Handbook of Pediatric Retinal OCT and the Eye Brain Connection E Book

Handbook of Pediatric Retinal OCT and the Eye Brain Connection E Book
Author: Cynthia A. Toth,Sharon F Freedman,Mays El-Dairi,Lejla Vajzovic
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2019-05-04
ISBN 10: 0323609856
ISBN 13: 9780323609852
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Pediatric Retinal OCT and the Eye Brain Connection E Book Book Review:

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) plays a vital role in pediatric retina diagnosis, often revealing unrecognized retinal disorders and connections to brain injury, disease, and delayed neurodevelopment. Handbook of Pediatric Retinal OCT and the Eye-Brain Connection provides authoritative, up-to-date guidance in this promising area, showing how to optimize imaging in young children and infants, how to accurately interpret these images, and how to identify links between these images and brain and developmental disorders. Illustrates optimal methods of OCT imaging of children and infants, how to avoid pitfalls, and how to recognize and avoid artifacts Explains how the OCT image may relate to brain disease and delayed neurodevelopment Features more than 200 high-quality images and scans that depict the full range of disease in infants and young children Provides guidance in identifying retinal layers and important abnormalities. Covers the structural features of the retina and optic nerve head in developmental, acquired, or inherited conditions that affect the eye and visual pathways Offers practical ways to set up imaging programs in the clinic, operating room, or neonatal nursery

Handbook of Pediatric Neuropsychology

Handbook of Pediatric Neuropsychology
Author: Andrew S. Davis, PhD,Rik Carl D'Amato
Publsiher: Springer Publishing Company
Total Pages: 1400
Release: 2010-10-25
ISBN 10: 9780826157379
ISBN 13: 0826157378
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Pediatric Neuropsychology Book Review:

ìBy far, the most comprehensive and detailed coverage of pediatric neuropsychology available in a single book today, Davis provides coverage of basic principles of pediatric neuropsychology, but overall the work highlights applications to daily practice and special problems encountered by the pediatric neuropsychologist.î Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD Texas A&M University "The breadth and depth of this body of work is impressive. Chapters written by some of the best researchers and authors in the field of pediatric neuropsychology address every possible perspective on brain-behavior relationships culminating in an encyclopedic textÖ. This [book] reflects how far and wide pediatric neuropsychology has come in the past 20 years and the promise of how far it will go in the next." Elaine Fletcher-Janzen, EdD, NCSP, ABPdN The Chicago School of Professional Psychology "...it would be hard to imagine a clinical situation in pediatric neuropsychology in whichthis book would fail as a valuable resource."--Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology "I believe there is much to recommend this hefty volume. It is a solid reference that I can see appreciating as a resource as I update my training bibliography."--Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society This landmark reference covers all aspects of pediatric neuropsychology from a research-based perspective, while presenting an applied focus with practical suggestions and guidelines for clinical practice. Useful both as a training manual for graduate students and as a comprehensive reference for experienced practitioners, it is an essential resource for those dealing with a pediatric population. This handbook provides an extensive overview of the most common medical conditions that neuropsychologists encounter while dealing with pediatric populations. It also discusses school-based issues such as special education law, consulting with school staff, and reintegrating children back into mainstream schools. It contains over 100 well-respected authors who are leading researchers in their respective fields. Additionally, each of the 95 chapters includes an up-to-date review of available research, resulting in the most comprehensive text on pediatric neuropsychology available in a single volume. Key Features: Provides thorough information on understanding functional neuroanatomy and development, and on using functional neuroimaging Highlights clinical practice issues, such as legal and ethical decision-making, dealing with child abuse and neglect, and working with school staff Describes a variety of professional issues that neuropsychologists must confront during their daily practice, such as ethics, multiculturalism, child abuse, forensics, and psychopharmacology

Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science Socioemotional Processes

Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science  Socioemotional Processes
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 1120
Release: 2015-03-31
ISBN 10: 1118953878
ISBN 13: 9781118953877
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science Socioemotional Processes Book Review:

The essential reference for human development theory, updatedand reconceptualized The Handbook of Child Psychology and DevelopmentalScience, a four-volume reference, is the field-defining work towhich all others are compared. First published in 1946, and now inits Seventh Edition, the Handbook has long been consideredthe definitive guide to the field of developmental science. Volume 3: Social, Emotional, and Personality Developmentpresentsup-to-date knowledge and theoretical understanding of theseveral facets of social, emotional and personality processes. Thevolume emphasizes that any specific processes, function, orbehavior discussed in the volume co-occurs alongside and isinextricably affected by the dozens of other processes, functions,or behaviors that are the focus of other researchers' work. As aresult, the volume underscores the importance of a focus on thewhole developing child and his or her sociocultural and historicalenvironment. Understand the multiple processes that are interrelated inpersonality development Discover the individual, cultural, social, and economicprocesses that contribute to the social, emotional, and personalitydevelopment of individuals Learn about the several individual and contextual contributionsto the development of such facets of the individual as morality,spirituality, or aggressive/violent behavior Study the processes that contribute to the development ofgender, sexuality, motivation, and social engagement The scholarship within this volume and, as well, across the fourvolumes of this edition, illustrate that developmental science isin the midst of a very exciting period. There is a paradigm shiftthat involves increasingly greater understanding of how todescribe, explain, and optimize the course of human life fordiverse individuals living within diverse contexts. ThisHandbook is the definitive reference for educators,policy-makers, researchers, students, and practitioners in humandevelopment, psychology, sociology, anthropology, andneuroscience.

Handbook of Clinical Child Neuropsychology

Handbook of Clinical Child Neuropsychology
Author: Cecil R. Reynolds,Indrajit Ray
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 746
Release: 2013-06-29
ISBN 10: 1475753519
ISBN 13: 9781475753516
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Clinical Child Neuropsychology Book Review:

Contains chapters such as working in pediatric coma rehabilitation, using the planning, attention, sequential, simultaneous theory of neuropsychological processes, and additions on ADHD.

Clinical Handbook of Pediatric Infectious Disease Third Edition

Clinical Handbook of Pediatric Infectious Disease  Third Edition
Author: Russell W. Steele
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2007-08-22
ISBN 10: 9781420051513
ISBN 13: 1420051512
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Clinical Handbook of Pediatric Infectious Disease Third Edition Book Review:

In the care of pediatric patients, infectious diseases comprise over 50% of the clinical diagnoses. For this reason, it is essential to have a basic understanding of infectious processes and to keep abreast of new developments in the field. This reference stands as a convenient and time-saving reference for clinicians on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pediatric infections diseases and is completely updated to include the latest guidelines from esteemed societies such as the Infectious Disease Society of America, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Thoracic Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics

Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics
Author: Judy Illes,Barbara J. Sahakian
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 920
Release: 2013-02-21
ISBN 10: 0199680639
ISBN 13: 9780199680634
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics Book Review:

A landmark in the scientific literature, the Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics presents a pioneering review of a topic central to the biosciences. It breaks new ground in bringing together leading neuroscientists, philosophers, and lawyers to tackle some of the most significant ethical issues that face us now and will continue to do so.

Practical Pediatric Imaging

Practical Pediatric Imaging
Author: Donald R. Kirks,Nathan Thorne Griscom
Publsiher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Total Pages: 1226
Release: 1998
ISBN 10: 0316494739
ISBN 13: 9780316494731
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Practical Pediatric Imaging Book Review:

The most popular pediatric imaging text among radiology residents, program directors, and practitioners is now in its updated, expanded Third Edition. This edition's contributing authors include faculty of the Department of Radiology at Children's Hospital in Boston--the largest pediatric medical center in the United States. The state-of-the-art coverage highlights the expanding pediatric applications of ultrasound, CT, MRI, nuclear medicine, and vascular/interventional techniques. A new chapter on head and neck imaging is also included. Complementing the text are more than 2,000 scans and line drawings--over 1,300 new to this edition--as well as numerous diagnostic algorithms and tables of differential diagnosis.

