Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease

Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease
Author: Philip Seeman,Bertha Madras
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 532
Release: 2013-11-15
ISBN 10: 012418684X
ISBN 13: 9780124186842
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease Book Review:

Brain imaging technology remains at the forefront of advances in both our understanding of the brain and our ability to diagnose and treat brain disease and disorders. Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease examines the localization of neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system of normal, healthy humans and compares that with humans who are suffering from various neurologic diseases. Opening chapters introduce the basic science of imaging neurotransmitters, including sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors. Imaging the healthy and diseased brain includes brain imaging of anger, pain, autism, the release of dopamine, the impact of cannabinoids, and Alzheimer's disease. This book is a valuable companion to a wide range of scholars, students, and researchers in neuroscience, clinical neurology, and psychiatry, and provides a detailed introduction to the application of advanced imaging to the treatment of brain disorders and disease. A focused introduction to imaging healthy and diseased brains Focuses on the primary neurotransmitter release Includes sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors Presents the imaging of healthy and diseased brains via anger, pain, autism, and Alzheimer's disease

Brain Imaging in Behavioral Neuroscience

Brain Imaging in Behavioral Neuroscience
Author: Cameron S. Carter,Jeffrey W. Dalley
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 394
Release: 2011-11-04
ISBN 10: 3642287115
ISBN 13: 9783642287114
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Brain Imaging in Behavioral Neuroscience Book Review:

This volume highlights the remarkable new developments in brain imaging, including those that apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), that allow us to non invasively study the living human brain in health and in disease. These technological advances have allowed us to obtain new and powerful insights into the structure and function of the healthy brain as it develops across the life cycle, as well as the molecular make up of brain systems and circuits as they develop and change with age. New brain imaging technologies have also given us new insights into the causes of many common brain disorders, including ADHD, schizophrenia, depression and Alzheimer’s disease, which collectively affect a large segment of the population. These new insights have major implications for understanding and treating these brain disorders, and are providing clinicians with the first ever set of biomarkers that can be used to guide diagnosis and monitor treatment effects. The advances in brain imaging over the last 20 years, summarized in this volume, represent a major advance in modern biomedical sciences.

Advanced Brain Neuroimaging Topics in Health and Disease

Advanced Brain Neuroimaging Topics in Health and Disease
Author: Dorina Papageorgiou,George Christopoulos,Stelios Smirnakis
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 680
Release: 2014-05-31
ISBN 10: 9535112031
ISBN 13: 9789535112037
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Brain Neuroimaging Topics in Health and Disease Book Review:

The brain is the most complex computational device we know, consisting of highly interacting and redundant networks of areas, supporting specific brain functions. The rules by which these areas organize themselves to perform specific computations have only now started to be uncovered. Advances in non-invasive neuroimaging technologies have revolutionized our understanding of the functional anatomy of cortical circuits in health and disease states, which is the focus of this book. The first section of this book focuses on methodological issues, such as combining functional MRI technology with other brain imaging modalities. The second section examines the application of brain neuroimaging to understand cognitive, visual, auditory, motor and decision-making networks, as well as neurological diseases. The use of non-invasive neuroimaging technologies will continue to stimulate an exponential growth in understanding basic brain processes, largely as a result of sustained advances in neuroimaging methods and applications.

Accurate and Robust Automated Segmentation in T1 weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Brain

Accurate and Robust Automated Segmentation in T1 weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Brain
Author: Philip Novosad
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2020
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:1198401327
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Accurate and Robust Automated Segmentation in T1 weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Brain Book Review:

"Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful non-invasive imaging technique with wide-ranging applications in both research and the clinic. Combined with complementary clinical or psychological data, structural MRI of the human brain in both health and disease can be used to investigate a broad array of questions regarding the nature of the relationship between brain structure and health and behaviour. Structural MRI can also be used to obtain quantitative structural biomarkers, which, when combined with machine-learning classifiers, can be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in the clinic. Such applications require the segmentation of strutural MRI images into the various anatomical structures of the brain. While manual labelling by a human expert adhering to a well-defined protocol has long been considered the gold-standard approach, it is highly time consuming and subject to both inter- and intra-rater variability. Automated methods for neuroanatomical segmentation are therefore necessary, but require dataset-specific training data for good performance. A recent class of methods seek to transfer labels from a set of manually labelled `training images' to the `test images' under consideration. While these methods generally perform well when both the training and testing data come from homogeneous datasets consisting of images of subjects from a similar demographic and using similar MR scanner and pulse sequence, their performance can be substantially degraded when this condition is not met. Despite this requirement, generating a set of representative manually labelled training images for application to each different domain is highly impractical, particularly for modern `big data' conglomerate datasets consisting of images from tens to hundreds of different centres. Consequently, users often train their segmentation algorithms on pre-labelled images from disparate domains (or use a classifier pre-trained on such data), reducing the accuracy and statistical power of their subsequent analyses. The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate automated segmentation methods for T1-weighted (T1w) MRI which are more robust to differences between the training and testing data, allowing users to leverage existing labelled datasets to process T1w images of arbitrary domain. To this end, we first develop a novel brain extraction method based on a multi-resolution patch-based segmentation framework in combination with a machine-learning classifier to automatically identify and correct errors in the automated segmentation. Using five manually labelled datasets for validation, we demonstrate significantly improved cross-domain performance compared to nine other brain extraction methods. Second, we develop a more general purpose neuroanatomical segmentation method using a context-augmented convolutional neural network (CNN). Validation on three manually labelled datasets demonstrates new state-of-the-art segmentation accuracies on several multi-structure segmentation tasks, while being orders of magnitudes faster compared to more conventional segmentation methods. Finally, we extend the aforementioned CNN-based method specifically for cross-domain applications using a novel self-ensembling approach in combination with a rich data augmentation scheme. Validation using three manually labelled datasets from different domains demonstrates improved multi-structure segmentation performance in cross-domain applications"--

Mathematical computational Strategies for Analyzing 3D Human Brain Image Databases

Mathematical computational Strategies for Analyzing 3D Human Brain Image Databases
Author: Paul Matthew Thompson
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 786
Release: 1999
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UCLA:L0078711017
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mathematical computational Strategies for Analyzing 3D Human Brain Image Databases Book Review:

Imaging and monitoring astrocytes in health and disease

Imaging and monitoring astrocytes in health and disease
Author: Carole Escartin, Keith Murai
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2014-11-25
ISBN 10: 2889193934
ISBN 13: 9782889193936
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Imaging and monitoring astrocytes in health and disease Book Review:

Astrocytes are key cellular partners to neurons in the brain. They play an important role in multiple processes such as neurotransmitter recycling, trophic support, antioxidant defense, ionic homeostasis, inflammatory modulation, neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling, neurogenesis, synapse formation and synaptic plasticity. In addition to their crucial involvement in normal brain physiology, it is well known that astrocytes adopt a reactive phenotype under most acute and chronic pathological conditions such as ischemia, trauma, brain cancer, epilepsy, demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the functional impact of astrocyte reactivity is still unclear. During the last decades, the development of innovative approaches to study astrocytes has significantly improved our understanding of their prominent role in brain function and their contribution to disease states. In particular, new genetic tools, molecular probes, and imaging techniques that achieve high spatial and temporal resolution have revealed new insight into astrocyte functions in situ. This Research Topic provides a collection of cutting-edge techniques, approaches and models to study astrocytes in health and disease. It also suggests new directions to achieve discoveries on these fascinating cells.

Angelo Mosso s Circulation of Blood in the Human Brain

Angelo Mosso s Circulation of Blood in the Human Brain
Author: Marcus E. Raichle,Gordon M. Shepherd
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2014-09-17
ISBN 10: 0199359008
ISBN 13: 9780199359004
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Angelo Mosso s Circulation of Blood in the Human Brain Book Review:

