Handbook of Ionic Substituted Hydroxyapatites

Handbook of Ionic Substituted Hydroxyapatites
Author: Abdul Samad Khan,Aqif Anwar Chaudhry
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 428
Release: 2019-11-16
ISBN 10: 0081028350
ISBN 13: 9780081028353
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Ionic Substituted Hydroxyapatites Book Review:

Handbook of Ionic Substituted Hydroxyapatites provides scientists and researchers with comprehensive information on the synthesis processes of hydroxyapatite, also explaining the application of substituted hydroxyapatite. The book's content is very structured and explanatory, starting with a detailed overview of biological apatite in bones and teeth, as well as a presentation of the analytical tools for hydroxyapatite. Bioceramics and the relative modern and emerging processing techniques are covered, as is 3-D printing, which has gained increasing importance within biomedical materials and in the use of hydroxyapatite in tissue engineering. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of using ionic substitutions in clinical application are presented. Students and researchers in disciplines, such as Material Science, Ceramics, and Bioengineering will find this book to be very helpful in their work. It will also be a valuable resource for practitioners and surgeons in orthopedics, perio/implantology and maxillo-facial disciplines, and professionals working in R&D in ceramics and pharmaceuticals. Provides responses to the lack of scientific information about hydroxyapatites for biomedical applications Solves researchers’ issues regarding phase changes with respect to substituted ions and how these substitutions can alter/improve the properties of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite Explains modern clinical applications and the effects of apatites within biomedical applications Includes both the advantages and disadvantages of using ionic substitutions in clinical application

An Introduction To Biomaterials Science And Engineering

An Introduction To Biomaterials Science And Engineering
Author: A Sandeep Kranthi Kiran,Seeram Ramakrishna
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 412
Release: 2021-04-22
ISBN 10: 9811228191
ISBN 13: 9789811228193
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

An Introduction To Biomaterials Science And Engineering Book Review:

This book presents a broad scope of the field of biomaterials science and technology, focusing on theory, advances and applications. It is written for those who would like to develop their interest and knowledge towards biomaterials or materials science and engineering. All aspects of biomaterials science are thoroughly addressed, from basic principles of biomaterials, organs and medical devices to advanced topics such as tissue engineering, surface engineering, sterilization techniques, 3D printing and drug delivery systems. Readers are also introduced to major concepts of surface modification techniques, and potential applications of different classes of biomaterials. Multiple-choice questions at the end of every chapter will be helpful for students to test their understanding of each topic, with answers provided at the end of the book.Ultimately, this book offers a one-stop source of information on the essentials of biomaterials and engineering. It is useful both as an introduction and advanced reference on recent advances in the biomaterials field. Suitable readers include undergraduate and graduate students, especially those in Materials Science, Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering.

Dental Implants

Dental Implants
Author: Muhammad Sohail Zafar,Zohaib Khurshid
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 324
Release: 2020-07-23
ISBN 10: 0128196270
ISBN 13: 9780128196274
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dental Implants Book Review:

Dental Implants: Materials, Coatings, Surface Modifications and Interfaces with Oral Tissues provides readers with information on past and contemporary advances in the design and modification of dental implants to enhance osseointegration and biocompatibility. The book begins with a look at the current status of dental implants, materials and fabrication methods. Chapters then cover surface modification techniques and a variety of inorganic, organic and biological coatings. Final sections cover tissue-implant interfaces. Written by a multidisciplinary team of materials scientists, dental clinicians and implantologists, this book is an essential reference for materials scientists, dental practitioners and researchers and students in academia. Covers all aspects related to dental implants, including implant materials science, their fabrication, surface coatings and their clinical applications Provides detailed information on surface modification on surfaces coated with inorganic, organic and biological materials Discusses the modification of dental implants, including implant-bone interaction enhanced by coatings on dental implant surfaces Written by a multidisciplinary team of materials scientists, dental clinicians and Implantologists

Handbook of Modern Coating Technologies

Handbook of Modern Coating Technologies
Author: Mahmood Aliofkhazraei,Ali Nasar,Mircea Chipara,Nadhira Bensaada Laidani,Jeff Th.M. De Hosson
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 554
Release: 2021-03-06
ISBN 10: 0444632468
ISBN 13: 9780444632463
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Modern Coating Technologies Book Review:

