Introduction to Non equilibrium Physical Chemistry

Introduction to Non equilibrium Physical Chemistry
Author: R. P. Rastogi
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 356
Release: 2007-10-16
ISBN 10: 9780080551807
ISBN 13: 0080551807
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to Non equilibrium Physical Chemistry Book Review:

Introduction to Non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry presents a critical and comprehensive account of Non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry from theoretical and experimental angle. It covers a wide spectrum of non-equilibrium phenomena from steady state close to equilibrium to non-linear region involving transition to bistability, temporal oscillations, spatio-temporal oscillations and finally to far from equilibrium phenomena such as complex pattern formation, dynamic instability at interfaces, Chaos and complex growth phenomena (fractals) in Physico-chemical systems. Part I of the book deals with theory and experimental studies concerning transport phenomena in membranes (Thermo-osmosis,Electroosmotic ) and in continuous systems (Thermal diffusion,Soret effect) close to equilibrium Experimental tests provide insight into the domain of validity of Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics ,which is the major theoretical tool for this region. Later developments in Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics and Non-equilibrium Molecular dynamics have been discussed in the Appendix. Part II deals with non-linear steady states and bifurcation to multistability, temporal and spatio- temporal oscillations (Chemical waves). Similarly Part II deals with more complex phenomena such as Chaos and fractal growth occurring in very far from equilibrium region. Newer mathematical techniques for investigating such phenomena along with available experimental studies. Part IV deals with analogous non-equilibrium phenomena occurring in the real systems (Socio-political, Finance and Living systems etc.) for which physico-chemical systems discussed in earlier chapters provide a useful model for development of theories based on non-linear science and science of complexity. The book provides a critical account of theoretical studies on non-equilibrium phenomenon from region close to equilibrium to far equilibrium Experimental studies have been reported which provide test of the theories and their limitations Impacts of the concepts developed in non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry in sociology, economics and other social science and living systems has been discussed

Introduction to Non equilibrium Quantum Statistical Mechanics

Introduction to Non equilibrium Quantum Statistical Mechanics
Author: Shigeji Fujita
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 165
Release: 1966
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015001330664
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to Non equilibrium Quantum Statistical Mechanics Book Review:

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics
Author: Yasar Demirel
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 792
Release: 2013-12-16
ISBN 10: 0444595813
ISBN 13: 9780444595812
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Book Review:

Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, Third Edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapter on stochastic approaches to include the statistical thermodynamics, mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamics, fluctuation theory, information theory, and modeling the coupled biochemical systems in thermodynamic analysis. This new addition also comes with more examples and practice problems. Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field Contributions from leading authorities and industry experts A useful text for seniors and graduate students from diverse engineering and science programs to analyze some nonequilibrium, coupled, evolutionary, stochastic, and dissipative processes Highlights fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics, transport processes and chemical reactions Expands the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its use in coupled transport processes and chemical reactions in physical, chemical, and biological systems Presents a unified analysis for transport and rate processes in various time and space scales Discusses stochastic approaches in thermodynamic analysis including fluctuation and information theories Has 198 fully solved examples and 287 practice problems An Instructor Resource containing the Solution Manual can be obtained from the author: [email protected]

Extended Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics

Extended Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics
Author: Hatim Machrafi
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 211
Release: 2019-02-21
ISBN 10: 1351021931
ISBN 13: 9781351021937
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Extended Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics Book Review:

Extended Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics provides powerful tools departing not from empirical or statistical considerations but from fundamental thermodynamic laws, proposing final solutions that are readily usable and recognizable for students, researchers and industry. The book deals with methods that allow combining easily the present theory with other fields of science, such as fluid and solid mechanics, heat and mass transfer processes, electricity and thermoelectricity, and so on. Not only are such combinations facilitated, but they are incorporated into the developments in such a way that they become part of the theory. This book aims at providing for a systematic presentation of Extended Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in nanosystems with a high degree of applicability. Furthermore, the book deals with how physical properties of systems behave as a function of their size. Moreover, it provides for a systematic approach to understand the behavior of thermal, electrical, thermoelectric, photovoltaic and nanofluid properties in nanosystems. Experimental results are used to validate the theory, the comparison is analysed, justified and discussed, and the theory is then again used to understand better experimental observations. The new developments in this book, being recognizable in relation with familiar concepts, should make it appealing for academics and researchers to teach and apply and graduate students to use. The text in this book is intended to bring attention to how the theory can be applied to real-life applications in nanoscaled environments. Case studies, and applications of theories, are explored including thereby nanoporous systems, solar panels, nanomedicine drug permeation and properties of nanoporous scaffolds. Explores new generalized thermodynamic models Provides introductory context of Extended Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics within classical thermodynamics, theoretical fundamentals and several applications in nanosystems Provides for a systematic approach to understand the behavior of thermal, electric, thermoelectric and viscous properties as a function of several parameters in nanosystems Includes reflections to encourage the reader to think further and put the information into context Examines future developments of new constitutive equations and theories and places them in the framework of real-life applications in the energetic and medical sectors, such as photovoltaic and thermoelectric devices, nanoporous media, drug delivery and scaffolds

