Interpreting Bone Lesions and Pathology for Forensic Practice

Interpreting Bone Lesions and Pathology for Forensic Practice
Author: Lucie Biehler-Gomez,Cristina Cattaneo
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2020-11-14
ISBN 10: 032385334X
ISBN 13: 9780323853347
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Interpreting Bone Lesions and Pathology for Forensic Practice Book Review:

Interpreting Bone Lesions and Pathology for Forensic Practice presents a concise description of the necessary steps for the differential diagnosis of disease and trauma on skeletal remains. Information obtained from the pathological reactions of bone can be fundamental for forensic dilemmas, ranging from identification to understanding trauma. The book's authors aim to provide reliable tools for the appropriate interpretation of lesions on bone through macroscopic, radiological, histological and biomolecular analyses on skeletal remains. Provides tools for the proper interpretation of bone pathology and lesions Presents content that is based on modern and documented case studies Includes bone pathological reactions that are crucial for interpreting trauma

Forensic Pathology

Forensic Pathology
Author: David Dolinak,Evan Matshes,Emma O. Lew
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 616
Release: 2005-04-08
ISBN 10: 0080470661
ISBN 13: 9780080470665
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Pathology Book Review:

Forensic Pathology is a comprehensive reference that uses a case-oriented format to address, explain and guide the reader through the varied topics encountered by forensic pathologists. Developed in response to a severe void in the literature, the book addresses topics ranging from medicolegal investigation of death to death scene investigation, forensic autopsy, and artifacts of resuscitation as well as complications of medical therapy, forensic osteology, forensic odontology, forensic photography, and death certification. The book includes various types of cases, including sudden natural death, asphyxia, motor vehicle collisions, death in custody, child abuse and elder abuse, acute psychiatric and emotional deaths, and pregnancy. It contains sample descriptions of pathological lesions which serve to aid pathologists in reporting their findings to law enforcement agencies, attorneys, and others involved in investigations of sudden death. The concepts outlined in the text are beautifully illustrated by large, colorful photographs. There are also "Do and Don’t" sections at the end of each chapter that provide guidance for handling the types of cases examined. This work will benefit not only experienced forensic pathologists, but also hospital pathologists who occasionally performs medicolegal autopsies; doctors in training; medical examiners; law enforcement personnel; crime scene investigators; attorneys; and fellows and students of the medical sciences. Large, colorful photographs which beautifully illustrate the concepts outlined in the text. Sample descriptions of pathological lesions which serve to aid pathologists in reporting their findings to law enforcement agencies, attorneys, and others involved in investigations of sudden death. 'Do and Don't' sections at the end of each chapter which provide guidance for handling the types of cases examined within preceding sections.

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains
Author: Donald J. Ortner
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 645
Release: 2003-01-10
ISBN 10: 9780080525631
ISBN 13: 0080525636
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains Book Review:

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. There is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern orthopaedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist about the skeletal manifestations of diseases that are rarely encountered in modern medical practice. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, this book provides essential text and materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. It also provides time depth to our understanding of the effect of disease on past human populations. Key Features *Comprehensive review of skeletal diseases encountered in archeological human remains * More than 1100 photographs and line drawings illustrating skeletal disease including both microscopic and gross features * Based on extensive research on skeletal paleopathology in many countries for over 35 years * Review of important theoretical issues in interpreting evidence of skeletal disease in archeological human populations

Ortner s Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains

Ortner s Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains
Author: Jane E. Buikstra
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 858
Release: 2019-01-29
ISBN 10: 0128099011
ISBN 13: 9780128099018
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ortner s Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains Book Review:

Ortner's Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains, Third Edition, provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of the pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. As ancient skeletal remains can reveal a treasure trove of information to the modern orthopedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist, this book presents a timely resource. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, it provides an essential text and material on bone pathology, thus helping improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. Presents a comprehensive review of the skeletal diseases encountered in archaeological human remains Includes more than 1100 photographs and line drawings illustrating skeletal diseases, including both microscopic and gross features Based on extensive research on skeletal paleopathology in many countries Reviews important theoretical issues on how to interpret evidence of skeletal disease in archaeological human populations

Forensic Anthropology and Medicine

Forensic Anthropology and Medicine
Author: Aurore Schmitt
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2007-11-09
ISBN 10: 1597450995
ISBN 13: 9781597450997
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Anthropology and Medicine Book Review:

Recent political, religious, ethnic, and racial conflicts, as well as mass disasters, have significantly helped to bring to light the almost unknown dis- pline of forensic anthropology. This science has become particularly useful to forensic pathologists because it aids in solving various puzzles, such as id- tifying victims and documenting crimes. On topics such as mass disasters and crimes against humanity, teamwork between forensic pathologists and for- sic anthropologists has significantly increased over the few last years. This relationship has also improved the study of routine cases in local medicolegal institutes. When human remains are badly decomposed, partially skelet- ized, and/or burned, it is particularly useful for the forensic pathologist to be assisted by a forensic anthropologist. It is not a one-way situation: when the forensic anthropologist deals with skeletonized bodies that have some kind of soft tissue, the advice of a forensic pathologist would be welcome. Forensic anthropology is a subspecialty/field of physical anthropology. Most of the background on skeletal biology was gathered on the basis of sk- etal remains from past populations. Physical anthropologists then developed an indisputable “know-how”; nevertheless, one must keep in mind that looking for a missing person or checking an assumed identity is quite a different matter. Pieces of information needed by forensic anthropologists require a higher level of reliability and accuracy than those granted in a general archaeological c- text. To achieve a positive identification, findings have to match with e- dence, particularly when genetic identification is not possible.

Forensic Anthropology

Forensic Anthropology
Author: Angi M. Christensen,Nicholas V. Passalacqua,Eric J. Bartelink
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2013-12-30
ISBN 10: 0124172903
ISBN 13: 9780124172906
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Anthropology Book Review:

Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice—winner of a 2015 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty) from The Text and Academic Authors Association—approaches forensic anthropology through an innovative style using current practices and real case studies drawn from the varied experiences, backgrounds, and practices of working forensic anthropologists. This text guides the reader through all aspects of human remains recovery and forensic anthropological analysis, presenting principles at a level that is appropriate for those new to the field, while at the same time incorporating evolutionary, biomechanical, and other theoretical foundations for the features and phenomena encountered in forensic anthropological casework. Attention is focused primarily on the most recent and scientifically valid applications commonly employed by working forensic anthropologists. Readers will therefore learn about innovative techniques in the discipline, and aspiring practitioners will be prepared by understanding the necessary background needed to work in the field today. Instructors and students will find Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice comprehensive, practical, and relevant to the modern discipline of forensic anthropology. Winner of a 2015 Most Promising New Textbook Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association Focuses on modern methods, recent advances in research and technology, and current challenges in the science of forensic anthropology Addresses issues of international relevance such as the role of forensic anthropology in mass disaster response and human rights investigations Includes chapter summaries, topicoriented case studies, keywords, and reflective questions to increase active student learning

Forensic Anthropology

Forensic Anthropology
Author: Natalie R. Langley,MariaTeresa A. Tersigni-Tarrant
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 446
Release: 2017-02-24
ISBN 10: 1315300028
ISBN 13: 9781315300023
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Anthropology Book Review:

This robust, dynamic, and international field has grown to include interdisciplinary research, continually improving methodology, and globalization of training. Reflecting the diverse nature of the science from experts who have shaped it, Forensic Anthropology: A Comprehensive Introduction Second Edition builds off of the success of the first edition and incorporates standard practices in addition to cutting-edge approaches in a user-friendly format, making it an ideal introductory-level text.

Atlas of Postmortem Angiography

Atlas of Postmortem Angiography
Author: Silke Grabherr,Jochen M. Grimm,Axel Heinemann
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 602
Release: 2016-04-11
ISBN 10: 3319285378
ISBN 13: 9783319285375
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Atlas of Postmortem Angiography Book Review:

This atlas of postmortem angiography provides a summary of techniques that have been developed and used in order to visualize the human vascular system. The indications, advantages, limitations, and pitfalls of the different techniques are explained in detail through the use of examples from real cases and a wealth of informative images, as well as knowledge from the latest scientific works. Helpful recommendations are made concerning interpretation of the obtained radiological images, which will allow readers to start their own work in the field of post-mortem angiography or to ease and improve their practice. The atlas has been edited and written by members of an international working group created in 2012, “Technical Working Group Post-mortem Angiography Methods” (TWGPAM), who for the first time summarize their experiences concerning this new approach. Since findings explaining the reasons for both natural and traumatic death are often hidden within the vascular system, post-mortem angiography is of the highest importance in elucidating cause of death and may represent the key to minimally invasive autopsy. ​

Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology

Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology
Author: Soren Blau,Douglas H. Ubelaker
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 696
Release: 2016-07-28
ISBN 10: 1315528924
ISBN 13: 9781315528922
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology Book Review:

With contributions from 70 experienced practitioners from around the world, this second edition of the authoritative Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology provides a solid foundation in both the practical and ethical components of forensic work. The book weaves together the discipline’s historical development; current field methods for analyzing crime, natural disasters, and human atrocities; an array of laboratory techniques; key case studies involving legal, professional, and ethical issues; and ideas about the future of forensic work--all from a global perspective. This fully revised second edition expands the geographic representation of the first edition by including chapters from practitioners in South Africa and Colombia, and adds exciting new chapters on the International Commission on Missing Persons and on forensic work being done to identify victims of the Battle of Fromelles during World War I. The Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology provides an updated perspective of the disciplines of forensic archaeology and anthropology.

Knight s Forensic Pathology Fourth Edition

Knight s Forensic Pathology Fourth Edition
Author: Pekka Saukko,Bernard Knight
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 666
Release: 2015-11-04
ISBN 10: 1444165089
ISBN 13: 9781444165081
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Knight s Forensic Pathology Fourth Edition Book Review:

The fourth edition of Knight's Forensic Pathology continues to be the definitive international resource for those in training and in practice, covering all aspects of the medico-legal autopsy, including the cause and time of death, interpretation of wounds and every other facet of the investigation of a fatality. The contents are intended to lead the pathologist – and in some countries, the non-pathologist – through the procedures needed in the examination of a body found under obscure, suspicious or even criminal circumstances. Although police procedures and the habits of pathologists may vary from country to country, the philosophy and techniques presented in this book offer a guide to good practices that can be modified according to local circumstances. In this new edition the text has been thoroughly updated and is complemented by the addition of over 200 new colour illustrations. It maintains the praised tradition of clarity and readability established since Prof. Bernard Knight’s first edition was published in 1991, with an emphasis on the practical application of knowledge and research findings and the avoidance of over-interpretation.

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 2250
Release: 2012-12-28
ISBN 10: 0123821665
ISBN 13: 9780123821669
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences Book Review:

Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science’ includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other’s protocols, procedures and limitations. Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists – and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis. This 4-volume set represents a 30% growth in articles from the first edition, with a particular increase in coverage of DNA and digital forensics Includes an international collection of contributors The second edition features a new 21-member editorial board, half of which are internationally based Includes over 300 articles, approximately 10pp on average Each article features a) suggested readings which point readers to additional sources for more information, b) a list of related Web sites, c) a 5-10 word glossary and definition paragraph, and d) cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia Available online via SciVerse ScienceDirect. Please visit www.info.sciencedirect.com for more information This new edition continues the reputation of the first edition, which was awarded an Honorable Mention in the prestigious Dartmouth Medal competition for 2001. This award honors the creation of reference works of outstanding quality and significance, and is sponsored by the RUSA Committee of the American Library Association

Wildlife Forensic Investigation

Wildlife Forensic Investigation
Author: John E. Cooper,Margaret E. Cooper
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 770
Release: 2013-05-23
ISBN 10: 1439813752
ISBN 13: 9781439813751
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wildlife Forensic Investigation Book Review:

Wildlife forensics is the application of forensic science to the conservation and protection of non-domesticated animals, both in the wild and in captivity. Providing an in-depth introduction to this rapidly evolving field, Wildlife Forensic Investigation: Principles and Practice also chronicles aspects of the history of management, conservation, and environmental protection, with an emphasis on their global importance in the twenty-first century. The book examines the crucial role of wildlife forensic investigation with regard to live animals, dead animals and samples and covers national, regional, and international legislation. While the text particularly focuses on forensic science as it relates to wild animals, it also includes mention of plants and habitats because of their relevance to conservation. The book discusses animal welfare as well as the damage that can be inflicted on humans and property by wildlife. Offering access to sound evidence based on good science and obtained using the best available practices, the book is enhanced by case studies from experts who describe some of their own work. This resource is essential for those involved in a range of endeavours, including investigating wildlife crime, identifying animal remains, ascertaining the circumstances of death of wild species, and other legal proceedings and activities concerning wildlife. The forensic skills described in this book can be applied to a wide range of activities (not necessarily involving the legal process), including environmental impact assessments, insurance claims, governmental and other enquiries, checking of trading standards and the inspection of (for instance) pet-shops, animal boarding establishments, and zoological collections. The authors point out that one of the most important requirements of those persons involved in wildlife forensic work is to retain an open mind. Such personnel should also be conscious of new developments and evolving techniques and be able to anticipate situations where their investigative and scientific skills might be used to advantage—so-called "horizon scanning". Examples of these are given.

