decades, covering issues such as estimating cost functions, modelling of demand, dealing with externalities, examining industry ownership and structure, pricing and investment decisions and measuring economic impacts. This Handbook contains reviews of all these methods, with an emphasis on practical applications, commissioned from an international cast of experts in the field.

The Transport System and Transport Policy

The Transport System and Transport Policy
Author: Bert van Wee,Jan Anne Annema,David Banister
Publsiher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Total Pages: 399
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 0857936905
ISBN 13: 9780857936905
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Transport System and Transport Policy Book Review:

ÔThis very interesting book provides an excellent multi-disciplinary introduction into the functioning of transport systems and the interaction with their environments.Õ Ð Erik Verhoef, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands ÔThe editors of this important book have clearly identified that few writings on transport treat the transport system as a whole. Implicit in this is a need for a genuinely multidisciplinary approach. An impressive list of contributors ensures that the book draws on the latest research whilst providing new insights into some of the key challenges facing transport students and researchers, transport providers and policy makers.Õ Ð Roger Vickerman, University of Kent, UK ÔSince ancient times transportation has brought our world together. But the need for connectivity and accessibility in a spatially differentiated world has prompted the emergence of very complex transportation systems. This book offers a fresh and operational contribution to a better understanding of the complexity and manageability of a mobile world, by addressing in a balanced way both conceptual and applied or policy aspects of modern transportation systems.Õ Ð Peter Nijkamp, Free University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands Transport impacts on people and businesses in many different ways, and presents some of the key problems that decision-makers need to address. This comprehensive textbook introduces the transport system in a holistic and multidisciplinary way, bringing together the myriad components of transport. This textbook is written for an international readership of undergraduate and postgraduate students in transport and related subjects, as well as for professionals and policy decision-makers across both public and private sectors. Key features include: ¥ Discussion of the importance of transport accessibility and the impacts of transport on the environment and safety ¥ Policy issues relating to all of the discussed issues and prescribed future options. ¥ Transport evaluation methods and modelling approaches. ¥ Examples to highlight the linkages between components of the transport system Ð for example infrastructures, land-use, vehicle technologies Ð and the relevance of these linkages for decision making.

The Evaluation of Transportation Investment Projects

The Evaluation of Transportation Investment Projects
Author: Joseph Berechman
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 22
Release: 2010-05-26
ISBN 10: 1135214077
ISBN 13: 9781135214074
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Evaluation of Transportation Investment Projects Book Review:

Throughout the world, the use of some kind of a formal transportation project evaluation procedure is a requirement. Yet, by and large, these are partial; in fact, much weight is often placed on the initial -pre-engineering -phases of the planning process, when vital information, such as accurate costs and demand projections, is largely missing. Moreover, many of these procedures neglect to consider key issues such as project’s risks, capital costs financing, latent demand, market imperfections, labor force availability and various incompatibilities between trip rates, travel times and activity location. As a result, projects, which are judged as viable under such deficient evaluation schemes, may have had a significantly different projection of capital costs and demand should a well-founded, thorough, and efficient evaluation process be used. Against this background, this book’s main objective is to construct a comprehensive and methodical economic, planning and decision-making framework for the evaluation of proposed transportation infrastructure investment projects. Such a framework is founded on four key principles. It is based on well-established economic, transportation and policy-analysis theoretical principles; it is comprehensive enough to encompass all relevant evaluation issues; it is applicable to a wide range of transportation investment projects; and it is amenable to empirical application including a sensitivity analysis and alternative scenarios regarding urban, regional and national developments.

Big Data Analytics in Traffic and Transportation Engineering Emerging Research and Opportunities

Big Data Analytics in Traffic and Transportation Engineering  Emerging Research and Opportunities
Author: Moridpour, Sara,Toran Pour, Alireza,Saghapour, Tayebeh
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 188
Release: 2019-01-11
ISBN 10: 1522579443
ISBN 13: 9781522579441
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Big Data Analytics in Traffic and Transportation Engineering Emerging Research and Opportunities Book Review:

Recent research reveals that socioeconomic factors of the neighborhoods where road users live and where pedestrian-vehicle crashes occur are important in determining the severity of the crashes, with the former having a greater influence. Hence, road safety countermeasures, especially those focusing on the road users, should be targeted at these high risk neighborhoods. Big Data Analytics in Traffic and Transportation Engineering: Emerging Research and Opportunities is an essential reference source that discusses access to transportation and examines vehicle-pedestrian crashes, specifically in relation to socioeconomic factors that influence them, main predictors, factors that contribute to crash severity, and the enhancement of pedestrian safety measures. Featuring research on topics such as public transport, accessibility, and spatial distribution, this book is ideally designed for policymakers, transportation engineers, road safety designers, transport planners and managers, professionals, academicians, researchers, and public administrators.

The Economics of Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequalities

The Economics of Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequalities
Author: World Health Organization
Publsiher: World Health Organization
Total Pages: 124
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 9241548622
ISBN 13: 9789241548625
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Economics of Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequalities Book Review:

"This resource book discusses the economic arguments that could (and could not) be put forth to support the case for investing in the social determinants of health on average and in the reduction in socially determined health inequalities. It provides an overview and introduction into how economists would approach the assessment of the economic motivation to invest in the social determinants of health and socially determined health inequities, including what the major challenges are in this assessment. It illustrates the extent to which an economic argument can be made in favour of investment in 3 major social determinants of health areas: education, social protection, and urban development and infrastructure. It describes whether education policy, social protection, and urban development, housing and transport policy can act as health policy"--

Transportation Decision Making

Transportation Decision Making
Author: Kumares C. Sinha,Samuel Labi
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2011-09-09
ISBN 10: 1118169662
ISBN 13: 9781118169667
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transportation Decision Making Book Review:

This pioneering text provides a holistic approach to decisionmaking in transportation project development and programming, whichcan help transportation professionals to optimize their investmentchoices. The authors present a proven set of methodologies forevaluating transportation projects that ensures that all costs andimpacts are taken into consideration. The text's logical organization gets readers started with asolid foundation in basic principles and then progressively buildson that foundation. Topics covered include: Developing performance measures for evaluation, estimatingtravel demand, and costing transportation projects Performing an economic efficiency evaluation that accounts forsuch factors as travel time, safety, and vehicle operatingcosts Evaluating a project's impact on economic development and landuse as well as its impact on society and culture Assessing a project's environmental impact, including airquality, noise, ecology, water resources, and aesthetics Evaluating alternative projects on the basis of multipleperformance criteria Programming transportation investments so that resources can beoptimally allocated to meet facility-specific and system-widegoals Each chapter begins with basic definitions and concepts followedby a methodology for impact assessment. Relevant legislation isdiscussed and available software for performing evaluations ispresented. At the end of each chapter, readers are providedresources for detailed investigation of particular topics. Theseinclude Internet sites and publications of international anddomestic agencies and research institutions. The authors alsoprovide a companion Web site that offers updates, data foranalysis, and case histories of project evaluation and decisionmaking. Given that billions of dollars are spent each year ontransportation systems in the United States alone, and that thereis a need for thorough and rational evaluation and decision makingfor cost-effective system preservation and improvement, this textshould be on the desks of all transportation planners, engineers,and educators. With exercises in every chapter, this text is anideal coursebook for the subject of transportation systems analysisand evaluation.