Understanding Non equilibrium Thermodynamics

Understanding Non equilibrium Thermodynamics
Author: Georgy Lebon,David Jou
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 326
Release: 2008-01-12
ISBN 10: 9783540742524
ISBN 13: 3540742522
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Understanding Non equilibrium Thermodynamics Book Review:

Discover the many facets of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The first part of this book describes the current thermodynamic formalism recognized as the classical theory. The second part focuses on different approaches. Throughout the presentation, the emphasis is on problem-solving applications. To help build your understanding, some problems have been analyzed using several formalisms to underscore their differences and their similarities.

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics
Author: Sybren Ruurds de Groot,Peter Mazur
Publsiher: Courier Corporation
Total Pages: 510
Release: 1984-01-01
ISBN 10: 9780486647418
ISBN 13: 0486647412
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics Book Review:

Classic monograph treats the irreversible processes and phenomena of thermodynamics: non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Covers statistical foundations and applications of the field with special chapters on fluctuation theory, theory of stochastic processes, kinetic theory of gases, derivation of the Onsager reciprocal relations, more. 4 black-and-white illustrations.

An Introduction to Chaos in Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics

An Introduction to Chaos in Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics
Author: J. R. Dorfman
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 287
Release: 1999-08-28
ISBN 10: 9780521655897
ISBN 13: 0521655897
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

An Introduction to Chaos in Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics Book Review:

Introduction to applications and techniques in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of chaotic dynamics.

Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics

Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics
Author: Robert Zwanzig
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2001-05-17
ISBN 10: 0195140184
ISBN 13: 9780195140187
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics Book Review:

This is a presentation of the main ideas and methods of modern nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It is the perfect introduction for anyone in chemistry or physics who needs an update or background in this time-dependent field. Topics covered include fluctuation-dissipation theorem; linear response theory; time correlation functions, and projection operators. Theoretical models are illustrated by real-world examples and numerous applications such as chemical reaction rates and spectral line shapes are covered. The mathematical treatments are detailed and easily understandable and the appendices include useful mathematical methods like the Laplace transforms, Gaussian random variables and phenomenological transport equations.

Hydrodynamic Fluctuations in Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

Hydrodynamic Fluctuations in Fluids and Fluid Mixtures
Author: Jose M. Ortiz de Zarate,Jan V. Sengers
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2006-04-19
ISBN 10: 9780080459431
ISBN 13: 0080459439
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hydrodynamic Fluctuations in Fluids and Fluid Mixtures Book Review:

This book deals with density, temperature, velocity and concentration fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures. The book first reviews thermal fluctuations in equilibrium fluids on the basis of fluctuating hydrodynamics. It then shows how the method of fluctuating hydrodynamics can be extended to deal with hydrodynamic fluctuations when the system is in a stationary nonequilibrium state. In contrast to equilibrium fluids where the fluctuations are generally short ranged unless the system is close to a critical point, fluctuations in nonequilibrium fluids are always long-ranged encompassing the entire system. The book provides the first comprehensive treatment of fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures brought out of equilibrium by the imposition of a temperature and concentration gradient but that are still in a macroscopically quiescent state. By incorporating appropriate boundary conditions in the case of fluid layers, it is shown how fluctuating hydrodynamics affects the fluctuations close to the onset of convection. Experimental techniques of light scattering and shadowgraphy for measuring nonequilibrium fluctuations are elucidated and the experimental results thus far reported in the literature are reviewed. · Systematic exposition of fluctuating hydrodynamics and its applications · First book on nonequilibrium fluctuations in fluids · Fluctuating Boussinesq equations and nonequilibrium fluids · Fluid layers and onset of convection · Rayleigh scattering and Brillouin scattering in fluids · Shadowgraph technique for measuring fluctuations · Fluctuations near hydrodynamic instabilities

