Hydrogen Biomass and Bioenergy

Hydrogen  Biomass and Bioenergy
Author: Bruno G. Pollet,Jacob Joseph Lamb
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 186
Release: 2020-06-26
ISBN 10: 0081026463
ISBN 13: 9780081026465
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hydrogen Biomass and Bioenergy Book Review:

Hydrogen and Bioenergy: Integration Pathways for Renewable Energy Applications focuses on the nexus between hydrogen and carbon compounds as energy carriers, with a particular focus on renewable energy solutions. This book explores opportunities for integrating hydrogen in the bioenergy value chain, such as adding hydrogen to upgrade biofuels and lower CO2 emissions during production. The book also takes the inverse path to examine hydrogen production by chemical and biological routes from various bioresources, including solid waste, wastewater, agricultural products and algae. This broad coverage of technologies and applications presents a unique resource for researchers and practitioners developing integrated hydrogen and bioenergy technologies. This book will also be useful for graduate students and new researchers, presenting an introductory resource in the areas of hydrogen and bioenergy. Energy planners and engineers will also benefit from this content when designing and deploying hydrogen infrastructure for power, heating and transportation. Provides a comprehensive picture of hydrogen generation from biomass, as well as other sources of hydrogen for power, heating, transportation and storage applications Explores the ways hydrogen can be utilized in combination with bio-derived hydrocarbon chains to produce a variety of substitutes for fossil fuel-based petrochemicals Fills the gap between theoretical knowledge and technology viability Analyzes how these technologies fit into an overall energy strategy targeted at expanding the renewable energy sector

Bioenergy Systems for the Future

Bioenergy Systems for the Future
Author: Francesco Dalena,Angelo Basile,Claudio Rossi
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 628
Release: 2017-06-19
ISBN 10: 0081010265
ISBN 13: 9780081010266
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioenergy Systems for the Future Book Review:

Bioenergy Systems for the Future: Prospects for Biofuels and Biohydrogen examines the current advances in biomass conversion technologies for biofuels and biohydrogen production, including their advantages and challenges for real-world application and industrial-scale implementation. In its first part, the book explores the use of lignocellulosic biomass and agricultural wastes as feedstock, also addressing biomass conversion into biofuels, such as bioethanol, biodiesel, bio-methane, and bio-gasoline. The chapters in Part II cover several different pathways for hydrogen production, from biomass, including bioethanol and bio-methane reforming and syngas conversion. They also include a comparison between the most recent conversion technologies and conventional approaches for hydrogen production. Part III presents the status of advanced bioenergy technologies, such as applications of nanotechnology and the use of bio-alcohol in low-temperature fuel cells. The role of advanced bioenergy in a future bioeconomy and the integration of these technologies into existing systems are also discussed, providing a comprehensive, application-oriented overview that is ideal for engineering professionals, researchers, and graduate students involved in bioenergy. Explores the most recent technologies for advanced liquid and gaseous biofuels production, along with their advantages and challenges Presents real-life application of conversion technologies and their integration in existing systems Includes the most promising pathways for sustainable hydrogen production for energy applications

Biomass for Bioenergy

Biomass for Bioenergy
Author: Abd El-Fatah Abomohra
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 208
Release: 2019-12-18
ISBN 10: 1789239877
ISBN 13: 9781789239874
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomass for Bioenergy Book Review:

Lignocellulosic wastes has been widely discussed as a promising natural chemical source and alternative feedstock for second-generation biofuels. However, there are still many technical and economic challenges facing its utilization. Lignin is one of the components of lignocellulosic biomass, and is the most rigid constituent and can be considered as a glue providing the cell wall with stiffness and the plant tissue with compressive strength. In addition, it provides resistance to chemical and physical damage. Resistance of lignocelluloses to hydrolysis is mainly from the protection of cellulose by lignin and cellulose binding to hemicellulose. The present book provides basic knowledge and recent research on different applications of biomass, focusing on the bioenergy and different pretreatment methods that overcome the aforementioned hurdles.