Forensic Pathology Review

Forensic Pathology Review
Author: John M. Wayne, MD,Cynthia A. Schandl,S. Erin Presnell, MD
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 273
Release: 2017-10-17
ISBN 10: 1351648977
ISBN 13: 9781351648974
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Pathology Review Book Review:

This book is an invaluable tool for studying and reviewing key concepts in forensic pathology. Written in a question-and-answer format, this accessible guide tests readers' knowledge of manner of death, patterns of injury, lab data interpretation, postmortem radiography and imaging, and much more. Over 300 questions, more than half with visual examples, cover both common and more unusual examples of forensic pathology seen in practice. A great resource for preparing for examinations including the American Board of Pathology examination. It provides answers with explanatory rationales for both correct and incorrect answers.

Forensic Pathology Case Studies

Forensic Pathology Case Studies
Author: Edda Guareschi
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 112
Release: 2020-11-04
ISBN 10: 0128242949
ISBN 13: 9780128242940
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Pathology Case Studies Book Review:

Forensic Pathology Case Studies features 8-13 case studies from the author's 19-year career as both a forensic pathologist and anthropologist in northern Italy. Every case will be presented as an extended version of a professional report, where the descriptions of circumstances, the scientific approach to investigation techniques, their results, the critical interpretation of results, and the case resolution are combined. Photos are available for most cases and will help clarifying the cases to the reader. References will inspire further reading. Covers investigation techniques and interpretation of the results Provides valuable information for how to deal with skeletal remains Includes photos for most cases to clarify outcomes for the reader

Forensic Pathology

Forensic Pathology
Author: Max M. Houck
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 436
Release: 2016-09-23
ISBN 10: 0128025018
ISBN 13: 9780128025017
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Pathology Book Review:

Forensic Pathology, the latest volume in the Advanced Forensic Science series that grew out of the recommendations from the 2009 NAS Report serves as a graduate level text for those studying and teaching forensic pathology, and is an excellent reference for forensic pathologists’ libraries or for use in their casework. Coverage includes postmortem interval, autopsy, trauma, causes of death, identification, and professional issues. Edited by a world-renowned leading forensic expert, this series provides a long overdue solution for the forensic science community. Provides basic principles of forensic science and an overview of forensic pathology Contains sections on postmortem interval, autopsy, trauma, causes of death, and identification Includes a section on professional issues, such as crime scene to court, expert witness testimony, health and safety, deaths in custody, and suicide Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion questions, and additional reading suggestions

Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology

Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology
Author: Joshua Blau
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 534
Release: 2016-06-03
ISBN 10: 1315427761
ISBN 13: 9781315427768
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology Book Review:

Over the last 10 years interest in the disciplines of forensic anthropology and archaeology has exploded. In order to provide archaeologists and their students with a reliable understanding of these disciplines, this authoritative volume draws contributions from fifty experienced practitioners from around the world to offer a solid foundation in both the practical and ethical components of forensic work. Over 40 chapters weave together historical development, current field methods in analyzing crime, natural disasters and human atrocities, an array of laboratory techniques, key case studies, legal, professional, and ethical issues, and promising future directions, all from a global perspective. This volume will be the benchmark for the understanding of anthropological and archaeological forensics for years to come.