Synergetics

Synergetics
Author: Hermann Haken
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 325
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 3642963633
ISBN 13: 9783642963636
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Synergetics Book Review:

The spontaneous formation of well organized structures out of germs or even out of chaos is one of the most fascinating phenomena and most challenging problems scientists are confronted with. Such phenomena are an experience of our daily life when we observe the growth of plants and animals. Thinking of much larger time scales, scientists are led into the problems of evolution, and, ultimately, of the origin of living matter. When we try to explain or understand in some sense these extremely complex biological phenomena it is a natural question, whether pro cesses of self-organization may be found in much simpler systems of the un animated world. In recent years it has become more and more evident that there exist numerous examples in physical and chemical systems where well organized spatial, temporal, or spatio-temporal structures arise out of chaotic states. Furthermore, as in living of these systems can be maintained only by a flux of organisms, the functioning energy (and matter) through them. In contrast to man-made machines, which are to exhibit special structures and functionings, these structures develop spon devised It came as a surprise to many scientists that taneously-they are self-organizing. numerous such systems show striking similarities in their behavior when passing from the disordered to the ordered state. This strongly indicates that the function of such systems obeys the same basic principles. In our book we wish to explain ing such basic principles and underlying conceptions and to present the mathematical tools to cope with them.

Nonlinear Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics II

Nonlinear Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics II
Author: Rouslan L. Stratonovich
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 225
Release: 2013-11-11
ISBN 10: 3662030705
ISBN 13: 9783662030707
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nonlinear Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics II Book Review:

This two-volume work gives the first detailed coherent treatment of a relatively young branch of statistical physics - nonlinear nonequilibrium and fluctuational dissipative thermodynamics. This area of research has taken shape rather recently: its de~elopment began in 1959. The earlier theory - linear nonequilibrium ther modynamics - is in principle a simple special case of the new theory. Despite the fact that the title of the book includes the word 'nonlinear', it also covers the results of linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The presentation of the linear and nonlinear theories is done within a common theoretical framework that is not subject to the linearity condition. The author hopes that the reader will perceive the intrinsic unjty of this dis cipline, the uniformity and generality of its constituent parts. This theory has a wide variety of applications in various domains of physics and physical chemistry, enabling one to calculate thermal fluctuations in various nonlinear systems. The book is divided into two volumes. Fluctuation-dissipation theorems (or relations) of various types (linear, quadratic and cubic, classical and quantum) are considered in the first volume. There one encounters the Markov and non-Markov fluctuation-dissipation theorems (FDTs), theorems of the first, second and third kinds. Nonlinear FDTs are less known than their linear counterparts. The present second volume of the book deals with the advanced theory. It consists of four chapters. The connection and interdependence of the material in the various chapters of both volumes are illustrated in the accompanying diagram.

Introduction to Statistical Mechanics

Introduction to Statistical Mechanics
Author: John Dirk Walecka
Publsiher: World Scientific Publishing Company
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2011-08-12
ISBN 10: 9813100613
ISBN 13: 9789813100619
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to Statistical Mechanics Book Review:

The science of statistical mechanics is concerned with defining the thermodynamic properties of a macroscopic sample in terms of the properties of the microscopic systems of which it is composed. The aim of this book is to provide a clear, logical, and self-contained treatment of equilibrium statistical mechanics starting from Boltzmann's two statistical assumptions, and to present a wide variety of applications to diverse physical assemblies. The coverage is enhanced and extended through an extensive set of accessible problems. An appendix provides an introduction to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics through the Boltzmann equation and its extensions. The book assumes introductory courses in classical and quantum mechanics, as well as familiarity with multi-variable calculus and the essentials of complex analysis. Some knowledge of thermodynamics is assumed, although the book starts with an appropriate review of that topic. The targeted audience is first-year graduate students, and advanced undergraduates, in physics, chemistry, and the related physical sciences. The goal of this text is to help the reader obtain a clear working knowledge of the very useful and powerful methods of equilibrium statistical mechanics and to enhance the understanding and appreciation of the more advanced texts.