Biomass and Bioenergy

Biomass and Bioenergy
Author: Khalid Rehman Hakeem,Mohammad Jawaid,Umer Rashid
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2014-08-22
ISBN 10: 3319075780
ISBN 13: 9783319075785
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomass and Bioenergy Book Review:

Biomass obtained from agricultural residues or forest can be used to produce different materials and bioenergy required in a modern society. As compared to other resources available, biomass is one of the most common and widespread resources in the world. Thus, biomass has the potential to provide a renewable energy source, both locally and across large areas of the world. It is estimated that the total investment in the biomass sector between 2008 and 2021 will reach the large sum of $104 billion. Presently bioenergy is the most important renewable energy option and will remain so the near and medium-term future. Previously several countries try to explore the utilization of biomass in bioenergy and composite sector. Biomass has the potential to become the world’s largest and most sustainable energy source and will be very much in demand. Bioenergy is based on resources that can be utilized on a sustainable basis all around the world and can thus serve as an effective option for the provision of energy services. In addition, the benefits accrued go beyond energy provision, creating unique opportunities for regional development. The present book will provide an up-to-date account of non-wood, forest residues, agricultural biomass (natural fibers), and energy crops together with processing, properties, and its applications to ensure biomass utilization and reuse. All aspects of biomass and bioenergy and their properties and applications will be critically re-examined. The book consists of three sections, presenting Non wood and forest products from forestry, arboriculture activities or from wood processing, agricultural biomass (natural fibers) from agricultural harvesting or processing and finally energy crops: high yield crops and grasses grown especially for energy production.​

Biomass and Bioenergy

Biomass and Bioenergy
Author: Khalid Rehman Hakeem,Mohammad Jawaid,Umer Rashid
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 367
Release: 2014-08-25
ISBN 10: 3319076418
ISBN 13: 9783319076416
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomass and Bioenergy Book Review:

Biomass obtained from agricultural residues or forest can be used to produce different materials and bioenergy required in a modern society. As compared to other resources available, biomass is one of the most common and widespread resources in the world. Thus, biomass has the potential to provide a renewable energy source, both locally and across large areas of the world. It is estimated that the total investment in the biomass sector between 2008 and 2021 will reach the large sum of $104 billion. Presently bioenergy is the most important renewable energy option and will remain so the near and medium-term future. Previously several countries try to explore the utilization of biomass in bioenergy and composite sector. Biomass has the potential to become the world’s largest and most sustainable energy source and will be very much in demand. Bioenergy is based on resources that can be utilized on a sustainable basis all around the world and can thus serve as an effective option for the provision of energy services. In addition, the benefits accrued go beyond energy provision, creating unique opportunities for regional development. The present book will provide an up-to-date account of non-wood, forest residues, agricultural biomass (natural fibers), and energy crops together with processing, properties and its applications to ensure biomass utilization and reuse. All aspects of biomass and bioenergy and their properties and applications will be critically re-examined. The book consists of three sections, presenting Non wood and forest products from forestry, arboriculture activities or from wood processing, agricultural biomass (natural fibers) from agricultural harvesting or processing and finally energy crops: high yield crops and grasses grown especially for energy production.

Bioenergy Resources and Technologies

Bioenergy Resources and Technologies
Author: Abul Kalam Azad,Mohammad Masud Kamal Khan
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 504
Release: 2021-03-19
ISBN 10: 0128225262
ISBN 13: 9780128225264
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioenergy Resources and Technologies Book Review:

Bioenergy Resources and Technologies presents advanced approaches and applications of bioenergy resources, with a strong focus on environmental sustainability. Chapters on the applications of bioenergy, the implementation of bioenergy as an alternative fuel, and future energy security make this an invaluable and unique resource to further advance the field. This book provides new information and novel techniques across a variety of bioenergy applications, with the book's authors addressing key uses for bioenergy resources as an alternative fuel. Various case studies and examples help demonstrate meaning and provide additional clarity. Social and economic aspects are included for each technology discussed, along with a number of research works and their findings in a diverse mix of areas including energy, environmental science, biotechnology, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering. Researchers and professionals in these disciplines will gain knowledge on the underlying concepts, technologies, fuel applications and solutions to global environmental issues using bioenergy resources. Presents technical and social issues surrounding the latest bioenergy technologies Explores solutions to global sustainability goals through bioenergy applications and the future of energy security Includes experimental investigations of engine performance, emissions and combustion phenomena using different types of oxygenated fuel

Progress in Biomass and Bioenergy Production

Progress in Biomass and Bioenergy Production
Author: Shahid Shaukat
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 458
Release: 2011-07-27
ISBN 10: 9533074914
ISBN 13: 9789533074917
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Progress in Biomass and Bioenergy Production Book Review:

Alternative energy sources have become a hot topic in recent years. The supply of fossil fuel, which provides about 95 percent of total energy demand today, will eventually run out in a few decades. By contrast, biomass and biofuel have the potential to become one of the major global primary energy source along with other alternate energy sources in the years to come. A wide variety of biomass conversion options with different performance characteristics exists. The goal of this book is to provide the readers with current state of art about biomass and bioenergy production and some other environmental technologies such as Wastewater treatment, Biosorption and Bio-economics. Organized around providing recent methodology, current state of modelling and techniques of parameter estimation in gasification process are presented at length. As such, this volume can be used by undergraduate and graduate students as a reference book and by the researchers and environmental engineers for reviewing the current state of knowledge on biomass and bioenergy production, biosorption and wastewater treatment.

Biomass to Biofuels

Biomass to Biofuels
Author: Alain A. Vertes,Nasib Qureshi,Hideaki Yukawa,Hans P. Blaschek
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 584
Release: 2011-08-24
ISBN 10: 1119965497
ISBN 13: 9781119965497
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomass to Biofuels Book Review:

Focusing on the key challenges that still impede the realization of the billion-ton renewable fuels vision, this book integrates technological development and business development rationales to highlight the key technological.developments that are necessary to industrialize biofuels on a global scale. Technological issues addressed in this work include fermentation and downstream processing technologies, as compared to current industrial practice and process economics. Business issues that provide the lens through which the technological review is performed span the entire biofuel value chain, from financial mechanisms to fund biotechnology start-ups in the biofuel arena up to large green field manufacturing projects, to raw material farming, collection and transport to the bioconversion plant, manufacturing, product recovery, storage, and transport to the point of sale. Emphasis has been placed throughout the book on providing a global view that takes into account the intrinsic characteristics of various biofuels markets from Brazil, the EU, the US, or Japan, to emerging economies as agricultural development and biofuel development appear undissociably linked.

Bioenergy Research Biomass Waste to Energy

Bioenergy Research  Biomass Waste to Energy
Author: Manish Srivastava,Neha Srivastava,Rajeev Singh
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2021-08-01
ISBN 10: 9811618623
ISBN 13: 9789811618628
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioenergy Research Biomass Waste to Energy Book Review:

This volume is fourth part of the five-part set on bioenergy research. This volume covers biomass to bioenergy production concept. The book is focused on the possible and versatile biomass options available for the generation of bioenergy. Additionally, the book also explores different types of biomass for bioenergy generation at a commercial level. Further, the book elaborates on different kind of cellulose and sugar rich waste which can also be utilized for bioenergy production. It covers other relevant issues such as recent technological advancement in biomass to bioenergy conversion, waste management in the context of biomass to biofuels production technologies, green methods of energy production, alternates of fossil fuels in the near future. It also explores biomass waste valorization, utilizing microbial processes in bioenergy production. This is a useful reading material for students, researchers, industry and policy experts. Other four volumes of this set explore basic concepts, latest progress, commercial opportunities and integrated solution for bioenergy concerns.

