Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals
Author: Monica Nordberg,Gunnar F. Nordberg,Bruce A. Fowler,Lars Friberg
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 1024
Release: 2011-04-28
ISBN 10: 9780080546100
ISBN 13: 0080546102
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Book Review:

Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals is the standard reference work for physicians, toxicologists and engineers in the field of environmental and occupational health. This new edition is a comprehensive review of the effects on biological systems from metallic elements and their compounds. An entirely new structure and illustrations represent the vast array of advancements made since the last edition. Special emphasis has been placed on the toxic effects in humans with chapters on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of metal poisoning. This up-to-date reference provides easy access to a broad range of basic toxicological data and also gives a general introduction to the toxicology of metallic compounds. * Covers up-to-date toxicological information on 31 metallic elements and their compounds, each in a separate chapter * New chapters on general chemistry, biological monitoring and biomarkers, essential metals, principles for prevention of the toxic effects of metals, and more

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Specific metals

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals  Specific metals
Author: Lars Friberg,Gunnar Nordberg,Velimir B. Vouk
Publsiher: Elsevier Science Limited
Total Pages: 704
Release: 1986
ISBN 10: 9780444904423
ISBN 13: 0444904425
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Specific metals Book Review:

Chapters on specific metals include physical and chemical properties, methods and problems of analysis, production and uses, environmental levels and exposures, metabolism, levels in tissues and biological fluids, effects and dose-response relationships, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity and preventative measures, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals
Author: Gunnar F. Nordberg,Bruce A. Fowler,Monica Nordberg
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 1542
Release: 2014-08-07
ISBN 10: 0123973392
ISBN 13: 9780123973399
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Book Review:

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Fourth Edition bridges the gap between established knowledgebase and new advances in metal toxicology to provide one essential reference for all those involved in the field. This book provides comprehensive coverage of basic toxicological data, emphasizing toxic effects primarily in humans, but also those of animals and biological systems in vitro. The fourth edition also contains several new chapters on important topics such as nanotoxicology, metals in prosthetics and dental implants, gene-environment interaction, neurotoxicology, metals in food, renal, cardiovascular, and diabetes effects of metal exposures and more. Volume I covers “General Considerations and Volume II is devoted to “Specific Metals. A multidisciplinary resource with contributions from internationally-recognized experts, the fourth edition of the Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals is a prominent and indispensable reference for toxicologists, physicians, pharmacologists, engineers, and all those involved in the toxicity of metals. Contains 61 peer reviewed chapters dealing with the effects of metallic elements and their compounds on biological systems Includes information on sources, transport and transformation of metals in the environment and on certain aspects of the ecological effects of metals to provide a basis for better understanding of the potential for adverse effects on human health Covers the toxicology of metallic nanomaterials in a new comprehensive chapter Metal toxicology in developing countries is dealt with in another new chapter emphasizing the adverse effects on human health by the inadequate handling of "ewaste Other new chapters in the 4th edition include: Toxic metals in food; Toxicity of metals released from medical devices; Gene-environment interactions; Neurotoxicology of metals; Cardiovascular disease; Renal effects of exposure to metals; Gold and gold mining; Iridium; Lanthanum; Lithium and Rhodium

Metal Toxicology Handbook

Metal Toxicology Handbook
Author: Debasis Bagchi,Manashi Bagchi
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 490
Release: 2020-11-19
ISBN 10: 0429795742
ISBN 13: 9780429795749
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Metal Toxicology Handbook Book Review:

Heavy metals and metalloids, singly or in combination, induce toxic manifestations either through acute or chronic pathology. In particular, long-term chronic exposure to diverse heavy metals and metalloids to humans and animals can lead to numerous physical, muscular, neurological, nephrological, and diverse degenerative diseases and dysfunctions, including multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and several others. Recognized heavy metals such as lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, thallium, and hexavalent chromium are known for enormous toxicity. The immediate vital signs of acute heavy metal exposure include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and acute abdominal pain. Mercury has been identified as the most toxic heavy metal, and mercury poisoning is known as acrodynia or pink disease. Similarly, lead, another toxic heavy metal, was at one time an integral part of painting. Metal Toxicology Handbook further explains and discusses the varying attributes of metals, discussing toxicity, safety, and proper human utilization of metals. Beginning with a broad overview of metals, metalloids, redox biology, and neurodegeneration and going further into the roles, benefits, and toxicity of metals with each section, the text contains 28 chapters from eminent researchers and scientists in their respective fields and is a must-have for anyone researching the potential toxicity in metals. Key Features Discusses the pathology of metal toxicity Highlights the benefits of metals Explains the mechanism and salient features of restoring metabolic homeostasis Highlights dose-dependent beneficial and adverse effects of vanadium safety and toxicity The initial introductory section provides a broad overview of metals, metalloids, redox biology, and neurodegeneration. The second section discusses the pathology of metal toxicity in two chapters, while the third section highlights the mechanism and salient features of restoring metabolic homeostasis in two chapters. The fourth section demonstrates the aspect of radionuclides toxicity. In a change of pace, the fifth section discusses the benefits of metals in four chapters. The sixth section, titled "Toxic Manifestations by Diverse Heavy Metals and Metalloids," provides fourteen chapters that discuss the toxicological mechanism and manifestation of individual metals. The editors have crafted a commentary titled "A Treatise on Metal Toxicity" and summarized a vivid scenario of metal toxicity and its consequences.

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals General aspects

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals  General aspects
Author: Lars Friberg,Gunnar Nordberg,Velimir B. Vouk
Publsiher: Elsevier Science Limited
Total Pages: 1162
Release: 1986
ISBN 10: 9780444904133
ISBN 13: 0444904131
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals General aspects Book Review:

Chapters on specific metals include physical and chemical properties, methods and problems of analysis, production and uses, environmental levels and exposures, metabolism, levels in tissues and biological fluids, effects and dose-response relationships, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity and preventative measures, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Risk Assessment for Human Metal Exposures

Risk Assessment for Human Metal Exposures
Author: Gunnar F. Nordberg,Bruce A. Fowler
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 348
Release: 2018-08-21
ISBN 10: 0128042680
ISBN 13: 9780128042687
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Risk Assessment for Human Metal Exposures Book Review:

Risk Assessment for Human Metal Exposures: Mode of Action and Kinetic Approaches examines the current principles of risk assessment in human metal exposures, with a focus on Mode of Action(MOA), Toxicokinetic and Toxicodynamic (TKTD) considerations, and computer models. Derived from the highly respected Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Fourth Edition (2014), the book summarizes principles and methods and provides examples of how MOA –TKTD can be used. In addition, it presents tactics on how information generated by such methods can be confirmed by epidemiological data. Furthermore, it demonstrates how epidemiological data can be confirmed and evaluated by the examined models and considerations. This resource uniquely integrates several important topics, such as risk assessment, characterization, management and communication—the classic risk assessment paradigm—with mode of action, TKTD, and epidemiology, all topics related to human exposure. Written by pioneers in the field, this book is an essential reference for researchers, students and technicians in toxicology and risk assessment. Covers fundamental risk assessment concerns for the effects of metals on human health Provides an easy-to-use structure to quickly locate specific methods Uses case studies to illustrate the methods and theories described Written to be understood by students, researchers and industry workers who need to conduct risk assessment in metals and human health

Handbook of Arsenic Toxicology

Handbook of Arsenic Toxicology
Author: Swaran Jeet Singh Flora
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 752
Release: 2014-12-26
ISBN 10: 0124199550
ISBN 13: 9780124199552
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Arsenic Toxicology Book Review:

Throughout history, arsenic has been used as an effective and lethal poison. Today, arsenic continues to present a real threat to human health all over the world, as it contaminates groundwater and food supplies. Handbook of Arsenic Toxicology presents the latest findings on arsenic, its chemistry, its sources and its acute and chronic effects on the environment and human health. The book takes readings systematically through the target organs, before detailing current preventative and counter measures. This reference enables readers to effectively assess the risks related to arsenic, and provide a comprehensive look at arsenic exposure, toxicity and toxicity prevention. Brings together current findings on the effects of arsenic on the environment and human health Includes state-of-the-art techniques in arsenic toxicokinetics, speciation and molecular mechanisms Provides all the information needed for effective risk assessment, prevention and countermeasure