Nonequilibrium Many Body Theory of Quantum Systems

Nonequilibrium Many Body Theory of Quantum Systems
Author: Gianluca Stefanucci,Robert van Leeuwen
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2013-03-07
ISBN 10: 1107354579
ISBN 13: 9781107354579
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nonequilibrium Many Body Theory of Quantum Systems Book Review:

The Green's function method is one of the most powerful and versatile formalisms in physics, and its nonequilibrium version has proved invaluable in many research fields. This book provides a unique, self-contained introduction to nonequilibrium many-body theory. Starting with basic quantum mechanics, the authors introduce the equilibrium and nonequilibrium Green's function formalisms within a unified framework called the contour formalism. The physical content of the contour Green's functions and the diagrammatic expansions are explained with a focus on the time-dependent aspect. Every result is derived step-by-step, critically discussed and then applied to different physical systems, ranging from molecules and nanostructures to metals and insulators. With an abundance of illustrative examples, this accessible book is ideal for graduate students and researchers who are interested in excited state properties of matter and nonequilibrium physics.

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics For Engineers Second Edition

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics For Engineers  Second Edition
Author: Signe Kjelstrup,Dick Bedeaux,Eivind Johannessen,Joachim Gross
Publsiher: World Scientific Publishing Company
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2017-02-15
ISBN 10: 9813200324
ISBN 13: 9789813200326
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics For Engineers Second Edition Book Review:

Kjelstrup, Bedeaux, Johannessen, and Gross describe what non-equilibrium thermodynamics is in a simple and practical way and how it can add to engineering design. They explain how to describe proper equations of transport that are more precise than those used so far, and how to use them to understand the waste of energy resources in central process units in the industry. The authors introduce the entropy balance as an additional equation to use in engineering; to create consistent thermodynamic models, and to systematically minimize energy losses that are connected with the transport of heat, mass, charge and momentum.Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics for Engineers teaches the essence of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications at a level comprehensible to engineering students, practitioner engineers, and scientists working on industrial problems. The book may be used as a textbook in basic engineering curricula or graduate courses.

An Introduction to the Physical Chemistry of Iron Steel Making

An Introduction to the Physical Chemistry of Iron   Steel Making
Author: Robert George Ward
Publsiher: London : Edward Arnold
Total Pages: 238
Release: 1962
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015000510589
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

An Introduction to the Physical Chemistry of Iron Steel Making Book Review:

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics
Author: Phil Attard
Publsiher: OUP Oxford
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2012-10-04
ISBN 10: 019163977X
ISBN 13: 9780191639777
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Non equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Book Review:

`Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics: Foundations and Applications' builds from basic principles to advanced techniques, and covers the major phenomena, methods, and results of time-dependent systems. It is a pedagogic introduction, a comprehensive reference manual, and an original research monograph. Uniquely, the book treats time-dependent systems by close analogy with their static counterparts, with most of the familiar results of equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics being generalized and applied to the non-equilibrium case. The book is notable for its unified treatment of thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, stochastic processes, and statistical mechanics, for its self-contained, coherent derivation of a variety of non-equilibrium theorems, and for its quantitative tests against experimental measurements and computer simulations. Systems that evolve in time are more common than static systems, and yet until recently they lacked any over-arching theory. 'Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics' is unique in its unified presentation of the theory of non-equilibrium systems, which has now reached the stage of quantitative experimental and computational verification. The novel perspective and deep understanding that this book brings offers the opportunity for new direction and growth in the study of time-dependent phenomena. 'Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics' is an invaluable reference manual for experts already working in the field. Research scientists from different disciplines will find the overview of time-dependent systems stimulating and thought-provoking. Lecturers in physics and chemistry will be excited by many fresh ideas and topics, insightful explanations, and new approaches. Graduate students will benefit from its lucid reasoning and its coherent approach, as well as from the chem12physof mathematical techniques, derivations, and computer algorithms.