Biofuels from Algae

Biofuels from Algae
Author: Ashok Pandey,Duu-Jong Lee,Yusuf Chisti,Carlos R. Soccol
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 348
Release: 2013-08-08
ISBN 10: 0444595821
ISBN 13: 9780444595829
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biofuels from Algae Book Review:

This book provides in-depth information on basic and applied aspects of biofuels production from algae. It begins with an introduction to the topic, and follows with the basic scientific aspects of algal cultivation and its use for biofuels production, such as photo bioreactor engineering for microalgae production, open culture systems for biomass production and the economics of biomass production. It provides state-of-the-art information on synthetic biology approaches for algae suitable for biofuels production, followed by algal biomass harvesting, algal oils as fuels, biohydrogen production from algae, formation/production of co-products, and more. The book also covers topics such as metabolic engineering and molecular biology for algae for fuel production, life cycle assessment and scale-up and commercialization. It is highly useful and helps you to plan new research and design new economically viable processes for the production of clean fuels from algae. Covers in a comprehensive but concise way most of the algae biomass conversion technologies currently available Lists all the products produced from algae, i.e. biohydrogen, fuel oils, etc., their properties and potential uses Includes the economics of the various processes and the necessary steps for scaling them up

Progress in Biomass and Bioenergy Production

Progress in Biomass and Bioenergy Production
Author: Shahid Shaukat
Publsiher: IntechOpen
Total Pages: 458
Release: 2011-07-27
ISBN 10: 9789533074917
ISBN 13: 9533074914
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Progress in Biomass and Bioenergy Production Book Review:

Alternative energy sources have become a hot topic in recent years. The supply of fossil fuel, which provides about 95 percent of total energy demand today, will eventually run out in a few decades. By contrast, biomass and biofuel have the potential to become one of the major global primary energy source along with other alternate energy sources in the years to come. A wide variety of biomass conversion options with different performance characteristics exists. The goal of this book is to provide the readers with current state of art about biomass and bioenergy production and some other environmental technologies such as Wastewater treatment, Biosorption and Bio-economics. Organized around providing recent methodology, current state of modelling and techniques of parameter estimation in gasification process are presented at length. As such, this volume can be used by undergraduate and graduate students as a reference book and by the researchers and environmental engineers for reviewing the current state of knowledge on biomass and bioenergy production, biosorption and wastewater treatment.

Biomass Conversion

Biomass Conversion
Author: Chinnappan Baskar,Shikha Baskar,Ranjit S. Dhillon
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 468
Release: 2012-05-08
ISBN 10: 3642284183
ISBN 13: 9783642284182
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomass Conversion Book Review:

The consumption of petroleum has surged during the 20th century, at least partially because of the rise of the automobile industry. Today, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas provide more than three quarters of the world's energy. Unfortunately, the growing demand for fossil fuel resources comes at a time of diminishing reserves of these nonrenewable resources. The worldwide reserves of oil are sufficient to supply energy and chemicals for only about another 40 years, causing widening concerns about rising oil prices. The use of biomass to produce energy is only one form of renewable energy that can be utilized to reduce the impact of energy production and use on the global environment. Biomass can be converted into three main products such as energy, biofuels and fine chemicals using a number of different processes. Today, it is a great challenge for researchers to find new environmentally benign methodology for biomass conversion, which are industrially profitable as well. This book focuses on the conversion of biomass to biofuels, bioenergy and fine chemicals with the interface of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry and materials science. An international scientific authorship summarizes the state-of-the-art of the current research and gives an outlook on future developments.