Handbook of Pediatric Neurosurgery

Handbook of Pediatric Neurosurgery
Author: George I. Jallo,Karl F. Kothbauer,Violette M.R. Recinos
Publsiher: Thieme
Total Pages: 556
Release: 2018-04-18
ISBN 10: 1604068809
ISBN 13: 9781604068801
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Pediatric Neurosurgery Book Review:

An essential backpack-size resource on the treatment of pediatric neurological conditions Pediatric neurosurgery has witnessed considerable technological advances, resulting in more efficacious outcomes for young patients with hydrocephalus, epilepsy, brain tumors, spinal deformities, and a host of other conditions. The art of pediatric neurosurgery is a delicate balancing act—taking into account child and parents and emotional and disease challenges. As such, the management of serious neurological conditions in pediatric patients must encompass the big picture in addition to treating underlying pathologies. Handbook of Pediatric Neurosurgery by George Jallo, Karl Kothbauer, and Violette Recinos covers the full depth and breadth of this uniquely rewarding subspecialty including congenital, developmental, and acquired disorders. The latest information is provided on anatomy, radiological imaging, and principles guiding the surgical and nonsurgical management of a full spectrum of neurological pathologies impacting infants and children. The book is divided into 11 sections and 56 chapters with state-of-the-art procedures, best practices, and clinical pearls from top pediatric neurosurgeons. Key Features Cranial disorders including Chiari malformations, encephaloceles, Dandy-Walker malformation, and craniosynostosis Benign and malignant tumors—from the hypothalamus and optic pathways to the brainstem and spinal column Spinal abnormalities such as spina bifida, tethered cord, and scoliosis Clinical questions and answers at the end of chapters—ideal for self-testing and exam prep Comprehensive and compact, this is the perfect backpack reference for neurosurgery residents and pediatric neurosurgery fellows to carry on rounds. It is also a must-have resource for seasoned pediatric neurosurgeons and all practitioners entrusted with the neurological care of pediatric patients.

Handbook of Pediatric Psychology and Psychiatry Psychological and psychiatric issues in the pediatric setting

Handbook of Pediatric Psychology and Psychiatry  Psychological and psychiatric issues in the pediatric setting
Author: Robert T. Ammerman,John V. Campo
Publsiher: Allyn & Bacon
Total Pages: 352
Release: 1998
ISBN 10: 9780205165605
ISBN 13: 0205165605
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Pediatric Psychology and Psychiatry Psychological and psychiatric issues in the pediatric setting Book Review:

Written by prominent researchers and consultants in the field of pediatric psychology and psychiatry, this first volume covers: developmental issues and disabilities, legal issues in a pediatric setting, sleep, anxiety, and eating disorders, substance abuse, and much more.

Handbook of Child Language Disorders

Handbook of Child Language Disorders
Author: Richard G. Schwartz
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2010-10-18
ISBN 10: 1136872833
ISBN 13: 9781136872839
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Child Language Disorders Book Review:

The Handbook of Child Language Disorders provides an in-depth, comprehensive, and state-of-the-art review of current research concerning the nature, assessment, and remediation of language disorders in children. The book includes chapters focusing on specific groups of childhood disorders (SLI, autism, genetic syndromes, dyslexia, hearing impairment); the linguistic, perceptual, genetic, neurobiological, and cognitive bases of these disorders; and the context of language disorders (bilingual, across dialects, and across languages). To examine the nature of deficits, their assessment and remediation across populations, chapters address the main components of language (morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics) and related areas (processing, memory, attention, executive function such as reading and writing). Finally, even though there is extensive information regarding research and clinical methods in each chapter, there are individual chapters that focus directly on research methods. This Handbook is a comprehensive reference source for clinicians and researchers and can be used as a textbook for undergraduate, masters, and doctoral students in speech-language pathology, developmental psychology, special education, disabilities studies, neuropsychology and in other fields interested in children's language disorders.


Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 720
Release: 2016-07-12
ISBN 10: 0702045381
ISBN 13: 9780702045387
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neuroimaging Book Review:

Neuroimaging, Part Two, a volume in The Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, illustrates how neuroimaging is rapidly expanding its reach and applications in clinical neurology. It is an ideal resource for anyone interested in the study of the nervous system, and is useful to both beginners in various related fields and to specialists who want to update or refresh their knowledge base on neuroimaging. This second volume covers imaging of the adult spine and peripheral nervous system, as well as pediatric neuroimaging. In addition, it provides an overview of the differential diagnosis of the most common imaging findings, such as ring enhancement on MRI, and a review of the indications for imaging in the most frequent neurological syndromes. The volume concludes with a review of neuroimaging in experimental animals and how it relates to neuropathology. It brings broad coverage of the topic using many color images to illustrate key points. Contributions from leading global experts are collated, providing the broadest view of neuroimaging as it currently stands. For a number of neurological disorders, imaging is not only critical for diagnosis, but also for monitoring the effect of therapies, with the entire field moving from curing diseases to preventing them. Most of the information contained in this volume reflects the newness of this approach, pointing to the new horizon in the study of neurological disorders. Provides a relevant description of the technologies used in neuroimaging, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and several others Discusses the application of these techniques to the study of brain and spinal cord disease Explores the indications for the use of these techniques in various syndromes

Brain Imaging Handbook

Brain Imaging Handbook
Author: J. Douglas Bremner
Publsiher: W W Norton & Company Incorporated
Total Pages: 195
Release: 2005
ISBN 10: 9780393704143
ISBN 13: 0393704149
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Brain Imaging Handbook Book Review:

An easy-to-use reference to the major brain imaging technology, rich in illustrations and including discussions of which technique is best used in particular instances of care.

Caffey s Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging E Book

Caffey s Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging E Book
Author: Brian D. Coley
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 1784
Release: 2013-05-21
ISBN 10: 1455753602
ISBN 13: 9781455753604
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Caffey s Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging E Book Book Review:

Since 1945, radiologists have turned to Caffey's Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging for the most comprehensive coverage and unparalleled guidance in all areas of pediatric radiology. Continuing this tradition of excellence, the completely revised 12th edition - now more concise yet still complete - focuses on the core issues you need to understand new protocols and sequences, and know what techniques are most appropriate for given clinical situations. "This text will obviously be of great interest not only to radiologists, also to those who work with children including all pediatric specialties. It is also extremely useful in countries with resource poor setting where there is shortage of well-trained radiologists in pediatric specialties." Reviewed by: Yangon Children Hospital on behalf of the Journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society, January 2014 "This is a thoroughly up-to-date text, divided into manageable topics, at a very reasonable price and I thoroughly recommend it to anyone who needs updating in the field of paediatrics or paediatric imaging." RAD, February 2014 Determine the best modality for each patient with state-of-the art discussions of the latest pediatric imaging techniques. Quickly grasp the fundamentals you need to know through a more precise, streamlined format, reorganized by systems and disease processes, as well as "Teaching Boxes" that highlight key points in each chapter. Apply all the latest pediatric advances in clinical fetal neonatology techniques, technology, and pharmacology. Achieve accurate diagnoses as safely as possible. Increased coverage of MRI findings and newer imaging techniques for all organ systems emphasizes imaging examination appropriateness and safety. Reap the fullest benefit from the latest neuroimaging techniques including diffusion tensor imaging, fMRI, and susceptibility weighted imaging. Keep current with the latest pediatric radiological knowledge and evidence-based practices. Comprehensive updates throughout include new and revised chapters on prenatal imaging; newer anatomic and functional imaging techniques (including advances in cardiac imaging); disease classifications and insights into imaging disease processes; and advanced imaging topics in neurological, thoracoabdominal, and musculoskeletal imaging. Compare your findings to more than 10,000 high-quality radiology images. Access the full text online at Expert Consult including illustrations, videos, and bonus online-only pediatric imaging content.

