Low Carbon Energy Technologies in Sustainable Energy Systems

Low Carbon Energy Technologies in Sustainable Energy Systems
Author: Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 418
Release: 2021-01-08
ISBN 10: 0128230878
ISBN 13: 9780128230879
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Low Carbon Energy Technologies in Sustainable Energy Systems Book Review:

Low Carbon Energy Technologies for Sustainable Energy Systems examines, investigates, and integrates current research aimed at operationalizing low carbon technologies within complex transitioning energy economies. Scholarly research has traditionally focused on the technical aspects of exploitation, R&D, operation, infrastructure, and decommissioning, while approaches which can realistically inform their reception and scale-up across real societies and real markets are piecemeal and isolated in separate literatures. Addressing both the technical foundations of each technology together with the sociotechnical ways in which they are spread in markets and societies, this work integrates the technoeconomic assessment of low carbon technologies with direct discussion on legislative and regulatory policies in energy markets. Chapters address issues, such as social acceptance, consumer awareness, environmental valuation systems, and the circular economy, as low carbon technologies expand into energy systems sustainability, sensitivity, and stability. This collective research work is relevant to both researchers and practitioners working in sustainable energy systems. The combination of these features makes it a timely book that is useful and attractive to university students, researchers, academia, and public or private energy policy makers. Combines socio-cultural perspectives, environmental sustainability, and economic feasibility in the analysis of low carbon energy technologies Assesses regulatory governance impacting the environmental protection and the social cohesion of environmentally-directed energy markets Reviews the carbon trade exchange, attributing economic value to carbon and enabling its trading perspectives by people, companies or countries invested in low carbon technologies

Technological Learning in the Transition to a Low Carbon Energy System

Technological Learning in the Transition to a Low Carbon Energy System
Author: Martin Junginger,Atse Louwen
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 340
Release: 2019-11-22
ISBN 10: 012818762X
ISBN 13: 9780128187623
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Technological Learning in the Transition to a Low Carbon Energy System Book Review:

Technological Learning in the Transition to a Low-Carbon Energy System: Conceptual Issues, Empirical Findings, and Use in Energy Modeling quantifies key trends and drivers of energy technologies deployed in the energy transition. It uses the experience curve tool to show how future cost reductions and cumulative deployment of these technologies may shape the future mix of the electricity, heat and transport sectors. The book explores experience curves in detail, including possible pitfalls, and demonstrates how to quantify the 'quality' of experience curves. It discusses how this tool is implemented in models and addresses methodological challenges and solutions. For each technology, current market trends, past cost reductions and underlying drivers, available experience curves, and future prospects are considered. Electricity, heat and transport sector models are explored in-depth to show how the future deployment of these technologies--and their associated costs--determine whether ambitious decarbonization climate targets can be reached - and at what costs. The book also addresses lessons and recommendations for policymakers, industry and academics, including key technologies requiring further policy support, and what scientific knowledge gaps remain for future research. Provides a comprehensive overview of trends and drivers for major energy technologies expected to play a role in the energy transition Delivers data on cost trends, helping readers gain insights on how competitive energy technologies may become, and why Reviews the use of learning curves in environmental impacts for lifecycle assessments and energy modeling Features social learning for cost modeling and technology diffusion, including where consumer preferences play a major role

Energy 2050

Energy 2050
Author: Jim Skea,Paul Ekins,Mark Winskel
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2012-06-25
ISBN 10: 1136539980
ISBN 13: 9781136539985
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy 2050 Book Review:

The United Kingdom is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by at least eighty per cent by 2050, a target that will only be achieved by transforming the way that energy is supplied and used. At the same time there are anxieties about the security of energy provision in terms of European dependency on natural gas and the reliability of electricity supply. This book explores in detail those factors which could help or hinder the attainment of the UK's climate change targets, and how these factors interact with the parallel objective of maintaining a robust and secure energy system. The book is the result of a major national energy research effort by the UK Energy Research Centre, which includes some of the UK's leading energy experts. The results and recommendations are essential reading for policymakers, professionals, researchers, and anyone concerned with achieving large-scale reductions in carbon emissions, both from the UK and internationally. Energy 2050 begins by exploring the evolution of the UK energy system over recent decades: the trends, technologies and environmental impacts related to energy use, and the structures and institutions of governance that have influenced this evolution. It then moves on to changes in energy policy to emphasise decarbonization and resilience, and introduce the approach to scenarios and modelling used in the rest of the book. Later chapters explore different aspects of the uncertainties that may enable or constrain the creation of a low-carbon, resilient UK energy system, related to accelerated technology development, the creation of an infrastructure to support de-centralized energy and microgeneration, to lifestyle and behaviour change, and to public attitudes to wider environmental impacts associated with energy system change.

