Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicles

Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicles
Author: Shashank Arora,Alireza Tashakori Abkenar,Shantha Jayasinghe,Kari Tammi
Publsiher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Total Pages: 220
Release: 2021-03-01
ISBN 10: 0128181273
ISBN 13: 9780128181270
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicles Book Review:

Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicles: From Concept to Reality presents engineering principles and design approaches for heavy-duty electric vehicles along with real-world operational data from a commercial application of an electric city bus. It provides a detailed methodology for designing heavy-duty vehicle driveline system - from defining the subsystems required specs based on Vehicle Technical Specification (VTS) and Vehicle Performance Requirement (VPR) to component selection and finally integration and supervisory control system design. This book not only discusses technical aspects of motors, power electronics, batteries and vehicle dynamics, but also how to integrate all these systems to run the vehicle in a real application. Provides a detailed design methodology for electric drivetrain and energy storage systems in EV applications Features a total cost optimization model for identifying the most economically feasible powertrain and charging routine for different applications of heavy electric vehicles Contains a comprehensive overview of various government policies, propelling the growth of market share of heavy electric vehicles in different countries of the world Presents a case study on the successful integration of electric buses within the public transport network

In-Use Performance Results of Medium Duty Electric Vehicles (Presentation).

In-Use Performance Results of Medium Duty Electric Vehicles (Presentation).
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 18
Release: 2012
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:1065798072
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

In-Use Performance Results of Medium Duty Electric Vehicles (Presentation). Book Review:

This presentation describes a DOE program to monitor and report on vehicle performance and energy utilization of medium-duty and heavy-duty electric vehicles.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Author: Teresa Donateo
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 160
Release: 2017-06-21
ISBN 10: 9535132970
ISBN 13: 9789535132974
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hybrid Electric Vehicles Book Review:

This book on hybrid electric vehicles brings out six chapters on some of the research activities through the wide range of current issues on hybrid electric vehicles. The first section deals with two interesting applications of HEVs, namely, urban buses and heavy duty working machines. The second one groups papers related to the optimization of the electricity flows in a hybrid electric vehicle, starting from the optimization of recharge in PHEVs through advance storage systems, new motor technologies, and integrated starter-alternator technologies. A comprehensive analysis of the technologies used in HEVs is beyond the aim of the book. However, the content of this volume can be useful to scientists and students to broaden their knowledge of technologies and application of hybrid electric vehicles.

Electric Powertrain

Electric Powertrain
Author: John G. Hayes,G. Abas Goodarzi
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2018-02-05
ISBN 10: 1119063647
ISBN 13: 9781119063643
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electric Powertrain Book Review:

The why, what and how of the electric vehicle powertrain Empowers engineering professionals and students with the knowledge and skills required to engineer electric vehicle powertrain architectures, energy storage systems, power electronics converters and electric drives. The modern electric powertrain is relatively new for the automotive industry, and engineers are challenged with designing affordable, efficient and high-performance electric powertrains as the industry undergoes a technological evolution. Co-authored by two electric vehicle (EV) engineers with decades of experience designing and putting into production all of the powertrain technologies presented, this book provides readers with the hands-on knowledge, skills and expertise they need to rise to that challenge. This four-part practical guide provides a comprehensive review of battery, hybrid and fuel cell EV systems and the associated energy sources, power electronics, machines, and drives. The first part of the book begins with a historical overview of electromobility and the related environmental impacts motivating the development of the electric powertrain. Vehicular requirements for electromechanical propulsion are then presented. Battery electric vehicles (BEV), fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), and conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are then described, contrasted and compared for vehicle propulsion. The second part of the book features in-depth analysis of the electric powertrain traction machines, with a particular focus on the induction machine and the surface- and interior-permanent magnet ac machines. The brushed dc machine is also considered due to its ease of operation and understanding, and its historical place, especially as the traction machine on NASA’s Mars rovers. The third part of the book features the theory and applications for the propulsion, charging, accessory, and auxiliary power electronics converters. Chapters are presented on isolated and non-isolated dc-dc converters, traction inverters, and battery charging. The fourth part presents the introductory and applied electromagnetism required as a foundation throughout the book. • Introduces and holistically integrates the key EV powertrain technologies. • Provides a comprehensive overview of existing and emerging automotive solutions. • Provides experience-based expertise for vehicular and powertrain system and sub-system level study, design, and optimization. • Presents many examples of powertrain technologies from leading manufacturers. • Discusses the dc traction machines of the Mars rovers, the ultimate EVs from NASA. • Investigates the environmental motivating factors and impacts of electromobility. • Presents a structured university teaching stream from introductory undergraduate to postgraduate. • Includes real-world problems and assignments of use to design engineers, researchers, and students alike. • Features a companion website with numerous references, problems, solutions, and practical assignments. • Includes introductory material throughout the book for the general scientific reader. • Contains essential reading for government regulators and policy makers. Electric Powertrain: Energy Systems, Power Electronics and Drives for Hybrid, Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles is an important professional resource for practitioners and researchers in the battery, hybrid, and fuel cell EV transportation industry. The book is a structured holistic textbook for the teaching of the fundamental theories and applications of energy sources, power electronics, and electric machines and drives to engineering undergraduate and postgraduate students. Textbook Structure and Suggested Teaching Curriculum This is primarily an engineering textbook covering the automotive powertrain, energy storage and energy conversion, power electronics, and electrical machines. A significant additional focus is placed on the engineering design, the energy for transportation, and the related environmental impacts. This textbook is an educational tool for practicing engineers and others, such as transportation policy planners and regulators. The modern automobile is used as the vehicle upon which to base the theory and applications, which makes the book a useful educational reference for our industry colleagues, from chemists to engineers. This material is also written to be of interest to the general reader, who may have little or no interest in the power electronics and machines. Introductory science, mathematics, and an inquiring mind suffice for some chapters. The general reader can read the introduction to each of the chapters and move to the next as soon as the material gets too advanced for him or her. Part I Vehicles and Energy Sources Chapter 1 Electromobility and the Environment Chapter 2 Vehicle Dynamics Chapter 3 Batteries Chapter 4 Fuel Cells Chapter 5 Conventional and Hybrid Powertrains Part II Electrical Machines Chapter 6 Introduction to Traction Machines Chapter 7 The Brushed DC Machine Chapter 8 Induction Machines Chapter 9 Surface-permanent-magnet AC Machines Chapter 10: Interior-permanent-magnet AC Machines Part III Power Electronics Chapter 11 DC-DC Converters Chapter 12 Isolated DC-DC Converters Chapter 13 Traction Drives and Three-phase Inverters Chapter 14 Battery Charging Chapter 15 Control of the Electric Drive Part IV Basics Chapter 16 Introduction to Electromagnetism, Ferromagnetism, and Electromechanical Energy Conversion The first third of the book (Chapters 1 to 6), plus parts of Chapters 14 and 16, can be taught to the general science or engineering student in the second or third year. It covers the introductory automotive material using basic concepts from mechanical, electrical, environmental, and electrochemical engineering. Chapter 14 on electrical charging and Chapter 16 on electromagnetism can also be used as a general introduction to electrical engineering. The basics of electromagnetism, ferromagnetism and electromechanical energy conversion (Chapter 16) and dc machines (Chapter 7) can be taught to second year (sophomore) engineering students who have completed introductory electrical circuits and physics. The third year (junior) students typically have covered ac circuit analysis, and so they can cover ac machines, such as the induction machine (Chapter 8) and the surface permanent-magnet ac machine (Chapter 9). As the students typically have studied control theory, they can investigate the control of the speed and torque loops of the motor drive (Chapter 15). Power electronics, featuring non-isolated buck and boost converters (Chapter 11), can also be introduced in the third year. The final-year (senior) students can then go on to cover the more advanced technologies of the interior-permanent-magnet ac machine (Chapter 10). Isolated power converters (Chapter 12), such as the full-bridge and resonant converters, inverters (Chapter 13), and power-factor-corrected battery chargers (Chapter 14), are covered in the power electronics section. This material can also be covered at the introductory postgraduate level. Various homework, simulation, and research exercises are presented throughout the textbook. The reader is encouraged to attempt these exercises as part of the learning experience. Instructors are encouraged to contact the author, John Hayes, direct to discuss course content or structure.

