Handbook on Miniaturization in Analytical Chemistry

Handbook on Miniaturization in Analytical Chemistry
Author: Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 364
Release: 2020-07-25
ISBN 10: 012822553X
ISBN 13: 9780128225530
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook on Miniaturization in Analytical Chemistry Book Review:

Handbook on Miniaturization in Analytical Chemistry: Application of Nanotechnology provides a source of authoritative fundamentals, interdisciplinary knowledge and primary literature for researchers who want to fully understand how nano-technologies work. Covering all stages of analysis, from sample preparation to separation and detection, the book discusses the design and manufacturing technology of miniaturization and includes an entire section on safety risks, ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI), the economics of nanotechnologies, and a discussion on sustainability with respect to nano- and lab-on-chip technologies. This guide for students and researchers working on applications of nanotechnology in modern systems for analysis gives readers everything they need to know to bring their current practices up-to-date. Details the impacts of miniaturization and nanotechnology Includes coverage of the current challenges for scaling up nano-miniaturization design and manufacturing technology for analysis Provides the latest reference materials, including websites of interest and details on the latest research in every chapter

Handbook of Green Analytical Chemistry

Handbook of Green Analytical Chemistry
Author: de la Guardia,Salvador Garrigues
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 544
Release: 2012-02-23
ISBN 10: 111994094X
ISBN 13: 9781119940944
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Green Analytical Chemistry Book Review:

The emerging field of green analytical chemistry is concerned with the development of analytical procedures that minimize consumption of hazardous reagents and solvents, and maximize safety for operators and the environment. In recent years there have been significant developments in methodological and technological tools to prevent and reduce the deleterious effects of analytical activities; key strategies include recycling, replacement, reduction and detoxification of reagents and solvents. The Handbook of Green Analytical Chemistry provides a comprehensive overview of the present state and recent developments in green chemical analysis. A series of detailed chapters, written by international specialists in the field, discuss the fundamental principles of green analytical chemistry and present a catalogue of tools for developing environmentally friendly analytical techniques. Topics covered include: Concepts: Fundamental principles, education, laboratory experiments and publication in green analytical chemistry. The Analytical Process: Green sampling techniques and sample preparation, direct analysis of samples, green methods for capillary electrophoresis, chromatography, atomic spectroscopy, solid phase molecular spectroscopy, derivative molecular spectroscopy and electroanalytical methods. Strategies: Energy saving, automation, miniaturization and photocatalytic treatment of laboratory wastes. Fields of Application: Green bioanalytical chemistry, biodiagnostics, environmental analysis and industrial analysis. This advanced handbook is a practical resource for experienced analytical chemists who are interested in implementing green approaches in their work.

Handbook of Smart Materials in Analytical Chemistry

Handbook of Smart Materials in Analytical Chemistry
Author: Miguel de la Guardia,Francesc A. Esteve-Turrillas
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 1000
Release: 2019-01-24
ISBN 10: 1119422590
ISBN 13: 9781119422594
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Smart Materials in Analytical Chemistry Book Review:

A comprehensive guide to smart materials and how they are used in sample preparation, analytical processes, and applications This comprehensive, two-volume handbook provides detailed information on the present state of new materials tailored for selective sample preparation and the legal frame and environmental side effects of the use of smart materials for sample preparation in analytical chemistry, as well as their use in the analytical processes and applications. It covers both methodological and applied analytical aspects, relating to the development and application of new materials for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME), their use in the different steps and techniques of the analytical process, and their application in specific fields such as water, food, air, pharmaceuticals, clinical sciences and forensics. Every chapter in Handbook of Smart Materials in Analytical Chemistry is written by experts in the field to provide a comprehensive picture of the present state of this key area of analytical sciences and to summarize current applications and research literature in a critical way. Volume 1 covers New Materials for Sample Preparation and Analysis. Volume 2 handles Analytical Processes and Applications. Focuses on the development and applications of smart materials in analytical chemistry Covers both, methodological and applied analytical aspects, for the development of new materials and their use in the different steps and techniques of the analytical process and their application in specific fields Features applications in key areas including water, air, environment, pharma, food, forensic, and clinical Presents the available tools for the use of new materials suitable to aid recognition process to the sample preparation and analysis A key resource for analytical chemists, applied laboratories, and instrument companies Handbook of Smart Materials in Analytical Chemistry, 2V Set is an excellent reference book for specialists and advanced students in the areas of analytical chemistry, including both research and application environments.