Handbook of Modern Coating Technologies: Fabrication Methods and Functional Properties reviews different fabrication methods and functional properties of modern coating technologies. The topics in this volume consist of nanocoatings by sol–gel processes for functionalization of polymer surfaces and textiles and mechanical fabrication methods of nanostructured surfaces such surface mechanical attrition treatment, polymer nanofabrications and its plasma processing, chemical vapor deposition of oxide materials at atmospheric pressure, conventional chemical vapor deposition process at atmospheric pressure, feasibility of atmospheric pressure, chemical vapor deposition process, Langmuir–Blodgett technique, flame pyrolysis, confined-plume chemical deposition, electrophoretic deposition, in vitro and in vivo particle coating for oral targeting and drug delivery, novel coatings to improve the performance of multilayer biopolymeric films for food packaging, corrosion protection by nanostructured coatings, tribological behavior of electroless coatings, effect of peening-based processes on tribological and mechanical behavior of bioimplant materials, improved efficiency of ceramic cutting tools in machining hardened steel with nanostructured multilayered coatings, incorporation of elastomeric secondary phase into epoxy matrix influences mechanical properties of epoxy coatings, enhancement of biocompatibility by coatings, porous hydroxyapatite–based coatings, and bionic colloidal crystal coatings.

Advanced Ceramic Materials

Advanced Ceramic Materials
Author: Mohsen Mhadhbi
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2021-05-05
ISBN 10: 1838812040
ISBN 13: 9781838812041
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Ceramic Materials Book Review:

This book examines exciting advancements in the field of ceramics, including nanotechnology, clean energy, and tribology as well as fundamental concepts like defects and structure. It is a comprehensive discussion on how today’s ceramics are processed and used in many of today’s critical technologies. It discusses current techniques for synthesizing durable and cost-effective ceramic components with biocompatibility, complexity, and high precision. This book is a comprehensive reference for researchers, engineers, dental clinicians, biologists, academics, and students interested in ceramics.

Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications

Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications
Author: Sam Zhang
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 469
Release: 2013-05-14
ISBN 10: 1000218902
ISBN 13: 9781000218909
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications Book Review:

Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characterization and applications of hydroxyapatite to provide timely information for active researchers and newcomers alike. In eight carefully reviewed chapters, hydroxyapatite experts from the United States, Japan, Singapore, and China present the latest on topics ranging from deposition processes to biomedical applications in implants and drug delivery. This book discusses: Magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition The modification of hydroxyapatite properties by sol–gel deposition to incorporate other elements found in natural bones, such as zinc, magnesium, and fluorine The use of pure hydroxyapatite in drug delivery applications The growth or self-assembly of hydroxyapatite on shape memory alloy Hydroxyapatite composite coatings—with carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide (TiO2), and others—on the titanium alloy Offering valuable insights and a wealth of data, including numerous tables and figures, this is a rich source of information for research on hydroxyapatite coatings. Each chapter also covers material that provides an accessible stepping stone for those who are new to the field.

Handbook of Biomaterials Biocompatibility

Handbook of Biomaterials Biocompatibility
Author: Masoud Mozafari
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 758
Release: 2020-06-17
ISBN 10: 0081029683
ISBN 13: 9780081029688
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Biomaterials Biocompatibility Book Review:

Handbook of Biomaterials Biocompatibility is a systematic reference on host response to different biomaterials, taking into account their physical, mechanical and chemical properties. The book reviews recent progress in the design and study of biomaterials biocompatibility, along with current understanding on how to control immune system response. Sections provide the fundamental theories and challenges of biomaterials biocompatibility, the role of different biomaterials physicochemical surface properties on cell responses, cell responses to different physicochemical properties of polymers, ceramics, metals, carbons and nanomaterials, and biomaterials in different tissues, such as the cardiac, nervous system, cartilage and bone. This resource will be suitable for those working in the fields of materials science, regenerative engineering, medicine, medical devices and nanotechnology. Reviews the fundamental theories and challenges of biomaterials biocompatibility, including an overview of the standards and regulations Provides an overview on the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in host responses to biomaterials Systematically looks at cellular response and tissue response to a wide range of biomaterials, including polymers, metals, ceramics, alloys and nanomaterials

Ion Substituted Calcium Phosphates Coatings

Ion Substituted Calcium Phosphates Coatings
Author: Gabriela Graziani,Enrico Sassoni
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 182
Release: 2021-01-28
ISBN 10: 3039435434
ISBN 13: 9783039435432
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ion Substituted Calcium Phosphates Coatings Book Review:

Coatings based on hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphates have a significant relevance in several research fields, such as biomaterials, cultural heritage, and water treatment, due to their characteristic properties. Hydroxyapatite can easily accommodate foreign ions, which can either be incorporated into the lattice, thanks to its specific lattice characteristics, or be adsorbed onto its surface. All these substitutions significantly alter the morphology, lattice parameters, and crystallinity of hydroxyapatite so they influence its main properties. These ion substitutions can be sought or can derive from substrate contaminations, which is an important aspect to be evaluated. Finally, this capability can be used to obtain hydroxyapatites with specific properties, such as antibacterial characteristics, among others. For these reasons, the aim of this Special Issue is to document current advances in the field of ion-substituted hydroxyapatites and highlight possible future perspectives regarding their use. Contributions in the form of original articles and review articles are presented, covering different areas of application.

Handbook of Nanoceramic and Nanocomposite Coatings and Materials

Handbook of Nanoceramic and Nanocomposite Coatings and Materials
Author: Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf,Dieter Scharnweber
Publsiher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Total Pages: 612
Release: 2015-05-08
ISBN 10: 0444633820
ISBN 13: 9780444633828
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Nanoceramic and Nanocomposite Coatings and Materials Book Review:

In this new handbook, top researchers from around the world discuss recent academic and industrial advances in designing ceramic coatings and materials. They describe the role of nanotechnology in designing high performance nanoceramic coatings and materials in terms of the unique advantages that can be gained from the nano scale, including the latest techniques for the synthesis and processing of ceramic and composite coatings for different applications. Focuses on the most advanced technologies for industry-oriented nano-ceramic and nano-composite coatings, including recent challenges for scaling up nano-based coatings in industry Covers the latest evaluation methods for measuring coatings performance Discusses novel approaches for improving the performance of ceramic and composite coatings and materials via nanotechnology Provides the most recent and advanced techniques for surface characterization

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials Polymeric Composites

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials  Polymeric Composites
Author: Vijay Kumar Thakur,Manju Kumari Thakur,Michael R. Kessler
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 736
Release: 2017-03-16
ISBN 10: 111922442X
ISBN 13: 9781119224426
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials Polymeric Composites Book Review:

The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The handbook covers a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least 5000 pages and offers a unique publication. This 6th volume Handbook is solely focused on Polymeric Composites. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: Keratin as renewable material for developing polymer composites; natural and synthetic matrices; hydrogels in tissue engineering; smart hydrogels: application in bioethanol production; principle renewable biopolymers; application of hydrogel biocomposites for multiple drug delivery; nontoxic holographic materials; bioplasticizer - epoxidized vegetable oils-based poly (lactic acid) blends and nanocomposites; preparation, characterization and adsorption properties of poly (DMAEA) – cross-linked starch gel copolymer in waste water treatments; study of chitosan crosslinking hydrogels for absorption of antifungal drugs using molecular modelling; pharmaceutical delivery systems composed of chitosan; eco-friendly polymers for food packaging; influence of surface modification on the thermal stability and percentage of crystallinity of natural abaca fiber; influence of the use of natural fibers in composite materials assessed on a life cycle perspective; plant polysaccharides-blended ionotropically-gelled alginate multiple-unit systems for sustained drug release; vegetable oil based polymer composites; applications of chitosan derivatives in wastewater treatment; novel lignin-based materials as a products for various applications; biopolymers from renewable resources and thermoplastic starch matrix as polymer units of multi-component polymer systems for advanced applications; chitosan composites: preparation and applications in removing water pollutants and recent advancements in biopolymer composites for addressing environmental issues.

Encyclopedic Handbook of Biomaterials and Bioengineering v 1 2 Materials

Encyclopedic Handbook of Biomaterials and Bioengineering  v  1 2  Materials
Author: Donald Lee Wise
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 851
Release: 1995
ISBN 10: 9780824795955
ISBN 13: 0824795954
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encyclopedic Handbook of Biomaterials and Bioengineering v 1 2 Materials Book Review:

Biological and Biomedical Coatings Handbook

Biological and Biomedical Coatings Handbook
Author: Sam Zhang
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 456
Release: 2011-05-24
ISBN 10: 1439849986
ISBN 13: 9781439849989
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biological and Biomedical Coatings Handbook Book Review:

Written in a versatile, contemporary style that will benefit both novice and expert alike, Biological and Biomedical Coatings Handbook, Two-Volume Set covers the state of the art in the development and implementation of advanced thin films and coatings in the biological field. Consisting of two volumes—Processing and Characterization and Applications—this handbook details the latest understanding of advances in the design and performance of biological and biomedical coatings, covering a vast array of material types, including bio-ceramics, polymers, glass, chitosan, and nanomaterials. Contributors delve into a wide range of novel techniques used in the manufacture and testing of clinical applications for coatings in the medical field, particularly in the emerging area of regenerative medicine. An exploration of the fundamentals elements of biological and biomedical coatings, the first volume, Processing and Characterization, addresses: Synthesis, fabrication, and characterization of nanocoatings The sol-gel method and electrophoretic deposition Thermal and plasma spraying Hydroxyapatite and organically modified coatings Bioceramics and bioactive glass-based coatings Hydrothermal crystallization and self-healing effects Physical and chemical vapor deposition Layered assembled polyelectrolyte films With chapters authored by world experts at the forefront of research in their respective areas, this timely set provides searing insights and practical information to explore a subject that is fundamental to the success of biotechnological pursuits.

The Biomedical Engineering Handbook

The Biomedical Engineering Handbook
Author: Joseph D. Bronzino,Donald R. Peterson
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 5430
Release: 2018-10-03
ISBN 10: 1439863113
ISBN 13: 9781439863114
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Biomedical Engineering Handbook Book Review:

The definitive "bible" for the field of biomedical engineering, this collection of volumes is a major reference for all practicing biomedical engineers and students. Now in its fourth edition, this work presents a substantial revision, with all sections updated to offer the latest research findings. New sections address drugs and devices, personali

Nanobiomaterials Handbook

Nanobiomaterials Handbook
Author: Balaji Sitharaman
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 737
Release: 2016-04-19
ISBN 10: 142009467X
ISBN 13: 9781420094671
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanobiomaterials Handbook Book Review:

Nanobiomaterials exhibit distinctive characteristics, including mechanical, electrical, and optical properties, which make them suitable for a variety of biological applications. Because of their versatility, they are poised to play a central role in nanobiotechnology and make significant contributions to biomedical research and healthcare. Nanobio

Enabling Biomaterials for New Biomedical Technologies and Clinical Therapies

Enabling Biomaterials for New Biomedical Technologies and Clinical Therapies
Author: Hasan Uludag,Abhay Pandit,Liisa Kuhn
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-07-14
ISBN 10: 2889638537
ISBN 13: 9782889638536
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Enabling Biomaterials for New Biomedical Technologies and Clinical Therapies Book Review:

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials Nanocomposites

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials  Nanocomposites
Author: Vijay Kumar Thakur,Manju Kumari Thakur,Michael R. Kessler
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2017-04-19
ISBN 10: 1119224489
ISBN 13: 9781119224488
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials Nanocomposites Book Review:

The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The handbook covers a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least 5000 pages and offers a unique publication. This 8th volume of the Handbook is solely focused on the Nanocomposites: Advanced Applications. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: virgin and recycled polymers applied to advanced nanocomposites; biodegradable polymer-carbon nanotube composites for water and wastewater treatment; eco-friendly nanocomposites of chitosan with natural extracts, antimicrobial agents and nanometals; controllable generation of renewable nanofibrils from green materials and their application in nanocomposites; nanocellulose and nanocellulose composites; poly (lactic acid) biopolymer composites and nanocomposites for biomedical and biopackaging applications; impact of nanotechnology in water treatment: carbon nanotube and graphene; nanomaterials in energy generation; sustainable green nanocomposites from bacterial bioplastics for food packaging applications; PLA-nanocomposites: a promising material for future from renewable resources; bio-composites from renewable resources: preparation and applications of chitosan-clay nanocomposites; nano materials: an advanced and versatile nano additive for kraft and paper industries; composites and nanocomposites based on polylactic acid obtaining; cellulose-containing scaffolds fabricated by electrospinning: applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery; biopolymer-based nanocomposites for environmental applications; calcium phosphate nanocomposites for biomedical and dental applications: recent developments; chitosan-metal nanocomposites: synthesis, characterization and applications; multi-carboxyl functionalized nano-cellulose/nano-bentonite composite for the effective removal and recovery of metal ions; biomimetic gelatin nanocomposite as a scaffold for bone tissue repair; natural starches-blended ionotropically-gelled microparticles/beads for sustained drug release and ferrogels: smart materials for biomedical and remediation applications.