Low Carbon Energy Supply Technologies and Systems

Low Carbon Energy Supply Technologies and Systems
Author: Atul Sharma,Amritanshu Shukla,Renu Singh
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 326
Release: 2020-06-17
ISBN 10: 100006588X
ISBN 13: 9781000065886
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Low Carbon Energy Supply Technologies and Systems Book Review:

Future energy technologies must embrace and achieve sustainability by displacing fossil carbon-intensive energy consumption or capture/reuse/sequester fossil carbon. This book provides a deeper knowledge on individual low (and zero) carbon technologies in a comprehensive way, covering details of recent developments on these technologies in different countries. It also covers materials and processes involved in energy generation, transmission, distribution, storage, policies, and so forth, including solar electrical; thermal systems; energy from biomass and biofuels; energy transmission, distribution, and storage; and buildings using energy-efficient lighting.

The Power of Renewables

The Power of Renewables
Author: Chinese Academy of Engineering,Chinese Academy of Sciences,National Research Council,National Academy of Engineering,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on U.S.-China Cooperation on Electricity from Renewable Resources
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2011-01-29
ISBN 10: 0309160006
ISBN 13: 9780309160001
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Power of Renewables Book Review:

The United States and China are the world's top two energy consumers and, as of 2010, the two largest economies. Consequently, they have a decisive role to play in the world's clean energy future. Both countries are also motivated by related goals, namely diversified energy portfolios, job creation, energy security, and pollution reduction, making renewable energy development an important strategy with wide-ranging implications. Given the size of their energy markets, any substantial progress the two countries make in advancing use of renewable energy will provide global benefits, in terms of enhanced technological understanding, reduced costs through expanded deployment, and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to conventional generation from fossil fuels. Within this context, the U.S. National Academies, in collaboration with the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE), reviewed renewable energy development and deployment in the two countries, to highlight prospects for collaboration across the research to deployment chain and to suggest strategies which would promote more rapid and economical attainment of renewable energy goals. Main findings and concerning renewable resource assessments, technology development, environmental impacts, market infrastructure, among others, are presented. Specific recommendations have been limited to those judged to be most likely to accelerate the pace of deployment, increase cost-competitiveness, or shape the future market for renewable energy. The recommendations presented here are also pragmatic and achievable.

Low Carbon Energy Supply Technologies and Systems

Low Carbon Energy Supply Technologies and Systems
Author: Atul Sharma,Amritanshu Shukla,Renu Singh
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 326
Release: 2020-05-26
ISBN 10: 1000065863
ISBN 13: 9781000065862
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Low Carbon Energy Supply Technologies and Systems Book Review:

Future energy technologies must embrace and achieve sustainability by displacing fossil carbon-intensive energy consumption or capture/reuse/sequester fossil carbon. This book provides a deeper knowledge on individual low (and zero) carbon technologies in a comprehensive way, covering details of recent developments on these technologies in different countries. It also covers materials and processes involved in energy generation, transmission, distribution, storage, policies, and so forth, including solar electrical; thermal systems; energy from biomass and biofuels; energy transmission, distribution, and storage; and buildings using energy-efficient lighting.

Low Carbon Energy Supply

Low Carbon Energy Supply
Author: Atul Sharma,Amritanshu Shukla,Lu Aye
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 441
Release: 2018-06-29
ISBN 10: 9811073260
ISBN 13: 9789811073267
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Low Carbon Energy Supply Book Review:

This book focuses on recent trends in the areas of green and renewable energy, especially as applied to the carbon footprint of energy production, transmission, and use. Discussing the latest developments and advances in the materials and processes involved in energy generation, transmission, distribution and storage, with a particular focus on the management and policies related to these systems, it is a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in these areas.