Efficiency of Biomass Energy

Efficiency of Biomass Energy
Author: Krzysztof J. Ptasinski
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 784
Release: 2016-06-07
ISBN 10: 1118702107
ISBN 13: 9781118702109
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Efficiency of Biomass Energy Book Review:

Details energy and exergy efficiencies of all major aspects of bioenergy systems Covers all major bioenergy processes starting from photosynthesis and cultivation of biomass feedstocks and ending with final bioenergy products, like power, biofuels, and chemicals Each chapter includes historical developments, chemistry, major technologies, applications as well as energy, environmental and economic aspects in order to serve as an introduction to biomass and bioenergy A separate chapter introduces a beginner in easy accessible way to exergy analysis and the similarities and differences between energy and exergy efficiencies are underlined Includes case studies and illustrative examples of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation biofuels production, power and heat generation (thermal plants, fuel cells, boilers), and biorefineries Traditional fossil fuels-based technologies are also described in order to compare with the corresponding bioenergy systems

Production of Hydrogen from Renewable Resources

Production of Hydrogen from Renewable Resources
Author: Zhen Fang,Richard L. Smith, Jr.,Xinhua Qi
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 368
Release: 2015-11-06
ISBN 10: 9401773300
ISBN 13: 9789401773300
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Production of Hydrogen from Renewable Resources Book Review:

This book provides state-of-the-art reviews, current research and prospects of producing hydrogen using bio, thermal and electrochemical methods and covers hydrogen separation, storage and applications. Hydrogen produced from biomass offers a clean and renewable energy source and a promising energy carrier that will supplement or replace fossil fuels in the future. The book is intended as a reference work for researchers, academics and industrialists working in the chemical and biological sciences, engineering, renewable resources and sustainability. Readers will find a wealth of information in the text that is both useful for the practical development of hydrogen systems and essential for assessing hydrogen production by bioelectrochemical, electrochemical, fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis and solar means, applied to many forms of biomass. Dr. Zhen Fang is Professor in Bioenergy, Leader and founder of biomass group, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden and is also adjunct Professor of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China. Dr. Richard L Smith, Jr. is Professor of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Research Center of Supercritical Fluid Technology, Tohoku University, Japan. Dr. Xinhua Qi is Professor of Environmental Science, Nankai University, China.

Efficiency of Biomass Energy

Efficiency of Biomass Energy
Author: Krzysztof J. Ptasinski
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 784
Release: 2016-05-11
ISBN 10: 111911814X
ISBN 13: 9781119118145
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Efficiency of Biomass Energy Book Review:

Details energy and exergy efficiencies of all major aspects of bioenergy systems Covers all major bioenergy processes starting from photosynthesis and cultivation of biomass feedstocks and ending with final bioenergy products, like power, biofuels, and chemicals Each chapter includes historical developments, chemistry, major technologies, applications as well as energy, environmental and economic aspects in order to serve as an introduction to biomass and bioenergy A separate chapter introduces a beginner in easy accessible way to exergy analysis and the similarities and differences between energy and exergy efficiencies are underlined Includes case studies and illustrative examples of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation biofuels production, power and heat generation (thermal plants, fuel cells, boilers), and biorefineries Traditional fossil fuels-based technologies are also described in order to compare with the corresponding bioenergy systems

New Advances in Hydrogenation Processes

New Advances in Hydrogenation Processes
Author: Maryam Takht Ravanchi
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 362
Release: 2017-01-25
ISBN 10: 9535128698
ISBN 13: 9789535128694
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Advances in Hydrogenation Processes Book Review:

Hydrogen is one of the abundant elements on earth majorly in the form of water (H2O) and mainly as hydrogen gas (H2). Catalytic hydrogenation is a key reaction that has versatile applications in different industries. The main objective of this book is to bring together various applications of hydrogenation through the perspective of leading researchers in the field. This book is intended to be used as a graduate-level text book or as a practical guide for industrial engineers.

Advanced Biomass Gasification

Advanced Biomass Gasification
Author: Steffen Heidenreich,Michael Müller,Pier Ugo Foscolo
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 140
Release: 2016-06-07
ISBN 10: 0128043679
ISBN 13: 9780128043677
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Biomass Gasification Book Review:

Advanced Biomass Gasification: New Concepts for Efficiency Increase and Product Flexibility provides a thorough overview on new concepts in biomass gasification and consolidated information on advances for process integration and combination, which could otherwise only be gained by reading a high number of journal publications. Heidenreich, Müller and Foscolo, highly respected experts in this field, start their exploration with the compact UNIQUE reactor, gasification and pyrolysis, gasification and combustion, and catalysts and membranes. The authors then examine biomass pre-treatment processes, taking into account the energy balance of the overall conversion process, and look into oxygen-steam gasification and solutions for air separation, including new options for integration of O2-membranes into the gasifier. Several polygeneration strategies are covered, including combined heat and power (CHP) production with synthetic natural gas (SNG), biofuels and hydrogen, and new cutting-edge concepts, such as plasma gasification, supercritical water gasification, and catalytic gasification, which allows for insights on the future technological outlook of the area. This book is then a valuable resource for industry and academia-based researchers, as well as graduate students in the energy and chemical sectors with interest in biomass gasification, especially in areas of power engineering, bioenergy, chemical engineering, and catalysis. Explores state-of-the-art technologies that allow for greater efficiency and flexibility in gasification, including process integration, combination, and polygeneration strategies Consolidates information that was, up until now, scattered among several sources, including journal articles Provides a valuable resource for industry and academia-based researchers, as well as graduate students in the energy and chemical sectors with interest in biomass gasification, especially in areas of power engineering, bioenergy, chemical engineering, and catalysis

Biorefinery

Biorefinery
Author: Juan-Rodrigo Bastidas-Oyanedel,Jens Ejbye Schmidt
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 763
Release: 2019-04-15
ISBN 10: 3030109615
ISBN 13: 9783030109615
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biorefinery Book Review:

This book discusses the biorefinery of biomass feedstocks. In-depth chapters highlight the scientific and technical aspects and present a techno-economic analysis of such systems. By using a TEA approach, the authors present feasible pathways for conversion of biomass (both residual biomass, energy crops and algae biomass), showing the different possibilities for the production of biochemical materials, biofuels, and fertilizers. The concepts presented in this book will link companies, investors, and governments by providing a framework that will help reduce pollutants and create a biomass related economy that incorporates the newest developments and technologies in the area.

Advances in Bioenergy

Advances in Bioenergy
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 356
Release: 2020-05-19
ISBN 10: 0128207450
ISBN 13: 9780128207451
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Bioenergy Book Review:

Advances in Bioenergy, Volume Five, part of a new series that provides both principles and recent developments in various kinds of bioenergy technologies, includes the latest on feedstock development, conversion technologies, energy and economics and environmental analysis. This series uniquely provides the fundamentals of these technologies, along with reviews that will be invaluable for students. Chapters in this new release cover Medium Chain Fatty Acids Production by Microbial Chain Elongation: Recent Advances, Two-stage AD for bioenergy and biochemical production from industrial and agricultural wastewater, and more. Written and edited by a world-leading scientist in the area of bioenergy and bioproducts Includes both principles and recent developments within bioenergy technologies Covers the fundamentals of technologies and recent reviews

Second and Third Generation of Feedstocks

Second and Third Generation of Feedstocks
Author: Angelo Basile,Francesco Dalena
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 654
Release: 2019-03-23
ISBN 10: 0081026560
ISBN 13: 9780081026564
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Second and Third Generation of Feedstocks Book Review:

Second and Third Generation of Feedstocks: The Evolution of Biofuels presents a critical analysis of both the applications and potential of bioenergy production from second and third generation feedstocks. The book illustrates different aspects of the processes used for the production of biofuels, dealing specifically with second and third generation feedstocks from biomass and algae. The pretreatment of feedstocks and optimization of various forms of bioenergy are considered, along with the economic aspects of the various processes. In the last few years, industrial research efforts have focused on low cost, large-scale processing for lignocellulosic feedstocks originating from agricultural residues and municipal wastes for bioenergy production. This book shares an insight into the recent developments taking place in this industry, exploring transformation processes as well as biomass and algae conversions. Reviews existing lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks and their sources Includes processes for the conversion of various feedstocks to biofuels Discusses current research findings on second and third generation feedstocks Describes processes involved in the transformation of algal biomass into biofuels