An Introduction to Stochastic Processes and Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics

An Introduction to Stochastic Processes and Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics
Author: Horacio S Wio
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 232
Release: 1994-02-07
ISBN 10: 9814502650
ISBN 13: 9789814502658
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

An Introduction to Stochastic Processes and Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics Book Review:

The purpose of this textbook is to bring together, in a self-contained introductory form, the scattered material in the field of stochastic processes and statistical physics. It offers the opportunity of being acquainted with stochastic, kinetic and nonequilibrium processes. Although the research techniques in these areas have become standard procedures, they are not usually taught in the normal courses on statistical physics. For students of physics in their last year and graduate students who wish to gain an invaluable introduction on the above subjects, this book is a necessary tool. Contents:Stochastic Processes and the Master Equation:Stochastic ProcessesMarkovian ProcessesMaster EquationsKramers Moyal ExpansionBrownian Motion, Langevin and Fokker-Planck EquationsDistributions, BBGKY Hierarchy, Density Operator:Probability Density as a FluidBBGKY HierarchyMicroscopic Balance EquationsDensity OperatorLinear Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics and Onsager Relations:Onsager Regression to Equilibrium HypothesisOnsager RelationsMinimum Production of EntropyLinear Response Theory, Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem:Correlation Functions: Definitions and PropertiesLinear Response TheoryFluctuation-Dissipation TheoremInstabilities and Far from Equilibrium Phase-Transitions:Limit Cycles, Bifurcations, Symmetry BreakingNoise Induced TransitionsFormation and Propagation of Patterns in Far from Equilibrium Systems:Reaction-Diffusion Descriptions and Pattern FormationPattern Propagation Readership: Graduate students in physics and chemistry. keywords:Stochastic Processes;Langevin and Fokker-Planck Equations;Statistical Physics;Onsager Relations;Linear Response;Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics;Transport Processes;Noise Induced Transitions;Instabilities;Pattern Formation and Propagation “This book introduces ways to investigate nonequilibrium statistical physics, mainly via stochastic processes, and presents results achieved with such methodology … it is suitable for seminars directed towards relatively mature students in theoretical physics or applied mathematics.” H Muthsam “The present book is a good choice for a single book covering the field … suitable for undergraduate students in the last year and graduate students. They will find in it a suggestive introduction that motivates them to dig deeper into the field and to look for those topics omitted from the text … highly recommended to anyone interested in becoming acquainted with nonequilibrium statistical physics.” Journal of Statistical Physics

Nonequilibrium Sorption Under Physical and Chemical Heterogeneity

Nonequilibrium Sorption Under Physical and Chemical Heterogeneity
Author: Hakan Sirin
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 326
Release: 2001
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UCAL:X63031
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nonequilibrium Sorption Under Physical and Chemical Heterogeneity Book Review:

Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids

Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids
Author: Denis J. Evans,Gary P. Morriss
Publsiher: ANU E Press
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2007-08-01
ISBN 10: 1921313234
ISBN 13: 9781921313233
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids Book Review:

"There is a symbiotic relationship between theoretical nonequilibrium statistical mechanics on the one hand and the theory and practice of computer simulation on the other. Sometimes, the initiative for progress has been with the pragmatic requirements of computer simulation and at other times, the initiative has been with the fundamental theory of nonequilibrium processes. This book summarises progress in this field up to 1990"--Publisher's description.

Non equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics

Non equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics
Author: Halid Bikkin,Igor I. Lyapilin
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 371
Release: 2014-08-22
ISBN 10: 3110373009
ISBN 13: 9783110373004
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Non equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics Book Review:

This graduate textbook covers contemporary directions of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as well as classical methods of kinetics. Starting from phenomenological non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the kinetic equation method discussed and demonstrated with electrons and phonons in conducting crystals. Linear response theory as well as the non-equilibrium statistical operator and the master equation approach are discussed in the course of the book. With one of the main propositions being to avoid terms such as "obviously" and "it is easy to show", this treatise is an easy-to-read introduction into this traditional, yet vibrant field. Problems and their well-documented solutions included at appropriate points of the narrative allow the reader to actively develop essential parts of the theory himself. From the content: Phenomenological thermodynamics of irreversible processes Brownian motion Kinetic equations in non-equilibrium thermodynamics Kinetic equation for electrons and phonons in conducting crystals Theory of non-linear response to an external mechanical pertubation Non-equilibrium statistical operator method Response of a highly non-equilibrium system to a weakly measuring field Master equation approach