Urban Energy Systems for Low Carbon Cities

Urban Energy Systems for Low Carbon Cities
Author: Ursula Eicker
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 473
Release: 2018-11-30
ISBN 10: 0128115548
ISBN 13: 9780128115541
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Urban Energy Systems for Low Carbon Cities Book Review:

With an increase of global energy demand arising in urban settlements, the key challenges for the urban energy transition include analysis of energy efficiency options and the potential of renewable energy systems within the existing building stock, making cities a key actor in the transition success. In Urban Energy Systems for Low Carbon Cities, indicators to evaluate urban energy performance are introduced and the status quo of monitoring and efficiency valuation schemes are discussed. The book discusses advances on the state-of-the-art of research in a number of key areas: Energy demand and consumption mapping and monitoring Optimization of design and operation of urban supply and distribution systems Integration of renewable energy and urban energy network models Demand side management strategies to better match renewable supply and demand and increase flexibilities With innovative modelling methods this book gives a real bottom-up modelling approach used for the simulation of energy consumption, energy conversion systems and distribution networks using engineering methods. Provides support and guidance on the energy transition issues relating to energy demand, consumption mapping and monitoring Includes examples from case study cities, including Vienna, Geneva, New York and Stuttgart Analyzes the potential of energy management strategies in urban areas

Emerging Research in Sustainable Energy and Buildings for a Low Carbon Future

Emerging Research in Sustainable Energy and Buildings for a Low Carbon Future
Author: Robert J. Howlett
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021
ISBN 10: 9811587752
ISBN 13: 9789811587757
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emerging Research in Sustainable Energy and Buildings for a Low Carbon Future Book Review:

Sustainable Energy Transitions

Sustainable Energy Transitions
Author: Dustin Mulvaney
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021
ISBN 10: 3030489124
ISBN 13: 9783030489120
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Energy Transitions Book Review:

Socio Technical Innovation for a Low Carbon Energy Future

Socio Technical Innovation for a Low Carbon Energy Future
Author: Nkiruka Ifunanya Avila
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 140
Release: 2018
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1083590839
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Socio Technical Innovation for a Low Carbon Energy Future Book Review:

This dissertation develops a set of analytical tools and conceptual frameworks to explore the socio-technical implications of transitioning to a low carbon energy future. The chapters here investigate the energy challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa and analyze power expansion pathways in Nigeria and Kenya, outline the development of a novel electricity modeling tool, and conceptualize an energy sovereignty framework to enable people-centered energy planning approaches. Chapter 2 presents an overview of Africa’s energy systems and the role renewable energy can play in supporting sustainable development in Africa, with a main focus on the challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa. I synthesize the most prominent papers in the past five years. I review the literature concerning the scale of generation expansion needed to achieve universal access in the region, the challenges of power sector finance, and the need for people-centered planning paradigms. Through an extensive literature review, I assess the capacity expansion needs of the region and highlight the policy lessons that enable private power sector investment such as transparent regulatory and procurement policies. I also present a critique of the socio-political implications of increased foreign investment in the region’s power sector. Finally, I present several studies that explore the need for people-centered planning approaches in order to achieve more equitable energy systems for all. I argue that renewable energy presents opportunities to achieve power systems expansion in an economically, environmentally and socially sustainable manner. To do this, Sub-Saharan Africa must adapt its planning strategies to holistically address the technical, economic and socio-political challenges it faces. Chapter 3 takes a deep-dive from an overview of Sub-Saharan Africa to a focus on Nigeria. I develop a first-order capacity expansion model to analyze power expansion scenarios in Nigeria. Nigeria serves as a case of countries with significant electricity demand growth that is constrained by under-developed grid infrastructure. I illustrate how the dependence on natural gas for generation has stifled the nation’s power supply, assess the role of renewable energy in meeting the nation’s electricity demand growth, and compare the cost of its current power generation expansion pathways to cost-optimized pathways. Using the capacity expansion model, I find that Nigeria’s current energy policy, known as Vision 30:30:30, perpetuates this heavy reliance on natural gas and significantly underestimates the role of solar energy in the future electricity mix. I also identify and assess lower cost alternative pathways which do not require any coal and nuclear generation expansion unlike the Vision 30:30:30 pathway. The results show that Nigeria will have to install at least an additional 38 GW by 2030 to keep up with grid-based demand growth alone - about eight times the current operational capacity. This chapter reveals Nigeria’s need for an energy policy reform that reduces its dependency on natural gas, eschews coal and nuclear expansion, and harnesses its abundant solar potential using centralized and distributed renewable energy technologies. Chapter 4 outlines my development of a novel open-access electricity modeling tool known as PROGRESS (Programmable Resource Optimization for Growth in Renewable Energy and Sustainable Systems). PROGRESS enables generation expansion modeling for countries with low availability and access to power systems data. The design of sustainable electricity systems needed to fuel development in regions with low electrification rates (such as Sub-Saharan Africa) requires context-specific power system modeling. Modeling data requirements for these regions, however, can be challenging for researchers and other stakeholders to access. This chapter presents a proof-of-concept description to show how PROGRESS works and then presents preliminary results for generation capacity expansion using the case of Kenya. Chapter 5 presents what is, for me, the most critical aspect of this dissertation. I explore how transitioning to low carbon energy systems and achieving universal electricity access will require not only an extensive redesign of the existing energy infrastructure but also a rethinking of energy planning approaches. I argue that innovation in decentralized and distributed energy technology transforms people from mere consumers to prosumers by empowering them to plan for their energy autonomously. I aim to connect the rise of prosumers with long-standing social movements that call for just, fair and sustainable energy systems. I draw from a rich literature of socio-energy concepts that aim to incorporate social and human dimensions into energy planning. I focus on energy justice, energy democracy, and I introduce energy sovereignty. I synthesize how these concepts together emphasize critical considerations for energy planning: “energy for whom, for what, and at whose costs?” I also introduce an additional consideration: “energy by whom?” and I conceptualize its framework in relation to electricity provision. I propose that “energy by whom?” is an essential question for re-envisioning a new energy paradigm and designing a low-carbon energy future. Overall, this dissertation contributes analytical and conceptual tools for low carbon energy systems, which together provide novel socio-technical approaches for planning towards a low carbon energy future, and urge on the paradigm shift to just and sustainable energy for all.

Sustainable Food Waste to Energy Systems

Sustainable Food Waste to Energy Systems
Author: Thomas Trabold,Callie W. Babbitt
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 292
Release: 2018-09-05
ISBN 10: 0128111585
ISBN 13: 9780128111581
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Food Waste to Energy Systems Book Review:

Sustainable Food Waste-to-Energy Systems assesses the utilization of food waste in sustainable energy conversion systems. It explores all sources of waste generated in the food supply chain (downstream from agriculture), with coverage of industrial, commercial, institutional and residential sources. It provides a detailed analysis of the conventional pathways for food waste disposal and utilization, including composting, incineration, landfilling and wastewater treatment. Next, users will find valuable sections on the chemical, biochemical and thermochemical waste-to-energy conversion processes applicable for food waste and an assessment of commercially available sustainable food waste-to-energy conversion technologies. Sustainability aspects, including consideration of environmental, economic and social impacts are also explored. The book concludes with an analysis of how deploying waste-to-energy systems is dependent on cross-cutting research methods, including geographical information systems and big data. It is a useful resource for professionals working in waste-to-energy technologies, as well as those in the food industry and food waste management sector planning and implementing these systems, but is also ideal for researchers, graduate students, energy policymakers and energy analysts interested in the most recent advances in the field. Provides guidance on how specific food waste characteristics drive possible waste-to-energy conversion processes Presents methodologies for selecting among different waste-to-energy options, based on waste volumes, distribution and properties, local energy demand (electrical/thermal/steam), opportunities for industrial symbiosis, regulations and incentives and social acceptance, etc. Contains tools to assess potential environmental and economic performance of deployed systems Links to publicly available resources on food waste data for energy conversion