Handbook of Pediatric Psychology and Psychiatry Disease injury and illness

Handbook of Pediatric Psychology and Psychiatry  Disease  injury  and illness
Author: Robert T. Ammerman,John V. Campo
Publsiher: Allyn & Bacon
Total Pages: 398
Release: 1998
ISBN 10: 9780205276011
ISBN 13: 0205276016
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Pediatric Psychology and Psychiatry Disease injury and illness Book Review:

Volume 2 of this state-of-the-art, comprehensive, two-book reference covers pain management, disease, injury and illness, neurological disorders, infectious diseases, and more. The contributors are recognized experts in the field of pediatric psychology and psychiatry.

A Clinical Handbook on Child Development Paediatrics E Book

A Clinical Handbook on Child Development Paediatrics   E Book
Author: Sandra Johnson
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2012-10-31
ISBN 10: 072958089X
ISBN 13: 9780729580892
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Clinical Handbook on Child Development Paediatrics E Book Book Review:

This handbook offers a succinct study of Childhood Development Paediatrics with practical applications for helping the child and family through all areas of the developmental process. The book covers diverse topics like developmental delay, learning difficulties, attention deficit disorders, autism, Asperger syndrome, behaviour difficulties, language disorders, school refusal, bullying, emotional difficulties, neurological impairments that affect development (examples being cerebral palsy and brain injury) and motor coordination problems. It also offers online case scenarios on autism, ADHD, school refusal and truancy, cerebral palsy and child abuse and neglect. The cases are followed by questions to test the acquired knowledge of the student on these topics. This practical guide to child development is ideal for trainee paediatricians, registrars, paediatricians and general practitioners. Deals with developmental issues unlike comprehensive paediatric or child psychiatry texts Concise text providing practical tips Clinically and practically orientated (e.g. history, physical examination, assessment techniques) Comparison of normal and abnormal/normal development Definitions (Chapters.8,11,12) to clarify terms Several chapters (e.g. Chapters 8,9,10) inform about special problems/illnesses, which are increasing in incidence Online case scenarios on autism, ADHD, school refusal and truancy, cerebral palsy and child abuse and neglect are available on Student Consult. Combines physical and psychological problems in the development of children, which might be already present at birth (Cerebral Palsy) or which might be apparent later in life (Chapter 8)

Handbook of Research on Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Imaging and Biomedical Applications

Handbook of Research on Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Imaging and Biomedical Applications
Author: Exarchos, Themis P.,Papadopoulos, Athanasios,Fotiadis, Dimitrios I.
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 598
Release: 2009-04-30
ISBN 10: 1605663158
ISBN 13: 9781605663159
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Research on Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Imaging and Biomedical Applications Book Review:

"This book includes state-of-the-art methodologies that introduce biomedical imaging in decision support systems and their applications in clinical practice"--Provided by publisher.

The Harriet Lane Handbook E Book

The Harriet Lane Handbook E Book
Author: Johns Hopkins Hospital,Branden Engorn,Jamie Flerlage
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 1152
Release: 2014-05-01
ISBN 10: 0323112463
ISBN 13: 9780323112468
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Harriet Lane Handbook E Book Book Review:

Trusted by generations of residents and practitioners, The Harriet Lane Handbook remains your first choice for fast, accurate information on pediatric diagnosis and treatment. The first medical reference book written "by residents, for residents" and reviewed by expert faculty at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, it continues to provide the gold standard in point-of-care clinical information for any health care professional treating pediatric patients. Consult this title on your favorite e-reader, conduct rapid searches, and adjust font sizes for optimal readability. Take advantage of the most dependable drug information available with thoroughly updated, one-of-a-kind Pediatric Formulary providing the standard of pediatric care from the leading pediatric hospital in the world. Trust thoroughly updated content that includes parameters for pediatric and neonatal septic shock; guidelines for acute management of severe traumatic brain injury; a convenient table detailing common genetic tests; a significantly extended collection of radiologic images; expanded mental health coverage; plus much more. Access information easily and quickly with reformatted sections designed make the book easier to use via mobile device.