Analytical Instrumentation

Analytical Instrumentation
Author: Gillian McMahon
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 318
Release: 2008-03-11
ISBN 10: 9780470518557
ISBN 13: 0470518553
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Analytical Instrumentation Book Review:

This valuable resource covers the principles of analytical instrumentation used by today's chemists and biologists and presents important advances in instrumentation, such as the drive to miniaturise and lab-on-a-chip devices. In terms of the lab-based analytical instrumentation, the five main categories of technique—spectroscopic, chromatographic, electrochemical, imaging and thermoanalytical, are included and presented in a practical, not theoretical way. Including relevant examples and applications in a number of fields such as healthcare, environment and pharmaceutical industry this book provides a complete overview of the instruments used within the chemistry industry, making this an important tool for professionals and students alike.

Handbook of Nanomaterials in Analytical Chemistry

Handbook of Nanomaterials in Analytical Chemistry
Author: Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 544
Release: 2019-10-22
ISBN 10: 0128172908
ISBN 13: 9780128172902
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Nanomaterials in Analytical Chemistry Book Review:

Handbook of Nanomaterials in Analytical Chemistry: Modern Trends in Analysis explores the recent advancements in a variety of analytical chemistry techniques due to nanotechnology. It also devotes several chapters to the analytical techniques that have proven useful for the analysis of nanomaterials. As conventional analytical chemistry methods become insufficient in terms of accuracy, selectivity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and speed, recent advances have opened up new horizons for chemical analysis and detection methods. Chapters are authored by experts in their respective fields and include up-to-date reference materials, such as websites of interest and suggested reading lists on the latest research. Summarizes recent progress in micro-fabrication using nanomaterials for analytical chemistry techniques—among the most modernized and fast ways of performing these tasks Pays special attention to greener approaches that reduce the environmental impact and cost of the analysis process, both in terms of chemicals used and time and resource consumption Discusses many types of nanomaterials for analytical chemistry techniques, including those that are well established, such as carbon nanomaterials, as well as those that are newly trending, such as functionalized nanomaterials

Nanomaterials in Chromatography

Nanomaterials in Chromatography
Author: Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 554
Release: 2018-06-08
ISBN 10: 0128127937
ISBN 13: 9780128127933
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanomaterials in Chromatography Book Review:

Nanomaterials in Chromatography: Current Trends in Chromatographic Research Technology and Techniques provides recent advancements in the wide variety of chromatographic techniques applied to nanotechnology. As nanomaterials’ unique properties can improve detection sensitivity and miniaturize the devices used in analytical procedures, they can substantially affect the evaluation and analysis ability of scientists and researchers and foster exciting developments in separation science. The book includes chapters on such crucial topics as the use of nanomaterials in sample preparation and the legalization of nanomaterials, along with a section on reducing the cost of the analysis process, both in terms of chemicals and time consumption. Presents several techniques for nanomaterials in chromatography, including well-known materials like carbon nanomaterials and functionalized nanomaterials Includes suggested readings at the end of each chapter for those who need further information or specific details, from standard handbooks, to journal articles Covers not only applications of nanomaterials in chromatography, but also their environmental impact in terms of toxicity and economic effects

Liquid Chromatography

Liquid Chromatography
Author: Salvatore Fanali,Paul R. Haddad,Colin Poole,Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 808
Release: 2017-06-22
ISBN 10: 0128093455
ISBN 13: 9780128093450
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Liquid Chromatography Book Review:

Liquid Chromatography: Fundamentals and Instrumentation, Second Edition, is a single source of authoritative information on all aspects of the practice of modern liquid chromatography. It gives those working in both academia and industry the opportunity to learn, refresh, and deepen their understanding of new fundamentals and instrumentation techniques in the field. In the years since the first edition was published, thousands of papers have been released on new achievements in liquid chromatography, including the development of new stationary phases, improvement of instrumentation, development of theory, and new applications in biomedicine, metabolomics, proteomics, foodomics, pharmaceuticals, and more. This second edition addresses these new developments with updated chapters from the most expert researchers in the field. Emphasizes the integration of chromatographic methods and sample preparation Explains how liquid chromatography is used in different industrial sectors Covers the most interesting and valuable applications in different fields, e.g., proteomic, metabolomics, foodomics, pollutants and contaminants, and drug analysis (forensic, toxicological, pharmaceutical, biomedical) Includes references and tables with commonly used data to facilitate research, practical work, comparison of results, and decision-making