Modern brain imaging is revolutionizing the study of brain function in health and disease. However, few realize that its origins began in the nineteenth century with Dr. Angelo Mosso's pioneering experiments. A foremost Italian physiologist and scientist, Angelo Mosso studied several patients brought to him with head injuries that exposed their live brains to direct, long-term observation. He took advantage of these rare opportunities to document, for the first time, changes in cerebral blood flow in response to different stimuli, behaviors, and emotions, the very same changes that are now the basis for the measurements underlying modern functional brain imaging. Mosso was widely recognized by his contemporaries for his highly original studies, published both in Italian in 1878 and in German in 1881. Yet there has never been a translation through which this groundbreaking work could be appreciated by the English-speaking world. Indeed, Angelo Mosso's sophisticated experiments were to neuroscience what surgeon William Beaumont's in vivo observations were to gastric physiology fifty years earlier. This unique monograph establishes Mosso's rightful role as the pioneer of brain imaging. Through it, the modern reader, whether expert neuroscientist or interested student, can gain a new perspective on the author's remarkable insights: how behaviors as subtle as thinking about a subject or feeling an emotion produce the changes in pulsations of the brain that he observed and recorded for posterity. Special features of this volume include first a brief summary of Mosso's life. Two pioneers of modern brain imaging, Marcus E. Raichle (winner of the Kavli Prize for Neuroscience) and Gordon M. Shepherd (Yale University Professor of Neurobiology) then review Mosso's work and provide extensive commentary to explain its relevance to modern brain science. The authors not only emphasize Mosso's pioneering role in brain imaging, but also his fundamental contribution to the rise of cognitive neuroscience. The English translation (by historian of medicine Christiane Nockels Fabbri) follows, together with all of the plates and illustrations of the original volume. The result is a classic of neuroscience, now available for wide appreciation by neuroscientists, neurologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, historians of science and medicine, and the general public.

Magnetoencephalography an emerging neuroimaging tool for studying normal and abnormal human brain development

Magnetoencephalography  an emerging neuroimaging tool for studying normal and abnormal human brain development
Author: Christos Papadelis,Patricia Ellen Grant, Yoshio Okada,Hubert Preissl
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2015-10-12
ISBN 10: 2889196585
ISBN 13: 9782889196586
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Magnetoencephalography an emerging neuroimaging tool for studying normal and abnormal human brain development Book Review:

Research on the human brain development has seen an upturn in the past years mostly due to novel neuroimaging tools that became available to study the anatomy and function of the developing brain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) are beginning to be used more frequently in children to determine the gross anatomy and structural connectivity of their brain. Functional MRI and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) determine the hemodynamics and electroencephalography (EEG) the electrophysiological functions of the developing human brain. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) complements EEG as the only other technique capable of directly measuring the developing brain electrophysiology. Although MEG is still being used relatively rarely in pediatric studies, the recent development in this technology is beginning to demonstrate its utility in both basic and clinical neurosciences. MEG seems to be quite attractive for pediatric use, since it measures the human brain activity in an entirely passive manner without possessing any conceivable risk to the developing tissue. MEG sessions generally require minimal patient preparation, and the recordings are extremely well tolerated from children. Biomagnetic techniques also offer an indirect way to assess the functional brain and heart activity of fetuses in humans in utero by measuring the magnetic field outside the maternal abdomen. Magnetic field produced by the electrical activity in the heart and brain of the fetus is not attenuated by the vernix, a waxy film covering its entire skin. A biomagnetic instrument specifically designed for fetal studies has been developed for this purpose. Fetal MEG studies using such a system have shown that both spontaneous brain activity and evoked cortical activity can be measured from outside the abdomen of pregnant mothers. Fetal MEG may become clinically very useful for implementation and evaluation of intervention programs in at-risk populations. Biomagnetic instruments have also been developed for specifically measuring the brain activity in newborns, infants and older children. MEG studies have shown the usefulness of MEG for localizing active regions in the brain and also for tracking the longitudinal maturation of various sensory systems. Studies of pediatric patients are beginning to show interesting functional pathology in autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy and other types of neurological and psychiatric disorders (Down syndrome, traumatic brain injury, Tourette syndrome, hearing deficits, childhood migraine). In this eBook, we compile the state of the art MEG and other neuroimaging studies focused on pediatric population in both health and disease. We believe a review of the recent studies of human brain development using MEG is quite timely, since we are witnessing advances not only in the instrumentation optimized for the pediatric population, but also in the research based on various types of MEG systems designed for both human fetuses in utero and neonates and older children.