Medium- and Heavy-duty Vehicle R&D Strategic Plan

Medium- and Heavy-duty Vehicle R&D Strategic Plan
Author: United States. Department of Transportation
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 52
Release: 2000
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UCSD:31822029065711
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Medium- and Heavy-duty Vehicle R&D Strategic Plan Book Review:

Reducing Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two

Reducing Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Transportation Research Board,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee on Assessment of Technologies and Approaches for Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 398
Release: 2020-05-15
ISBN 10: 0309496381
ISBN 13: 9780309496384
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Reducing Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two Book Review:

Medium- and heavy-duty trucks, motor coaches, and transit buses - collectively, "medium- and heavy-duty vehicles", or MHDVs - are used in every sector of the economy. The fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of MHDVs have become a focus of legislative and regulatory action in the past few years. This study is a follow-on to the National Research Council's 2010 report, Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium-and Heavy-Duty Vehicles. That report provided a series of findings and recommendations on the development of regulations for reducing fuel consumption of MHDVs. On September 15, 2011, NHTSA and EPA finalized joint Phase I rules to establish a comprehensive Heavy-Duty National Program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption for on-road medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. As NHTSA and EPA began working on a second round of standards, the National Academies issued another report, Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report, providing recommendations for the Phase II standards. This third and final report focuses on a possible third phase of regulations to be promulgated by these agencies in the next decade.

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
Author: Joeri Van Mierlo
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 230
Release: 2019-08-27
ISBN 10: 3039214535
ISBN 13: 9783039214532
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Book Review:

Climate change, urban air quality, and dependency on crude oil are important societal challenges. In the transportation sector especially, clean and energy efficient technologies must be developed. Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained a growing interest in the vehicle industry. Nowadays, the commercialization of EVs and PHEVs has been possible in different applications (i.e., light duty, medium duty, and heavy duty vehicles) thanks to the advances in energy storage systems, power electronics converters (including DC/DC converters, DC/AC inverters, and battery charging systems), electric machines, and energy efficient power flow control strategies. This book is based on the Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences on “Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)”. This collection of research articles includes topics such as novel propulsion systems, emerging power electronics and their control algorithms, emerging electric machines and control techniques, energy storage systems, including BMS, and efficient energy management strategies for hybrid propulsion, vehicle-to-grid (V2G), vehicle-to-home (V2H), grid-to-vehicle (G2V) technologies, and wireless power transfer (WPT) systems.

To Promote Advanced Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles and Vehicle Components, August 3, 2007, 110-1 House Report 110-307, Part 1

To Promote Advanced Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles and Vehicle Components, August 3, 2007, 110-1 House Report 110-307, Part 1
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2007
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: STANFORD:36105050457667
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

To Promote Advanced Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles and Vehicle Components, August 3, 2007, 110-1 House Report 110-307, Part 1 Book Review:

Energy and Environment

Energy and Environment
Author: Michel Andr?,Zissis Samaras
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 556
Release: 2016-06-20
ISBN 10: 1786300265
ISBN 13: 9781786300263
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy and Environment Book Review:

Transport systems are facing an impossible dilemma: satisfy an increasing demand for mobility of people and goods, while decreasing their fossil-energy requirements and preserving the environment. Additionally, transport has an opportunity to evolve in a changing world, with new services, technologies but also new requirements (fast delivery, reliability, improved accessibility). In this book, recent research works are reported around the triptych: “transport, energy and environment”, which demonstrates that vehicle technologies and fuels can still improve, but it is necessary to prepare their implementation (e.g. electro-mobility), to think of new services, and to involve all actors, particularly enterprises, who will be the drivers of innovation. Mitigation strategies are studied to promote innovative, multimodal and clean transports and services. Research progress is reported on air pollution, vibrations and noise, their mitigation and assessment methodologies.

Vehicular Electric Power Systems

Vehicular Electric Power Systems
Author: Ali Emadi,Mehrdad Ehsani,John M. Miller
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 515
Release: 2003-12-12
ISBN 10: 9780824747510
ISBN 13: 0824747518
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Vehicular Electric Power Systems Book Review:

Vehicular Electric Power Systems: Land, Sea, Air, and Space Vehicles acquaints professionals with trends and challenges in the development of more electric vehicles (MEVs) using detailed examples and comprehensive discussions of advanced MEV power system architectures, characteristics, and dynamics. The authors focus on real-world applications and highlight issues related to system stability as well as challenges faced during and after implementation. Probes innovations in the development of more electric vehicles for improved maintenance, support, endurance, safety, and cost-efficiency in automotive, aerospace, and marine vehicle engineering Heralding a new wave of advances in power system technology, Vehicular Electric Power Systems discusses: Different automotive power systems including conventional automobiles, more electric cars, heavy-duty vehicles, and electric and hybrid electric vehicles Electric and hybrid electric propulsion systems and control strategies Aerospace power systems including conventional and advanced aircraft, spacecraft, and the international space station Sea and undersea vehicles The modeling, real-time state estimation, and stability assessment of vehicular power systems Applications of fuel cells in various land, sea, air, and space vehicles Modeling techniques for energy storage devices including batteries, fuel cells, photovoltaic cells, and ultracapacitors Advanced power electronic converters and electric motor drives for vehicular applications Guidelines for the proper design of DC and AC distribution architectures

Electric and Hybrid-electric Vehicles: Engines and powertrains

Electric and Hybrid-electric Vehicles: Engines and powertrains
Author: Ronald K. Jurgen
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 147
Release: 2011
ISBN 10: 9780768057195
ISBN 13: 0768057191
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electric and Hybrid-electric Vehicles: Engines and powertrains Book Review:

Compilation of SAE technical papers published from 2008-2010.

United States Code 2006 Edition Supplement IV

United States Code 2006 Edition Supplement IV
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Government Printing Office
Total Pages: 329
Release:
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13:
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

United States Code 2006 Edition Supplement IV Book Review:

United States Code

United States Code
Author: United States
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2006
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UCR:31210025662980
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

United States Code Book Review:

Electrification of Heavy-Duty Construction Vehicles

Electrification of Heavy-Duty Construction Vehicles
Author: Hong Wang,Yanjun Huang,Amir Khajepour,Chuan Hu
Publsiher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Total Pages: 106
Release: 2017-12-04
ISBN 10: 1681732408
ISBN 13: 9781681732404
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electrification of Heavy-Duty Construction Vehicles Book Review:

The number of heavy-duty construction vehicles is increasing significantly with growing urban development causing poor air quality and higher emissions. The electrification of construction vehicles is a way to mitigate the resulting air pollution and emissions. In this book, we consider tracked bulldozers, as an example, to demonstrate the approach and evaluate the benefits of the electrification of construction vehicles. The book is intended for senior undergraduate students, graduate students, and anyone with an interest in the electrification of heavy vehicles. The book begins with an introduction to electrification of heavy-duty construction vehicles. The second chapter is focused on the terramechanics and interactions between track and blades with soil. The third chapter presents the architecture and modeling of a series hybrid bulldozer. Finally, the fourth chapter discusses energy management systems for electrified heavy construction vehicles.

Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Author: National Research Council,Transportation Research Board,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee to Assess Fuel Economy Technologies for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 250
Release: 2010-08-30
ISBN 10: 0309149827
ISBN 13: 9780309149822
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles Book Review:

Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles evaluates various technologies and methods that could improve the fuel economy of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, transit buses, and work trucks. The book also recommends approaches that federal agencies could use to regulate these vehicles' fuel consumption. Currently there are no fuel consumption standards for such vehicles, which account for about 26 percent of the transportation fuel used in the U.S. The miles-per-gallon measure used to regulate the fuel economy of passenger cars. is not appropriate for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, which are designed above all to carry loads efficiently. Instead, any regulation of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles should use a metric that reflects the efficiency with which a vehicle moves goods or passengers, such as gallons per ton-mile, a unit that reflects the amount of fuel a vehicle would use to carry a ton of goods one mile. This is called load-specific fuel consumption (LSFC). The book estimates the improvements that various technologies could achieve over the next decade in seven vehicle types. For example, using advanced diesel engines in tractor-trailers could lower their fuel consumption by up to 20 percent by 2020, and improved aerodynamics could yield an 11 percent reduction. Hybrid powertrains could lower the fuel consumption of vehicles that stop frequently, such as garbage trucks and transit buses, by as much 35 percent in the same time frame.

Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report

Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee to Review the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Phase 2
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 190
Release: 2012-07-04
ISBN 10: 0309222478
ISBN 13: 9780309222471
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report Book Review:

In July 2010, the National Research Council (NRC) appointed the Committee to Review the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Phase 2, to conduct an independent review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership (21CTP). The 21CTP is a cooperative research and development (R&D) partnership including four federal agencies-the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-and 15 industrial partners. The purpose of this Partnership is to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, increase heavy-duty vehicle safety, and support research, development, and demonstration to initiate commercially viable products and systems. This is the NRC's second report on the topic and it includes the committee's review of the Partnership as a whole, its major areas of focus, 21CTP's management and priority setting, efficient operations, and the new SuperTruck program.