Paediatric Forensic Medicine and Pathology Second Edition

Paediatric Forensic Medicine and Pathology  Second Edition
Author: Anthony Busuttil,Jean Keeling
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2008-11-28
ISBN 10: 1444109731
ISBN 13: 9781444109733
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Paediatric Forensic Medicine and Pathology Second Edition Book Review:

Child abuse and suspicious child deaths are very complicated matters for clinicians, pathologists, law enforcement officials and legal professionals to investigate. Meanwhile, the evidence base for forensic pathology, especially in paediatrics, is steadily growing. In Paediatric Forensic Medicine and Pathology, two internationally acclaimed editors have brought together a first class author team who provide an up-to-date, comprehensive, and thorough review of the contemporary problems encountered in practice today. Individual chapters explore the emerging role of imaging in the diagnosis of non-accidental injury and compare recent evidence contrasting sudden infant death and SIDS; the head and neck injury chapter carefully explores the 'shaken baby syndrome' and similar patterns of injury that have recently gained widespread media attention. Special emphasis is given to interview and assessment procedures, and useful clinical forms are included throughout the book. Whether in a clinical, laboratory, or legal setting, readers dealing with forensic inquiries or who are in preparation for court will find the comprehensive background and evidence base necessary to support their investigations. Paediatric Forensic Medicine and Pathology is an invaluable resource for forensic pathologists, paediatric pathologists, and paediatricians, as well as all practitioners in the judicial and legal, criminal investigation and social services systems that have to deal with such cases.

Forensic Anthropology

Forensic Anthropology
Author: Max M. Houck
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 436
Release: 2016-12-30
ISBN 10: 0128025239
ISBN 13: 9780128025239
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Anthropology Book Review:

Forensic Anthropology serves as a graduate level text for those studying and teaching forensic anthropology, as well as an excellent reference for forensic anthropologist libraries or for use in casework. Covers taphonomy, recovery and analysis, identification, statistical interpretation, and professional issues. Edited by a world-renowned leading forensic expert, the Advanced Forensic Science Series grew out of the recommendations from the 2009 NAS Report, Strengthening Forensic Science: A Path Forward, and is a long overdue solution for the forensic science community. Provides the basic principles of forensic science and an overview of forensic anthropology Contains sections on taphonomy, recovery, analysis, pathology, and identification Covers statistical interpretation of evidence using the classical-frequentist approach and Bayesian analysis, measurement uncertainty, and standard methods Includes a section on professional issues, such as: from crime scene to court, expert witness testimony, and health and safety Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion questions, and additional reading suggestions

Knight s Forensic Pathology Fourth Edition

Knight s Forensic Pathology Fourth Edition
Author: Pekka Saukko,Bernard Knight
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 672
Release: 2013-12-27
ISBN 10: 0340760443
ISBN 13: 9780340760444
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Knight s Forensic Pathology Fourth Edition Book Review:

The fourth edition of this definitive international postgraduate textbook for forensic pathologists covers all aspects of the medico-legal autopsy, including the cause and time of death, interpretation of wounds, and every other facet of the investigation of a fatality. It emphasizes the practical application of knowledge, research findings, and the value of observation over received wisdom. Bernard Knight's continuing role as overall editor ensures that the book's often praised readability has been maintained.

Skeletal Trauma

Skeletal Trauma
Author: Erin H. Kimmerle,Jose Pablo Baraybar
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 520
Release: 2008-02-19
ISBN 10: 9781420009118
ISBN 13: 1420009117
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Skeletal Trauma Book Review:

Born out of the need to recover, analyze, and present physical evidence on thousands of individual victims of large-scale human rights violations, multi-national, multi-disciplinary forensic teams developed a sophisticated system for the examination of human remains and set a precedent for future investigations. Codifying this process, Skeletal Trauma: Identification of Injuries Resulting from Human Rights Abuse and Armed Conflict describes an epidemiological framework for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting evidence for use at trial. It pieces together fragments of skeletal tissue and associated physical evidence to determine a mechanism of trauma that is factually based, methodologically scripted, and scientifically interpreted. Providing a contextual background, the opening chapter discusses international forensic investigations into Human Rights violations through international tribunals and other emerging judicial systems. The second chapter presents protocols for systemic data collection and methods for the differential diagnosis of wounds to classify and interpret mechanisms of injury. Organized topically, the remaining chapters evaluate blasting injuries, blunt force trauma, skeletal evidence of torture, sharp force trauma, and gunfire injuries. Each chapter discusses wounding mechanisms, wound pathophysiology, relevant legal examples, and case studies. Twenty-six leading scholars and practitioners from anthropology, pathology, and forensics contribute their research, cases, photographs, and extensive fieldwork experience to provide 16 representative case studies. Taken from human rights violations, ethnic and armed conflict, and extra-judicial executions throughout the Americas, Europe, and Asia, all evidence in the examples is interpreted through an epidemiological model and set in a legal framework. Several of the exemplary studies, including those from the Balkans, have already been presented as evidence in criminal trials.