Handbook of Sample Preparation

Handbook of Sample Preparation
Author: Janusz Pawliszyn,Heather L. Lord
Publsiher: Wiley-Blackwell
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2010-10-26
ISBN 10: 9780470099346
ISBN 13: 0470099348
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Sample Preparation Book Review:

Discover new keys to solving analytical problems using the Latest sample preparation methods Commonly viewed of as a routine task rather than as an integral component in the analytical process, sample preparation has long been undervalued as a science and underdeveloped as a technology. In an effort to reverse this trend, Handbook of Sample Preparation shows why sample preparation deserves closer scientific scrutiny, and makes a compelling case for colleges and professional laboratories to devote more resources to promote the benefits of its correct application. Handbook of Sample Preparation includes: A solid overview of standard sampling methodologies and their analytical capabilities An introduction of non-traditional sampling technologies, which address the need for solvent-free alternatives, automation, and miniaturization A discussion of the analytical shift toward performing sampling on-site, rather than in the laboratory An examination of various extraction technologies and their applications for different types of matrices A look at how to take advantage of new sampling strategies to streamline laboratory procedures, reduce research costs, and increase overall productivity An excellent primer on the fundamentals of extraction as well as a sound guide on the latest technological upgrades influencing current sampling techniques, this versatile text serves as an important and accessible tool for both students and seasoned practitioners as they seek new avenues for improving the accuracy of their analyses.

Forensic Analytical Methods

Forensic Analytical Methods
Author: Thiago R L C Paixão,Wendell K T Coltro,Maiara Oliveira Salles
Publsiher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Total Pages: 295
Release: 2019-08-13
ISBN 10: 1788018567
ISBN 13: 9781788018562
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Analytical Methods Book Review:

Forensic analysis relates to the development of analytical methods from laboratory applications to in-field and in situ applications to resolve criminal cases. There has been a rapid expansion in the past few years in this area, which has led to an increase in the output of literature. This is the first book that brings together the understanding of the analytical techniques and how these influence the outcome of a forensic investigation. Starting with a brief introduction of the chemical analysis for forensic application, some forensic sampling and sample preparation, the book then describes techniques used in forensic chemical sensing in order to solve crimes. The techniques describe current forensic science practices in analytical chemistry and specifically the development of portable detectors to guide the authorities in the field. The book provides an excellent combination of current issues in forensic analytical methods for the graduates and professionals. It will cover the essential principles for students and directly relate the techniques to applications in real situations.

Miniaturized Analytical Devices

Miniaturized Analytical Devices
Author: Suresh Kumar Kailasa,Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
Publsiher: Wiley-VCH
Total Pages: 550
Release: 2021-07-06
ISBN 10: 9783527347582
ISBN 13: 3527347585
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Miniaturized Analytical Devices Book Review:

The handbook is dedicated to exploring the applications of miniaturized analytical devices in clinical microbiology, pharmaceutical industry and environmental analysis. It provides state-of-the-art information on the integration of functional nanomaterials in such devices for assaying of chemical species. Consequently, the book serves as a reference for material, analytical and bioanalytical scientists and researchers for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical species from biological and environmental matrices with simplified analytical procedures.

Advanced Environmental Analysis

Advanced Environmental Analysis
Author: Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain,Boris Kharisov
Publsiher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Total Pages: 534
Release: 2016-11-08
ISBN 10: 1782623620
ISBN 13: 9781782623625
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Environmental Analysis Book Review:

Environmental analysis techniques have advanced due to the use of nanotechnologies in improving the detection sensitivity and miniaturization of the devices in analytical procedures. These allow for developments such as increases in analyte concentration, the removal of interfering species and improvements in the detection limits. Bridging a gap in the literature, this book uniquely brings together state-of-the-art research in the applications of novel nanomaterials to each of the classical components of environmental analysis, namely sample preparation and extraction, separation and identification by spectroscopic techniques. Special attention is paid to those approaches that are considered greener and reduce the cost of the analysis process both in terms of chemicals and time consumption. Advanced undergraduates, graduates and researchers at the forefront of environmental science and engineering will find this book a good source of information. It will also help regulators, decision makers, surveillance agencies and the organizations assessing the impact of pollutants on the environment.

Handbook of Reference Electrodes

Handbook of Reference Electrodes
Author: György Inzelt,Andrzej Lewenstam,Fritz Scholz
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 344
Release: 2013-04-16
ISBN 10: 3642361889
ISBN 13: 9783642361883
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Reference Electrodes Book Review:

Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essential know-how is clearly presented and illustrated with almost 200 figures.