Fundamentals of Medium/Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Fundamentals of Medium/Heavy Duty Diesel Engines
Author: Gus Wright
Publsiher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Total Pages: 1000
Release: 2015-12-18
ISBN 10: 1284117537
ISBN 13: 9781284117530
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Medium/Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Book Review:

Based on the 2014 National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation (NATEF) Medium/Heavy Truck Tasks Lists and ASE Certification Test Series for truck and bus specialists, Fundamentals of Medium/Heavy Duty Diesel Engines is designed to address these and other international training standards. The text offers comprehensive coverage of every NATEF task with clarity and precision in a concise format that ensures student comprehension and encourages critical thinking. Fundamentals of Medium-Heavy Duty Diesel Engines describes safe and effective diagnostic, repair, and maintenance procedures for today's medium and heavy vehicle diesel engines.

Heavy-Duty-, On- und Off-Highway-Motoren 2018

Heavy-Duty-, On- und Off-Highway-Motoren 2018
Author: Wolfgang Siebenpfeiffer
Publsiher: Springer-Verlag
Total Pages: 447
Release: 2019-04-12
ISBN 10: 3658258896
ISBN 13: 9783658258894
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Heavy-Duty-, On- und Off-Highway-Motoren 2018 Book Review:

Die inhaltlichen Schwerpunkte des Tagungsbands zur ATZlive-Veranstaltung Heavy-Duty-, On- und Off-Highway-Motoren 2018 sind unter anderem neue Diesel- und Gasmotoren, Schadstoffreduzierung, Powertrain-Konzepte für den On- und Off-Highway-Bereich, Einspritzung sowie die Komponentenentwicklung im Hinblick auf das System. Die Tagung ist eine unverzichtbare Plattform für den Wissens- und Gedankenaustausch von Forschern und Entwicklern aller Unternehmen und Institutionen, die dieses Ziel verfolgen.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 329
Release: 19??
ISBN 10: 9789535132981
ISBN 13: 9535132989
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hybrid Electric Vehicles Book Review:

The Electric Vehicle

The Electric Vehicle
Author: Gijs Mom
Publsiher: JHU Press
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2013-02-15
ISBN 10: 1421412683
ISBN 13: 9781421412689
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Electric Vehicle Book Review:

Recent attention to hybrid cars that run on both gasoline and electric batteries has made the electric car an apparent alternative to the internal combustion engine and its attendant environmental costs and geopolitical implications. Few people realize that the electric car—neither a recent invention nor a historical curiosity—has a story as old as that of the gasoline-powered automobile, and that at one time many in the nascent automobile industry believed battery-powered engines would become the dominant technology. In both Europe and America, electric cars and trucks succeeded in meeting the needs of a wide range of consumers. Before World War II, as many as 30,000 electric cars and more than 10,000 electric trucks plied American roads; European cities were busy with, electrically propelled fire engines, taxis, delivery vans, buses, heavy trucks and private cars. Even so, throughout the century-long history of electric propulsion, the widespread conviction it was an inferior technology remained stubbornly in place, an assumption mirrored in popular and scholarly memory. In The Electric Vehicle, Gijs Mom challenges this view, arguing that at the beginning of the automobile age neither the internal combustion engine nor the battery-powered vehicle enjoyed a clear advantage. He explores the technology and marketing/consumer-ratio faction relationship over four "generations" of electric-vehicle design, with separate chapters on privately owned passenger cars and commercial vehicles. Mom makes comparisons among European countries and between Europe and America. He finds that the electric vehicle offered many advantages, among them greater reliability and control, less noise and pollution. He also argues that a nexus of factors—cultural (underpowered and less rugged, electric cars seemed "feminine" at a time when most car buyers were men), structural (the shortcomings of battery technology at the time), and systemic (the infrastructural problems of changing large numbers of batteries)—ultimately gave an edge to the internal combustion engine. One hopes, as a new generation of electric vehicles becomes a reality, The Electric Vehicle offers a long-overdue reassessment of the place of this technology in the history of street transportation.