Sustainable Energy for All

Sustainable Energy for All
Author: David Ockwell,Rob Byrne
Publsiher: Taylor & Francis
Total Pages: 214
Release: 2016-08-19
ISBN 10: 131722051X
ISBN 13: 9781317220510
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Energy for All Book Review:

Despite decades of effort and billions of dollars spent, two thirds of people in sub-Saharan Africa still lack access to electricity, a vital pre-cursor to economic development and poverty reduction. Ambitious international policy commitments seek to address this, but scholarship has failed to keep pace with policy ambitions, lacking both the empirical basis and the theoretical perspective to inform such transformative policy aims. Sustainable Energy for All aims to fill this gap. Through detailed historical analysis of the Kenyan solar PV market the book demonstrates the value of a new theoretical perspective based on Socio-Technical Innovation System Building. Importantly, the book goes beyond a purely academic critique to detail exactly how a Socio-Technical Innovation System Building approach might be operationalized in practice, facilitating both a detailed plan for future comparative research as well as a clear agenda for policy and practice. These plans are based on a systemic perspective that is more fit for purpose to inform transformative policy ambitions like the UN’s Sustainable Energy for All by 2030 initiative and to underpin pro-poor pathways in sustainable energy access. This book will be of interest to academic researchers, policy makers and practitioners in the field of sustainable energy access and low carbon development more broadly.

The Political Economy of Clean Energy Transitions

The Political Economy of Clean Energy Transitions
Author: Douglas Jay Arent,Channing Arndt,Mackay Miller,Finn Tarp,Owen Zinaman
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 594
Release: 2017
ISBN 10: 0198802242
ISBN 13: 9780198802242
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Political Economy of Clean Energy Transitions Book Review:

A volume on the political economy of clean energy transition in developed and developing regions, with a focus on the issues that different countries face as they transition from fossil fuels to lower carbon technologies.

Use of Renewable Energies in Greenhouses

Use of Renewable Energies in Greenhouses
Author: Ioannis S Vourdoubas
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2021-04-20
ISBN 10: 9781636481746
ISBN 13: 1636481744
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Use of Renewable Energies in Greenhouses Book Review:

Agricultural greenhouses are energy intensive food production systems. The majority of them use fossil fuels and electricity mainly derived by them while renewable energies have limited applications in greenhouses so far. The necessity to mitigate climate change requires the replacement of fossil fuels with renewable energies and low carbon energy technologies. Due to current advances in benign energy technologies many of them are now mature, reliable and cost efficient. They can be used in greenhouses providing heat, cooling and electricity. Application of sustainable energy technologies in greenhouses results in many economic, environmental and social benefits. Utilization of endogenous renewable energy resources replacing fossil fuels is beneficial in many countries. Manufacturing and installing renewable energy systems assists the growth of local energy companies while the production of fuels based on local biomass resources helps the growth of local enterprises. The first part of the book includes eight papers focused on applications of renewable energy technologies in greenhouses. The sustainable energy technologies mentioned in the first part of the book include the use of solid biomass, biogas, opaque and semi-transparent solar-PVs, wind turbines, fuel cells and industrial waste heat reuse. The second part of the book comprises eight papers concerning the possibility of vegetables and electricity co-production, the economic and environmental assessment of renewable energies use and the possibility of creating net zero carbon emissions greenhouses due to energy use. Use of benign energy technologies in food production systems complies with European and global targets for climate change mitigation as well as with the European target to become carbon neutral continent by 2050. The book covers an existing gap regarding the overall presentation of many sustainable energy technologies that are either used in greenhouses or they could be used in the future. It is useful to greenhouse owners as well as to engineers and energy companies. It is also useful to local authorities and policy makers who are developing sustainable energy plans reducing the carbon footprint in agriculture.