The Rheumatology Handbook

The Rheumatology Handbook
Author: Margaret Callan
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 488
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 1848163215
ISBN 13: 9781848163218
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Rheumatology Handbook Book Review:

The Rheumatology Handbook is a unique resource for medical students and non-specialist doctors. It represents a collaborative effort between specialists from major teaching hospitals within the UK and Ireland, with each chapter being edited by a different consultant rheumatologist with the relevant subspecialty interest. Written clearly and concisely and well illustrated, the book provides readers with the basic scientific information that they require to understand current concepts about the pathogenesis of rheumatological disease, and draws on recent research studies to give up-to-date information about investigation and treatment. It covers the full range of rheumatological conditions, from local degenerative problems to systemic immune-mediated disease. It includes a useful section on soft-tissue disorders and a practical guide to performing soft-tissue and joint injections; at the other end of the clinical spectrum, the rationale for and efficacy of novel treatments targeted at individual components of the immune response are well explained.

Handbook of Laser Technology and Applications

Handbook of Laser Technology and Applications
Author: Chunlei Guo,Subhash Chandra Singh
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2021-06-23
ISBN 10: 1315310848
ISBN 13: 9781315310848
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Laser Technology and Applications Book Review:

This comprehensive handbook gives a fully updated guide to lasers and laser technologies, including the complete range of their technical applications. This third volume covers modern applications in engineering and technology, including all new and updated case studies spanning telecommunications and data storage to medicine, optical measurement, defense and security, nanomaterials processing and characterization. Key Features: • Offers a complete update of the original, bestselling work, including many brand-new chapters. • Deepens the introduction to fundamentals, from laser design and fabrication to host matrices for solid-state lasers, energy level diagrams, hosting materials, dopant energy levels, and lasers based on nonlinear effects. • Covers new laser types, including quantum cascade lasers, silicon-based lasers, titanium sapphire lasers, terahertz lasers, bismuth-doped fiber lasers, and diode-pumped alkali lasers. • Discusses the latest applications, e.g., lasers in microscopy, high-speed imaging, attosecond metrology, 3D printing, optical atomic clocks, time-resolved spectroscopy, polarization and profile measurements, pulse measurements, and laser-induced fluorescence detection. • Adds new sections on laser materials processing, laser spectroscopy, lasers in imaging, lasers in environmental sciences, and lasers in communications. This handbook is the ideal companion for scientists, engineers, and students working with lasers, including those in optics, electrical engineering, physics, chemistry, biomedicine, and other relevant areas.

Handbook of Detergents Part E

Handbook of Detergents  Part E
Author: Uri Zoller
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 504
Release: 2008-10-29
ISBN 10: 1420018167
ISBN 13: 9781420018165
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Detergents Part E Book Review:

An Examination of Detergent Applications The fifth volume in a six volume project penned by detergent industry experts, this segment deals with the various applications of detergent formulations - surfactants, builders, sequestering/chelating agents - as well as other components. These applications are discussed with respect to the scope

Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology

Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology
Author: K. Byrappa,Masahiro Yoshimura
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 893
Release: 2008-12-10
ISBN 10: 9780080946818
ISBN 13: 008094681X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology Book Review:

Quartz, zeolites, gemstones, perovskite type oxides, ferrite, carbon allotropes, complex coordinated compounds and many moreùall products now being produced using hydrothermal technology. Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology brings together the latest techniques in this rapidly advancing field in one exceptionally useful, long-needed volume. The handbook provides a single source for understanding how aqueous solvents or mineralizers work under temperature and pressure to dissolve and recrystallize normally insoluble materials, and decompose or recycle any waste material. The result, as the authors show in the book, is technologically the most efficient method in crystal growth, materials processing, and waste treatment. The book gives scientists and technologists an overview of the entire subject including: ò Evolution of the technology from geology to widespread industrial use. ò Descriptions of equipment used in the process and how it works. ò Problems involved with the growth of crystals, processing of technological materials, environmental and safety issues. ò Analysis of the direction of today's technology. In addition, readers get a close look at the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites, fluorides, sulfides, tungstates, and molybdates, as well as native elements and simple oxides. Delving into the commercial production of various types, the authors clarify the effects of temperature, pressure, solvents, and various other chemical components on the hydrothermal processes.