Handbook of Neuro Oncology Neuroimaging

Handbook of Neuro Oncology Neuroimaging
Author: Herbert B. Newton
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 864
Release: 2016-04-02
ISBN 10: 0128011688
ISBN 13: 9780128011683
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Neuro Oncology Neuroimaging Book Review:

Remarkable progress in neuro-oncology due to increased utilization of advanced imaging in clinical practice continues to accelerate in recent years. Refinements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) technology, and the addition of newer anatomical, functional, and metabolic imaging methods, such as MRS, fMRI, diffusion MRI, and DTI MRI have allowed brain tumor patients to be diagnosed much earlier and to be followed more carefully during treatment. With treatment approaches and the field of neuro-oncology neuroimaging changing rapidly, this second edition of the Handbook of Neuro-Oncology Neuroimaging is so relevant to those in the field, providing a single-source, comprehensive, reference handbook of the most up-to-date clinical and technical information regarding the application of neuro-Imaging techniques to brain tumor and neuro-oncology patients. This new volume will have updates on all of the material from the first edition, and in addition will feature several new important chapters covering diverse topics such as advanced imaging techniques in radiation therapy, therapeutic treatment fields, response assessment in clinical trials, surgical planning of neoplastic disease of the spine, and more. It will also serve as a resource of background information to neuroimaging researchers and basic scientists with an interest in brain tumors and neuro-oncology. Provides a background to translational research and the use of brain imaging for brain tumors Contains critical discussions on the potential and limitations of neuroimaging as a translational tool for the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumor and neuro-oncology patients Presents an up-to-date reference on advanced imaging technologies, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), as well as the recent refinements in these techniques

Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Basic Psychiatric Science and Treatment

Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry  Basic Psychiatric Science and Treatment
Author: Norman E. Alessi,Joseph T. Coyle,Saul Isaac Harrison,Spencer Eth
Publsiher: Wiley
Total Pages: 640
Release: 1998-02-13
ISBN 10: 9780471193319
ISBN 13: 0471193313
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Basic Psychiatric Science and Treatment Book Review:

This volume of the Handbook introduces the basic science of child and adolescent psychiatry and presents a myriad of treatment options available to psychiatrists. These include clinical treatments, such as diet and drug therapy, hypnotherapy and biofeedback; residential or day treatment options; group and family therapy; aggressive interventions such as therapeutic foster placement or adoption; creative treatments, such as art and music therapy; and rehabilitative therapy, including vocational therapy, educational therapy and therapeutic camping.

Handbook of Children s Literacy

Handbook of Children   s Literacy
Author: Terezinha Nunes,Peter Bryant
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 790
Release: 2013-03-09
ISBN 10: 9401717311
ISBN 13: 9789401717311
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Children s Literacy Book Review:

PETER BRYANT & TEREZINHA NUNES The time that it takes children to learn to read varies greatly between different orthographies, as the chapter by Sprenger-Charolles clearly shows, and so do the difficulties that they encounter in learning about their own orthography. Nevertheless most people, who have the chance to learn to read, do in the end read well enough, even though a large number experience some significant difficulties on the way. Most of them eventually become reasonably efficient spellers too, even though they go on make spelling mistakes (at any rate if they are English speakers) for the rest of their lives. So, the majority of humans plainly does have intellectual resources that are needed for reading and writing, but it does not always find these resources easy to marshal. What are these resources? Do any of them have to be acquired? Do different orthographies make quite different demands on the intellect? Do people differ significantly from each other in the strength and accessibility of these resources? If they do, are these differences an important factor in determining children's success in learning to read and write? These are the main questions that the different chapters in this section on Basic Processes set out to answer.