Low Energy Low Carbon Architecture

Low Energy Low Carbon Architecture
Author: Khaled Al-Sallal
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 348
Release: 2016-05-05
ISBN 10: 1315624028
ISBN 13: 9781315624020
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Low Energy Low Carbon Architecture Book Review:

Providing a complete and in-depth overview of the available knowledge in the area of low energy and low carbon architecture. The scope of this edited book includes several important topics ranging from chapters giving a broad view of the progressing models in ecologically responsible environments to other chapters focussing on recent advances in de

Sustainable Air Conditioning Systems

Sustainable Air Conditioning Systems
Author: Chaouki Ghenai,Tareq Salameh
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 150
Release: 2018-06-13
ISBN 10: 1789233003
ISBN 13: 9781789233001
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Air Conditioning Systems Book Review:

Air conditioning system is one of the major consumers of electrical energy in many parts of the world today. It represents between 40 and 70% of the energy consumption in commercial buildings. The demand of energy for air conditioning systems is expected to increase further in the next decades due to the population growth, the new economic boom, and the urbanization development. The rapid growth of air conditioning and electricity consumption will contribute further to climate change if fossil and nonrenewable resources are used. More energy-efficient and renewable energy-based air conditioning systems to accomplish space cooling are needed. This book intends to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art in sustainable air conditioning technologies and focus on the most recent research and development on green air conditioning systems including energy-efficient and renewable energy-based air conditioning systems.

Energy Technology Perspectives 2016

Energy Technology Perspectives 2016
Author: International Energy Agency
Publsiher: Energy Technology Perspectives
Total Pages: 418
Release: 2016-06-13
ISBN 10: 9789264252349
ISBN 13: 9264252347
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Technology Perspectives 2016 Book Review:

The agreement reached at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris could prove to be a historic turning point for reversing the currently unsustainable trends in the global energy system, provided that this heightened low-carbon ambition is translated into fast, radical and effective policy action. Even in the context of low fossil fuel prices, policy support for low-carbon technologies should mobilise all levers available to accelerate research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD & D) to make decarbonisation the preferred development path. Chief among such levers is governments support for urban energy transitions, a conclusion that is supported by the analysis of Energy Technology Perspectives 2016 (ETP 2016), which shows the vast number and size of cost-effective, sustainable energy opportunities available in cities. Realising this potential, and the multiple non-climate benefits it presents, will require national and local governments to work together effectively

Sustainable Energy

Sustainable Energy
Author: D. Elliott
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 285
Release: 2007-07-31
ISBN 10: 0230378382
ISBN 13: 9780230378384
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Energy Book Review:

In this timely book, leading authors explore the technologies that might help us to develop a sustainable energy future, emphasising renewable energy and the political and economic context needed for them to prosper. This collection makes hard-headed assessments of what is possible and what is not.

Low Carbon Energy Transitions

Low Carbon Energy Transitions
Author: Kathleen Araujo,Kathleen M. Araújo
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2017
ISBN 10: 0199362556
ISBN 13: 9780199362554
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Low Carbon Energy Transitions Book Review:

The world is at a pivotal crossroad in energy choices. There is a strong sense that our use of energy must be more sustainable. Moreover, many also broadly agree that a way must be found to rely increasingly on lower carbon energy sources. However, no single or clear solution exists on the means to carry out such a shift at either a national or international level. Traditional energy planning (when done) has revolved around limited cost projections that often fail to take longer term evidence and interactions of a wider set of factors into account. The good news is that evidence does exist on such change in case studies of different nations shifting toward low-carbon energy approaches. In fact, such shifts can occur quite quickly at times, alongside industrial and societal advance, innovation, and policy learning. These types of insights will be important for informing energy debates and decision-making going forward. Low Carbon Energy Transitions: Turning Points in National Policy and Innovation takes an in-depth look at four energy transitions that have occurred since the global oil crisis of 1973: Brazilian biofuels, Danish wind power, French nuclear power, and Icelandic geothermal energy. With these cases, Dr. Ara�jo argues that significant nationwide shifts to low-carbon energy can occur in under fifteen years, and that technological complexity is not necessarily a major impediment to such shifts. Dr. Ara�jo draws on more than five years of research, and interviews with over 120 different scientists, government workers, academics, and members of civil society in completing this study. Low Carbon Energy Transitions is written for for professionals in energy, the environment and policy as well as for students and citizens who are interested in critical decisions about energy sustainability. Technology briefings are provided for each of the major technologies in this book, so that scientific and non-scientific readers can engage in more even discussions about the choices that are involved.