Fundamentals of Brain Network Analysis

Fundamentals of Brain Network Analysis
Author: Alex Fornito,Andrew Zalesky,Edward Bullmore
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 494
Release: 2016-03-04
ISBN 10: 0124081185
ISBN 13: 9780124081185
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Brain Network Analysis Book Review:

Fundamentals of Brain Network Analysis is a comprehensive and accessible introduction to methods for unraveling the extraordinary complexity of neuronal connectivity. From the perspective of graph theory and network science, this book introduces, motivates and explains techniques for modeling brain networks as graphs of nodes connected by edges, and covers a diverse array of measures for quantifying their topological and spatial organization. It builds intuition for key concepts and methods by illustrating how they can be practically applied in diverse areas of neuroscience, ranging from the analysis of synaptic networks in the nematode worm to the characterization of large-scale human brain networks constructed with magnetic resonance imaging. This text is ideally suited to neuroscientists wanting to develop expertise in the rapidly developing field of neural connectomics, and to physical and computational scientists wanting to understand how these quantitative methods can be used to understand brain organization. Extensively illustrated throughout by graphical representations of key mathematical concepts and their practical applications to analyses of nervous systems Comprehensively covers graph theoretical analyses of structural and functional brain networks, from microscopic to macroscopic scales, using examples based on a wide variety of experimental methods in neuroscience Designed to inform and empower scientists at all levels of experience, and from any specialist background, wanting to use modern methods of network science to understand the organization of the brain

Transmitters and Modulators in Health and Disease

Transmitters and Modulators in Health and Disease
Author: Seiji Shioda,Ikuo Homma,Nobumasa Kato
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 212
Release: 2009-07-25
ISBN 10: 4431990399
ISBN 13: 9784431990390
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transmitters and Modulators in Health and Disease Book Review:

Prominent international researchers contributed to this volume of reports advancing the study of brain function and morphology. Comprising investigations in several areas of neuroscience, the book includes research in neurodegenerative diseases and in neuroregeneration in adults. Described here are the effects of neuropeptides and biogenic amines on feeding, respiration, and other autonomic functions as well as on behavior. One chapter focuses on regulation of the blood brain barrier function by various neuropeptides, proteins, receptors, and transporters. Another is concerned with the modulation of higher brain functions by neuropeptides and biogenic monoamines. Yet another chapter presents research on ischemic neuronal damage and hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult mouse. Morphological or physiological techniques to study neuropeptides and neuromodulators influencing higher-order or brain-stem functions are given particular attention. The use of bio-imaging tools such as brain navigation systems and fMRIs with patients in a clinical setting creates new possibilities for investigation of human brain function and specialization of treatment.

Imaging Brain Diseases

Imaging Brain Diseases
Author: Serge Weis,Michael Sonnberger,Andreas Dunzinger,Martin Aichholzer,Raimund Kleiser,Peter Strasser
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 2284
Release: 2016-08-25
ISBN 10: 9783709115435
ISBN 13: 3709115434
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Imaging Brain Diseases Book Review:

​Imaging Brain Diseases illustrates in a unique way the most common diseases affecting the human nervous system using different imaging modalities derived from radiology, nuclear medicine, and neuropathology. The features of the diseases are visualized on computerized tomography (CT)-scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-scans, nuclear medicine scans, surgical intraoperative as well as gross-anatomy and histology preparations. For each disease entity, the structural changes are illustrated in a correlative comparative way based on the various imaging techniques. The brain diseases are presented in a systematic way allowing the reader to easily find the topics in which she or he is particularly interested. In Part 1 of the book, the imaging techniques are described in a practical, straightforward way. The morphological built-up of the normal human brain and its vascular supply are presented in Part 2. The chapters of the subsequent Parts 3 to 10 deal with the following diseases involving the nervous system including: hemodynamic, vascular, infectious, neurodegenerative, demyelination, epilepsy, trauma and intoxication, and tumors. The authors incite the clinician to see the cell, the tissue, the organ, the disorder by enabling him to recognize brain lesions or interpreting histologic findings and to correlate this knowledge with molecular biologic concepts. Thus, this book bridges the gap between neuro-clinicians, neuro-imagers and neuro-pathologists. The information provided will facilitate the understanding of the disease processes in the daily routine work of neurologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, neuropathologists, and all allied clinical disciplines.