Advanced Techniques in Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry GC MS MS and GC TOF MS for Environmental Chemistry

Advanced Techniques in Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  GC MS MS and GC TOF MS  for Environmental Chemistry
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 526
Release: 2013-09-26
ISBN 10: 0444626247
ISBN 13: 9780444626240
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Techniques in Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry GC MS MS and GC TOF MS for Environmental Chemistry Book Review:

Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been the technique of choice of analytical scientists for many years. The latest developments in instrumentation, including tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) and time-of-flight (TOF) detectors, have opened up and broadened the scope of environmental analytical chemistry. This book summarizes the major advances and relevant applications of GC-MS techniques over the last 10 years, with chapters by leading authors in the field of environmental chemistry. The authors are drawn from academia, industry and government. The book is organized in three main parts. Part I covers applications of basic GC-MS to solve environmental-related problems. Part II focuses on GC-MS-MS instrumentation for the analyses of a broad range of analysis in environmental samples (pesticides, persistent organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors, etc.). Part III covers the use of more advanced GC-MS techniques using low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry for many applications related to the environment, food and industry. Summarizes the major advances of GC-MS techniques in the last decade Presents relevant applications of GC-MS techniques Covers academic, industrial and governmental sectors

Handbook of Electrochemistry

Handbook of Electrochemistry
Author: Cynthia G. Zoski
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 892
Release: 2007
ISBN 10: 0444519580
ISBN 13: 9780444519580
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Electrochemistry Book Review:

Electrochemistry plays a key role in a broad range of research and applied areas including the exploration of new inorganic and organic compounds, biochemical and biological systems, corrosion, energy applications involving fuel cells and solar cells, and nanoscale investigations. The Handbook of Electrochemistry serves as a source of electrochemical information, providing details of experimental considerations, representative calculations, and illustrations of the possibilities available in electrochemical experimentation. The book is divided into five parts: Fundamentals, Laboratory Practical, Techniques, Applications, and Data. The first section covers the fundamentals of electrochemistry which are essential for everyone working in the field, presenting an overview of electrochemical conventions, terminology, fundamental equations, and electrochemical cells, experiments, literature, textbooks, and specialized books. Part 2 focuses on the different laboratory aspects of electrochemistry which is followed by a review of the various electrochemical techniques ranging from classical experiments to scanning electrochemical microscopy, electrogenerated chemiluminesence and spectroelectrochemistry. Applications of electrochemistry include electrode kinetic determinations, unique aspects of metal deposition, and electrochemistry in small places and at novel interfaces and these are detailed in Part 4. The remaining three chapters provide useful electrochemical data and information involving electrode potentials, diffusion coefficients, and methods used in measuring liquid junction potentials. * serves as a source of electrochemical information * includes useful electrochemical data and information involving electrode potentials, diffusion coefficients, and methods used in measuring liquid junction potentials * reviews electrochemical techniques (incl. scanning electrochemical microscopy, electrogenerated chemiluminesence and spectroelectrochemistry)

Modern Environmental Analysis Techniques for Pollutants

Modern Environmental Analysis Techniques for Pollutants
Author: Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain,Rustem Kecili
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 424
Release: 2019-08-20
ISBN 10: 0128169354
ISBN 13: 9780128169353
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modern Environmental Analysis Techniques for Pollutants Book Review:

Modern Environmental Analysis Techniques for Pollutants presents established environmental analysis methods, rapidly emerging technologies, and potential future research directions. As methods of environmental analysis move toward lower impact, lower cost, miniaturization, automation, and simplicity, new methods emerge and ultimately improve the accuracy of their analytical results. This book gives in-depth, step-by-step descriptions of a variety of techniques, including methods used in sampling, field sample handling, sample preparation, quantification, and statistical evaluation. Modern Environmental Analysis Techniques for Pollutants aims to deliver a comprehensive and easy-to-read text for students and researchers in the environmental analysis arena and to provide essential information to consultants and regulators about analytical and quality control procedures helpful in their evaluation and decision-making procedures. Bridges the gap in current literature on analytical chemistry techniques and their application to environmental analysis Covers the use of nanomaterials in environmental analysis, as well as the monitoring and analysis of nanomaterials in the environment Looks to the past, present and future of environmental analysis, with chapters on historical background, established and emerging techniques and instrumentation, and predictions

Liquid Chromatography

Liquid Chromatography
Author: Salvatore Fanali,Paul R. Haddad,Colin Poole,Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 838
Release: 2017-06-23
ISBN 10: 0128093447
ISBN 13: 9780128093443
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Liquid Chromatography Book Review:

Liquid Chromatography: Applications, Second Edition,is a single source of authoritative information on all aspects of the practice of modern liquid chromatography. It gives those working in both academia and industry the opportunity to learn, refresh, and deepen their knowledge of the wide variety of applications in the field. In the years since the first edition was published, thousands of papers have been released on new achievements in liquid chromatography, including the development of new stationary phases, improvement of instrumentation, development of theory, and new applications in biomedicine, metabolomics, proteomics, foodomics, pharmaceuticals, and more. This second edition addresses these new developments with updated chapters from the most expert researchers in the field. Emphasizes the integration of chromatographic methods and sample preparation Explains how liquid chromatography is used in different industrial sectors Covers the most interesting and valuable applications in different fields, e.g., proteomic, metabolomics, foodomics, pollutants and contaminants, and drug analysis (forensic, toxicological, pharmaceutical, biomedical) Includes references and tables with commonly used data to facilitate research, practical work, comparison of results, and decision-making

Green Extraction Techniques Principles Advances and Applications

Green Extraction Techniques  Principles  Advances and Applications
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 674
Release: 2017-07-17
ISBN 10: 0444638695
ISBN 13: 9780444638694
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Green Extraction Techniques Principles Advances and Applications Book Review:

Green Extraction Techniques: Principles, Advances and Applications, Volume 76, the first work to compile all the multiple green extraction techniques and applications currently available, provides the most recent analytical advances in the main green extraction techniques. This new release includes a variety of comprehensively presented topics, including chapters on Green Analytical Chemistry: The Role of Green Extraction Techniques, Bioactives Obtained From Plants, Seaweeds, Microalgae and Food By-Products Using Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Pressurized Hot Water Extraction of Bioactives, and Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Organic Contaminants in Environmental and Food Samples. In this ongoing serial, in-depth, emerging green extraction approaches are discussed, together with their miniaturization and combination, showing the newest technologies that have been developed in the last few years for each case and providing a picture of the most innovative applications with further insights into future trends. Compiles all the multiple green extraction techniques currently available, along with their applications Includes the most recent analytical advances in the main green extraction techniques, along with their working principles Covers emerging green extraction approaches, their miniaturization and combination and an insight into future trends

Handbook of Surface Plasmon Resonance

Handbook of Surface Plasmon Resonance
Author: Richard B. M. Schasfoort
Publsiher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Total Pages: 524
Release: 2017-05-30
ISBN 10: 1782627308
ISBN 13: 9781782627302
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Surface Plasmon Resonance Book Review:

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) plays a dominant role in real-time interaction sensing of biomolecular binding events, this book provides a total system description including optics, fluidics and sensor surfaces for a wide researcher audience.

Miniaturization in Sample Preparation

Miniaturization in Sample Preparation
Author: Francisco Pena Pereira
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 463
Release: 2014-01-01
ISBN 10: 3110427265
ISBN 13: 9783110427264
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Miniaturization in Sample Preparation Book Review:

Miniaturization is a challenge thrown down to analytical chemistry. The replacement of conventional analytical systems by miniaturized alternatives during the last years is noticeable. Specifically, the miniaturization of traditional sample preparation techniques (e.g., solid-phase extraction or solvent extraction) led to the development of environmentally benign analytical methods. This book aims to provide an overview of the challenges and achievements inthe application of the miniaturized sample preparation methods in analytical laboratories. It includes both theoretical and practical aspects of miniaturized sample preparation approaches and hence should be of interest to researchers, students and teachers of analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, environmental sciences and environmental engineering.

Handbook of Spectroscopy 2 Volume Set

Handbook of Spectroscopy  2 Volume Set
Author: G¿nter Gauglitz,Tuan Vo-Dinh
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 1168
Release: 2006-03-06
ISBN 10: 3527605029
ISBN 13: 9783527605026
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Spectroscopy 2 Volume Set Book Review:

This handbook provides a straightforward introduction to spectroscopy, showing what it can do and how it does it, together with a clear, integrated and objective account of the wealth of information that can be derived from spectra. The sequence of chapters covers a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the physical processes involved, from nuclear phenomena to molecular rotation processes. - A day-by-day laboratory guide: its design based on practical knowledge of spectroscopists at universities, industries and research institutes - A well-structured information source containing methods and applications sections framed by sections on general topics - Guides users to a decision about which spectroscopic method and which instrumentation will be the most appropriate to solve their own practical problem - Rapid access to essential information - Correct analysis of a huge number of measured spectra data and smart use of such information sources as databases and spectra libraries