Handbook of Human Toxicology

Handbook of Human Toxicology
Author: Edward J. Massaro
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1136
Release: 1997-07-09
ISBN 10: 143980575X
ISBN 13: 9781439805756
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Human Toxicology Book Review:

Covering some of the most important topics in modern toxicology, the Handbook of Human Toxicology is a unique and valuable addition to the current literature. It addresses issues, answers questions, and provides data related to. Within each of these five major sections are several carefully selected topics that reflect the current state of human to

Toxicology of Metals

Toxicology of Metals
Author: Louis W. Chang
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1232
Release: 1996-08-02
ISBN 10: 9780873718035
ISBN 13: 0873718038
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Toxicology of Metals Book Review:

This volume offers the most comprehensive presentation available on metal toxicology. It discusses not only metals but also the toxic endpoints, such as neurotoxicity, renal toxicity, and cancer induction. Chapters are written by experts in their respective fields, focusing on carcinogenesis and human exposures and highlighting the major aspects and issues of toxicity in general.

Haschek and Rousseaux s Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology

Haschek and Rousseaux s Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology
Author: Wanda M. Haschek,Colin G. Rousseaux,Matthew A. Wallig
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 3054
Release: 2013-05-01
ISBN 10: 0124157653
ISBN 13: 9780124157651
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Haschek and Rousseaux s Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology Book Review:

Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology is a key reference on the integration of structure and functional changes in tissues associated with the response to pharmaceuticals, chemicals and biologics. The 3e has been expanded by a full volume, and covers aspects of safety assessment not discussed in the 2e. Completely revised with many new chapters, it remains the most authoritative reference on toxicologic pathology for scientists and researchers studying and making decisions on drugs, biologics, medical devices and other chemicals, including agrochemicals and environmental contaminants. New topics include safety assessment, the drug life cycle, risk assessment, communication and management, carcinogenicity assessment, pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, biomarkers in toxicologic pathology, quality assurance, peer review, agrochemicals, nanotechnology, food and toxicologic pathology, the environment and toxicologic pathology and more. Provides new chapters and in-depth discussion of timely topics in the area of toxicologic pathology and broadens the scope of the audience to include toxicologists and pathologists working in a variety of settings Offers high-quality and trusted content in a multi-contributed work written by leading international authorities in all areas of toxicologic pathology Features hundreds of full color images in both the print and electronic versions of the book to highlight difficult concepts with clear illustrations

Handbook of Food Toxicology

Handbook of Food Toxicology
Author: S.S. Deshpande
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 920
Release: 2002-08-29
ISBN 10: 0203908961
ISBN 13: 9780203908969
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Food Toxicology Book Review:

From health and economic consequences to exposure assessment and detoxification, this reference comprehensively covers the formation, characteristics, and control of various toxins that occur in the production, storage, handling, and preparation of food. The author discusses toxin sources, mechanisms, routes of exposure and absorption, and their ch

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents
Author: Ramesh C. Gupta
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 1168
Release: 2009-04-02
ISBN 10: 9780080922737
ISBN 13: 0080922732
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents Book Review:

This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves researchers time in quickly accessing the very latest definitive details on toxicity of specific agents used in chemical warfare as opposed to searching through thousands of journal articles. Will include the most agent-specific information on the market Includes detailed coverage of the most exhaustive list of agents possibly used as chemical warfare agents in one source. Section 4: Agents That Can Be Used as Weapons of Mass Destruction ? 25 chapters long. Other books on the market only include a sample selection of specific agents. Offering all possible agents detailed under one cover makes this appealing to a wider audience and saves researchers time The Forward will be written by Dr. Tetsuo Satoh, Chiba University, Japan. He is one of the most respected, recognizable authorities on chemical warfare agents which will set the authoritative tone for the book Covers risk to humans, animals and the environment equally. Researchers involved in assessing the risks involved with a possible chemical warfare attack and those who are developing response plans to such attacks must look at not only the risks to human health but to our wildlife and environment as well. The holistic approach taken in this book ensures that the researchers have ready access to the details no matter which aspect of the effects of CWA's they might be concerned with

A Handbook of Environmental Toxicology

A Handbook of Environmental Toxicology
Author: J.P.F. D'Mello
Publsiher: CABI
Total Pages: 673
Release: 2019-12-04
ISBN 10: 1786394677
ISBN 13: 9781786394675
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Handbook of Environmental Toxicology Book Review:

Written by an international team of authors from a range of educational, medical and research establishments, this book is an essential reference for advanced students and researchers in the areas of environmental sciences, ecology, agriculture, environmental health and medicine, in addition to industry and government personnel responsible for environmental regulations and directives. A Handbook of Environmental Toxicology focuses on two key aspects: human disorders and ecotoxicology as affected by major toxins originating from biological sources and pollutants, as well as radiation generated spontaneously or as a result of anthropogenic activity. A diverse array of these potentially harmful agents regularly appear in the atmosphere, soil, water and food, compromising both human health and biodiversity in natural and managed ecosystems.

Handbook of Copper Pharmacology and Toxicology

Handbook of Copper Pharmacology and Toxicology
Author: Edward J. Massaro
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2002-07-01
ISBN 10: 1592592880
ISBN 13: 9781592592883
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Copper Pharmacology and Toxicology Book Review:

Edward J. Massaro and a panel of leading biomedical researchers and clinical practitioners review, in-depth, the status of our current knowledge concerning the biochemistry of copper in general and its role in health and disease in particular. Drawing on the wealth of new information emerging from the molecular biology revolution, these experts survey the most important research areas of copper pharmacology and toxicology, including copper proteins and transport, copper toxicity and therapeutics, and copper metabolism and homeostasis. They also discuss the molecular pathogenesis of copper in a variety of metabolic diseases, Menkes and Wilson's diseases and occipital horn syndrome, as well as the role of copper in Parkinson's disease, prion disease, familial amytrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Alzheimer's disease.

Handbook of Metal Microbe Interactions and Bioremediation

Handbook of Metal Microbe Interactions and Bioremediation
Author: Surajit Das,Hirak Ranjan Dash
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 813
Release: 2017-04-07
ISBN 10: 1498762433
ISBN 13: 9781498762434
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Metal Microbe Interactions and Bioremediation Book Review:

Around the World, metal pollution is a major problem. Conventional practices of toxic metal removal can be ineffective and/or expensive, delaying and exacerbating the crisis. Those communities dealing with contamination must be aware of the fundamentals advances of microbe-mediated metal removal practices because these methods can be easily used and require less remedial intervention. This book describes innovations and efficient applications for metal bioremediation for environments polluted by metal contaminates.

Mercury Cadmium Lead Handbook for Sustainable Heavy Metals Policy and Regulation

Mercury     Cadmium     Lead Handbook for Sustainable Heavy Metals Policy and Regulation
Author: M.J. Scoullos,Gerrit H. Vonkeman,I. Thornton,Z. Makuch
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 525
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 940100403X
ISBN 13: 9789401004039
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mercury Cadmium Lead Handbook for Sustainable Heavy Metals Policy and Regulation Book Review:

Although this is a handbook for policy and regulation, the major part of it is filled with data on the three heavy metals that served as examples: mercury, cadmium and lead. Their stocks, productions, prices, trade flows, uses and applications, recovery and recycling, as well as their (eco)toxicological characteristics have been collected and presented to their fullest extent. In addition, they are thoroughly analysed for consistency, future developments and trends and, of course, their consequences for sustainable development and future policy and regulation. The second part, on policy and regulation, begins with an extensive and fundamental consideration on the characteristics of a sustainable heavy metals policy, whereby innovative policy tools are developed. In many aspects, these considerations are also valid for other metals and even non-metallic persistent substances. Addressing the European Union in particular, its policy-making structure and practice are critically analysed, in order to develop feasible and viable guidelines for long-, medium- and short-term EU policy measures. The results of this exercise are then applied to the three heavy metals. In each of these three chapters, all existing EU measures are presented in detail and confronted with better practices elsewhere, resulting in many suggestions and recommendations for the future. In the last chapter, the main conclusions and recommendations are carefully summarised. Together with a very extended table of contents, this makes the book easily accessible, in spite of its volume. This Handbook is a must for policy-makers and administrators at all levels, as well as for their counterparts in a wide variety of industries. In addition, it is well-suited for environmental science courses at academic or higher professional level.

Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment

Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment
Author: Lawrence K. Wang,Yung-Tse Hung,Howard H. Lo,Constantine Yapijakis
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1368
Release: 2004-06-29
ISBN 10: 9780203026519
ISBN 13: 0203026519
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment Book Review:

Presenting effective, practicable strategies modeled from ultramodern technologies and framed by the critical insights of 78 field experts, this vastly expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials-from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to w

Handbook of Toxicology Second Edition

Handbook of Toxicology  Second Edition
Author: Michael J. Derelanko,Mannfred A. Hollinger
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1440
Release: 2001-08-29
ISBN 10: 9781420042078
ISBN 13: 1420042076
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Toxicology Second Edition Book Review:

LOCATE FREQUENTLY USED INFORMATION EASILY AND QUICKLY Working in the laboratory or office, you use a diverse assortment of basic information to design, conduct, and interpret toxicology studies and to perform risk assessments. The Second Edition of the best-selling Handbook of Toxicology gives you the information you need in a single reference source. NEW IN THIS EDITION: Expanded coverage of inhalation toxicology, neurotoxicology, and histopathology Additional regulatory chapters dealing with pesticides, medical devices, consumer products, and world-wide notification of new chemicals Areas of toxicology missing from the first edition such as ecotoxicology and in vitro toxicology A chapter providing extensive overview of the toxicology of metals Two chapters on basic male and female endocrinology and related toxicology Information on differences in physiological and biochemical parameters between children and adults References to Web site sources of valuable information Over 200 new tables and figures THE SINGLE SOURCE FOR THE INFORMATION YOU USE MOST FREQUENTLY Updated and expanded, this unique book includes practical reference information useful to toxicologists in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, contract laboratories, regulatory agencies, and academia. To help you find information quickly and easily, data is arranged by toxicology subspecialty and each chapter begins with a detailed listing of information presented. Containing over 700 tables and figures, Handbook of Toxicology, Second Edition gives you a single source for the information you use most often.

Encyclopedia of Toxicology

Encyclopedia of Toxicology
Author: Bruce Anderson,Ann de Peyster,Shayne C. Gad,P.J. Bert Hakkinen,Michael Kamrin,Betty Locey,Harihara M. Mehendale,Carey Pope,Lee Shugart
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 2000
Release: 2005-05-31
ISBN 10: 0080548008
ISBN 13: 9780080548005
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encyclopedia of Toxicology Book Review:

The second edition of the Encyclopedia of Toxicology continues its comprehensive survey of toxicology. This new edition continues to present entries devoted to key concepts and specific chemicals. There has been an increase in entries devoted to international organizations and well-known toxic-related incidents such as Love Canal and Chernobyl. Along with the traditional scientifically based entries, new articles focus on the societal implications of toxicological knowledge including environmental crimes, chemical and biological warfare in ancient times, and a history of the U.S. environmental movement. With more than 1150 entries, this second edition has been expanded in length, breadth and depth, and provides an extensive overview of the many facets of toxicology. Also available online via ScienceDirect – featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com. *Second edition has been expanded to 4 volumes *Encyclopedic A-Z arrangement of chemicals and all core areas of the science of toxicology *Covers related areas such as organizations, toxic accidents, historical and social issues, and laws *New topics covered include computational toxicology, cancer potency factors, chemical accidents, non-lethal chemical weapons, drugs of abuse, and consumer products and many more!

Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants Children and Other Sensitive Populations

Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants  Children  and Other Sensitive Populations
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Committee on Measuring Lead in Critical Populations
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 356
Release: 1993-02-01
ISBN 10: 030904927X
ISBN 13: 9780309049276
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants Children and Other Sensitive Populations Book Review:

Lead is a ubiquitous toxic agent that is especially damaging to the young child and the developing fetus. Unlike many environmental health risks, the risks associated with lead are no longer theoretical but have been observed for many years. Indeed, the first regulation of lead in paint was enacted in the 1920s. Currently, because of growing evidence of lead toxicity at lower concentrations, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently lowered its lead-exposure guideline to 10 ug/dl lead in blood from 25 ug/dl. Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations addresses the public health concern about the logistics and feasibility of lead screening in infants and children at such low concentrations. This book will serve as the basis for all U.S. Public Health Service activities and for all state and local programs in monitoring lead.