Investigating the human brainstem with structural and functional MRI

Investigating the human brainstem with structural and functional MRI
Author: Florian Beissner, Simon Baudrexel
Publsiher: Frontiers E-books
Total Pages: 92
Release: 2014-07-30
ISBN 10: 2889192474
ISBN 13: 9782889192472
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Investigating the human brainstem with structural and functional MRI Book Review:

The brainstem is one of the least understood parts of the human brain despite its prime importance for the maintenance of basic vital functions. Owing to its role as a relay station between spinal cord, cerebellum and neocortex, the brainstem contains vital nodes of all functional systems in the central nervous system, including the visual, auditory, gustatory, vestibular, somatic and visceral senses, and the somatomotor as well as autonomic nervous systems. While the brainstem has been extensively studied in animals using invasive methods, human studies remain scarce. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive and widely available method is one possibility to access the brainstem in humans and measure its structure as well as function. The close vicinity of the brainstem to large arteries and ventricles and the small size of the anatomical structures, however, place high demands on imaging as well as data analysis methods. Nevertheless, the field of brainstem-(f)MRI has significantly advanced in the past few years, largely due to the development of several new tools that facilitate studying this critical part of the human brain. Within this scope, the goal of this Research Topic is to compile work representing the state of the art in functional and structural MRI of the human brainstem.

Neurovascular Imaging by Combining Diffuse Optical Tomography and Electroencephalography Or Magnetoencephalography

Neurovascular Imaging by Combining Diffuse Optical Tomography and Electroencephalography Or Magnetoencephalography
Author: Katherine L. Perdue,Thayer School of Engineering
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 204
Release: 2012
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:826999793
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neurovascular Imaging by Combining Diffuse Optical Tomography and Electroencephalography Or Magnetoencephalography Book Review:

Noninvasive human brain imaging has provided new insights into the function of the brain in health and disease. Advances in imaging technology have made it possible to measure neural and vascular dynamics simultaneously. Neural and vascular imaging methods generally have different spatial resolutions and sensitivity patterns, and measure physiology with different temporal scales and dynamics. Comparing neural and vascular imaging signals requires a detailed understanding of the physiological and anatomical origins of these signals. The goal of this work is to develop methods that advance the analysis and understanding of multimodal neurovascular imaging data. First, DOT sensitivity and its variation on the cortical surface are modeled in a simulated experimental population. Second, a method for evaluating head segmentations for the purposes of creating subject-specific multimodal forward models is described. Third, the effect of the spatial scale of cortical activity on DOT, fMRI, EEG and MEG sensor correlations and sensitivity is modeled. Finally, experimentally measured neural and vascular dynamics reported along with their relationship to the simulations previously presented. These new analyses will advance the interpretation of noninvasive neuroimaging data and may allow for biomarker development for neurological disorders that affect neural and vascular physiology.

Neuroscience at the Intersection of Mind and Brain

Neuroscience at the Intersection of Mind and Brain
Author: Jack M. Gorman
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2018-08-15
ISBN 10: 0190850140
ISBN 13: 9780190850142
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neuroscience at the Intersection of Mind and Brain Book Review:

Neuroscience, the study of the structure and function of the brain, has captured our imaginations. Breakthrough technologies permit neuroscientists to probe how the human brain works in ever-more fascinating detail, revealing what happens when we think, move, love, hate, and fear. We know more than ever before about what goes wrong in the brain when we develop psychiatric and neurological illnesses like depression, dementia, epilepsy, panic attacks, and schizophrenia. We also now have clues about how treatments for those disorders change the way our brains look and function. Neuroscience at the Intersection of Mind and Brain has three main purposes. First, it makes complicated concepts and findings in modern neuroscience accessible to anyone with an interest in how the brain works. Second, it explains in detail how every experience we have from the moment we are conceived changes our brains. Third, it advances the idea that psychotherapy is a type of life experience that alters brain function and corrects aberrant brain connections. Among the topics covered are: what makes our brains different from those of other primates, our nearest genetic neighbors? How do life's experiences affect genetic expression of the brain and the way neurons connect with each other? Why are connections between different parts of the brain important in both health and disease? What happens in the brains of animals and humans when we are suddenly afraid of something, get depressed, or fall in love? How do medications and psychotherapies work? The information in this book is based on cutting-edge research in neuroscience, psychiatry, and psychology. Written by an author who studied human behavior and brain function for three decades, it is presented in a highly accessible manner, full of personal anecdotes and observations, and touches on many of the controversies in contemporary mental health practice.

Executive Functions in Health and Disease

Executive Functions in Health and Disease
Author: Elkhonon Goldberg
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 612
Release: 2017-07-04
ISBN 10: 0128037059
ISBN 13: 9780128037058
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Executive Functions in Health and Disease Book Review:

Executive Functions in Health and Disease provides a comprehensive review of both healthy and disordered executive function. It discusses what executive functions are, what parts of the brain are involved, what happens when they go awry in cases of dementia, ADHD, psychiatric disorders, traumatic injury, developmental disorders, cutting edge methods for studying executive functions and therapies for treating executive function disorders. It will appeal to neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, neuroscientists and researchers in cognitive psychology. Encompasses healthy executive functioning as well as dysfunction Identifies prefrontal cortex and other brain areas associated with executive functions Reviews methods and tools used in executive function research Explores executive dysfunction in dementia, ADHD, PTSD, TBI, developmental and psychiatric disorders Discusses executive function research expansion in social and affective neuroscience, neuroeconomics, aging and criminology Includes color neuroimages showing executive function brain activity

Magnetic Source Imaging of the Human Brain

Magnetic Source Imaging of the Human Brain
Author: Zhong-Lin Lu,Lloyd Kaufman
Publsiher: Taylor & Francis
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2003-10-17
ISBN 10: 1135625689
ISBN 13: 9781135625689
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Magnetic Source Imaging of the Human Brain Book Review:

This book is designed to acquaint serious students, scientists, and clinicians with magnetic source imaging (MSI)--a brain imaging technique of proven importance that promises even more important advances. The technique permits spatial resolution of neural events on a scale measured in millimeters and temporal resolution measured in milliseconds. Although widely mentioned in literature dealing with cognitive neuroscience and functional brain imaging, there is no single book describing both the foundations and actual methods of magnetoencephalopgraphy and its underlying science, neuromagnetism. This volume fills a long-standing need, as it is accessible to scientists and students having no special background in the field, and makes it possible for them to understand this literature and undertake their own research. A self-contained unit, this book covers MSI from beginning to end, including its relationship to allied technologies, such as electroencephalography and modern functional imaging modalities. In addition, the book: *introduces the field to the non-specialist, providing a framework for the rest of the book; *provides a thorough review of the physiological basis of MSI; *describes the mathematical bases of MSI--the forward and inverse problems; *outlines new signal processing methods that extract information from single-trial MEG; *depicts the early, as well as the most recent versions of MSI technology; *compares MSI with other imaging methodologies; *describes new paradigms and analysis techniques in applying MSI to study human perception and cognition, which are also applicable to EEG; and *reviews some of the most important results in MSI from the most prominent researchers and laboratories around the world.

Brain Extracellular Matrix in Health and Disease

Brain Extracellular Matrix in Health and Disease
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 506
Release: 2014-10-30
ISBN 10: 0444634940
ISBN 13: 9780444634948
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Brain Extracellular Matrix in Health and Disease Book Review:

In the central nervous system, extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, including hyaluronic acid, chondroitin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, tenascins, reelin and agrin, along with their remodelling enzymes, such as neurotrypsin, neuropsin, plasminogen activators, and metalloproteinases, are secreted by neural and non-neural cells into the extracellular space to form the ECM and signal via ECM receptors. Despite recent advances in the ECM field, the importance of neural ECM for physiological and pathological processes is currently less widely recognized than that of other CNS elements. This book will enlighten recent progress in our understanding of mechanisms by which neural ECM, its receptors and activity-dependent ECM remodeling regulate neural development, synaptic plasticity, and contribute to pathological changes in the brain. In the first part, the roles of ECM signaling and proteolytic modification of ECM in neurogenesis, neural migration, axonal pathfinding, synaptogenesis, synaptic and homeostatic plasticity will be discussed. The second part will focus on the emerging ECM-dependent mechanisms associated with CNS injury, epilepsy, neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. For further development of neural ECM field, a very important contribution is the third part of the book, which is devoted to neural ECM-targeting tools and therapeutics. The concluding fourth part will highlight advances in development of artificial ECM and ECM-based systems suitable for multisite recording and stimulation of neural cells. Authors are the leading experts in the field of brain extracellular matrix in health and disease Book covers the most important aspects of brain extracellular matrix in health and disease Interesting for both scientists and clinicians

INIS Atomindex

INIS Atomindex
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 1988
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: MINN:31951D00767512G
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

INIS Atomindex Book Review:

Discovering the Brain

Discovering the Brain
Author: National Academy of Sciences,Institute of Medicine,Sandra Ackerman
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 194
Release: 1992-01-01
ISBN 10: 0309045290
ISBN 13: 9780309045292
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Discovering the Brain Book Review:

The brain ... There is no other part of the human anatomy that is so intriguing. How does it develop and function and why does it sometimes, tragically, degenerate? The answers are complex. In Discovering the Brain, science writer Sandra Ackerman cuts through the complexity to bring this vital topic to the public. The 1990s were declared the "Decade of the Brain" by former President Bush, and the neuroscience community responded with a host of new investigations and conferences. Discovering the Brain is based on the Institute of Medicine conference, Decade of the Brain: Frontiers in Neuroscience and Brain Research. Discovering the Brain is a "field guide" to the brain--an easy-to-read discussion of the brain's physical structure and where functions such as language and music appreciation lie. Ackerman examines How electrical and chemical signals are conveyed in the brain. The mechanisms by which we see, hear, think, and pay attention--and how a "gut feeling" actually originates in the brain. Learning and memory retention, including parallels to computer memory and what they might tell us about our own mental capacity. Development of the brain throughout the life span, with a look at the aging brain. Ackerman provides an enlightening chapter on the connection between the brain's physical condition and various mental disorders and notes what progress can realistically be made toward the prevention and treatment of stroke and other ailments. Finally, she explores the potential for major advances during the "Decade of the Brain," with a look at medical imaging techniques--what various technologies can and cannot tell us--and how the public and private sectors can contribute to continued advances in neuroscience. This highly readable volume will provide the public and policymakers--and many scientists as well--with a helpful guide to understanding the many discoveries that are sure to be announced throughout the "Decade of the Brain."

Micro Meso and Macro Connectomics of the Brain

Micro   Meso  and Macro Connectomics of the Brain
Author: Henry Kennedy,David C. Van Essen,Yves Christen
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 166
Release: 2016-03-10
ISBN 10: 3319277774
ISBN 13: 9783319277776
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Micro Meso and Macro Connectomics of the Brain Book Review:

This book has brought together leading investigators who work in the new arena of brain connectomics. This includes ‘macro-connectome’ efforts to comprehensively chart long-distance pathways and functional networks; ‘micro-connectome’ efforts to identify every neuron, axon, dendrite, synapse, and glial process within restricted brain regions; and ‘meso-connectome’ efforts to systematically map both local and long-distance connections using anatomical tracers. This book highlights cutting-edge methods that can accelerate progress in elucidating static ‘hard-wired’ circuits of the brain as well as dynamic interactions that are vital for brain function. The power of connectomic approaches in characterizing abnormal circuits in the many brain disorders that afflict humankind is considered. Experts in computational neuroscience and network theory provide perspectives needed for synthesizing across different scales in space and time. Altogether, this book provides an integrated view of the challenges and opportunities in deciphering brain circuits in health and disease.