General Philosophy of Science Focal Issues

General Philosophy of Science  Focal Issues
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 708
Release: 2007-07-18
ISBN 10: 9780080548548
ISBN 13: 0080548547
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

General Philosophy of Science Focal Issues Book Review:

Scientists use concepts and principles that are partly specific for their subject matter, but they also share part of them with colleagues working in different fields. Compare the biological notion of a 'natural kind' with the general notion of 'confirmation' of a hypothesis by certain evidence. Or compare the physical principle of the 'conservation of energy' and the general principle of 'the unity of science'. Scientists agree that all such notions and principles aren't as crystal clear as one might wish. An important task of the philosophy of the special sciences, such as philosophy of physics, of biology and of economics, to mention only a few of the many flourishing examples, is the clarification of such subject specific concepts and principles. Similarly, an important task of 'general' philosophy of science is the clarification of concepts like 'confirmation' and principles like 'the unity of science'. It is evident that clarfication of concepts and principles only makes sense if one tries to do justice, as much as possible, to the actual use of these notions by scientists, without however following this use slavishly. That is, occasionally a philosopher may have good reasons for suggesting to scientists that they should deviate from a standard use. Frequently, this amounts to a plea for differentiation in order to stop debates at cross-purposes due to the conflation of different meanings. While the special volumes of the series of Handbooks of the Philosophy of Science address topics relative to a specific discipline, this general volume deals with focal issues of a general nature. After an editorial introduction about the dominant method of clarifying concepts and principles in philosophy of science, called explication, the first five chapters deal with the following subjects. Laws, theories, and research programs as units of empirical knowledge (Theo Kuipers), various past and contemporary perspectives on explanation (Stathis Psillos), the evaluation of theories in terms of their virtues (Ilkka Niiniluto), and the role of experiments in the natural sciences, notably physics and biology (Allan Franklin), and their role in the social sciences, notably economics (Wenceslao Gonzalez). In the subsequent three chapters there is even more attention to various positions and methods that philosophers of science and scientists may favor: ontological, epistemological, and methodological positions (James Ladyman), reduction, integration, and the unity of science as aims in the sciences and the humanities (William Bechtel and Andrew Hamilton), and logical, historical and computational approaches to the philosophy of science (Atocha Aliseda and Donald Gillies). The volume concludes with the much debated question of demarcating science from nonscience (Martin Mahner) and the rich European-American history of the philosophy of science in the 20th century (Friedrich Stadler). Comprehensive coverage of the philosophy of science written by leading philosophers in this field Clear style of writing for an interdisciplinary audience No specific pre-knowledge required

Mechanistic Explanations in Physics and Beyond

Mechanistic Explanations in Physics and Beyond
Author: Brigitte Falkenburg,Gregor Schiemann
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 220
Release: 2019-08-28
ISBN 10: 3030107078
ISBN 13: 9783030107079
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mechanistic Explanations in Physics and Beyond Book Review:

This volume offers a broad, philosophical discussion on mechanical explanations. Coverage ranges from historical approaches and general questions to physics and higher-level sciences . The contributors also consider the topics of complexity, emergence, and reduction. Mechanistic explanations detail how certain properties of a whole stem from the causal activities of its parts. This kind of explanation is in particular employed in explanatory models of the behavior of complex systems. Often used in biology and neuroscience, mechanistic explanation models have been often overlooked in the philosophy of physics. The authors correct this surprising neglect. They trace these models back to their origins in physics. The papers present a comprehensive historical, methodological, and problem-oriented investigation. The contributors also investigate the conditions for using models of mechanistic explanations in physics. The last papers make the bridge from physics to economics, the theory of complex systems and computer science . This book will appeal to graduate students and researchers with an interest in the philosophy of science, scientific explanation, complex systems, models of explanation in physics higher level sciences, and causal mechanisms in science.

Journal for General Philosophy of Science

Journal for General Philosophy of Science
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2002
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015081518154
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Journal for General Philosophy of Science Book Review:

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science
Author: Paul Humphreys,Anjan Chakravartty,Margaret Morrison,Andrea Woody
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 917
Release: 2016
ISBN 10: 0199368813
ISBN 13: 9780199368815
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science Book Review:

Advertisement for the philosophy of the computational sciences / Oron Shagrir -- Part I. Overviews. Philosophy of the social sciences : naturalism and anti-naturalism in the philosophy of social science / Francesco Guala -- Philosophy of biology / Ben Fraser and Kim Sterelny -- Philosophy of the psychological and cognitive sciences / Mark Sprevak -- Philosophy of the physical sciences / Carl Hoefer and Chris Smeenk -- Having science in view : general philosophy of science and its significance / Stathis Psillos -- Part II. Traditional topics. Causation in science / James Woodward -- Confirmation and induction / Jan Sprenger -- Determinism and indeterminism / Charlotte Werndl -- Epistemology and philosophy of science / Otavio Bueno -- Ethics in science / David B. Resnik -- Experiment / Uljana Feest and Friedrich Steinle -- Game theory / Cristina Bicchieri and Giacomo Sillari -- Instrumentalism : global, local, and scientific / P. Kyle Stanford -- Laws of nature / John T. Roberts -- Metaphysics in science / Richard Healey -- Models and theories / Margaret Morrison -- Natural kinds / Muhammad Ali Khalidi -- Probability / Antony Eagle -- Representation in science / Mauricio Suarez -- Reduction / Andreas Huttemann and Alan C. Love -- Science and non-science / Sven Ove Hansson -- Scientific concepts / Hyundeuk Cheon and Edouard Machery -- Scientific explanation / Bradford Skow -- Scientific progress / Alexander Bird -- Scientific realism / Timothy D. Lyons -- Scientific theories / Hans Halvorson -- Values in science / Heather Douglas -- Part III. New directions. After Kuhn / Philip Kitcher -- Astronomy and astrophysics / Sibylle Anderl -- Challenges to evolutionary theory / Denis Walsh -- Complexity theory / Michael Strevens -- Computer simulation / Johannes Lenhard -- Data / Aidan Lyon -- Emergence / Paul Humphreys -- Empiricism and after / Jim Bogen -- Mechanisms and mechanical philosophy / Stuart Glennan -- Philosophy and cosmology / Claus Beisbart -- Philosophy of neuroscience / Adina L. Roskies and Carl F. Craver -- Social organization of science / Martin Carrier -- Spaces / Dean Rickles.

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science
Author: Kent W. Staley
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 281
Release: 2014-11-06
ISBN 10: 0521112494
ISBN 13: 9780521112499
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science Book Review:

This book explores central philosophical concepts, issues, and debates in the philosophy of science, both historical and contemporary.

Philosophy of Science

Philosophy of Science
Author: Gerhard Schurz
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 460
Release: 2013-11-20
ISBN 10: 1134101228
ISBN 13: 9781134101221
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy of Science Book Review:

Philosophy of Science: A Unified Approach combines a general introduction to philosophy of science with an integrated survey of all its important subfields. As the book’s subtitle suggests, this excellent overview is guided methodologically by "a unified approach" to philosophy of science: behind the diversity of scientific fields one can recognize a methodological unity of the sciences. This unity is worked out in this book, revealing all the while important differences between subject areas. Structurally, this comprehensive book offers a two-part approach, which makes it an excellent introduction for students new to the field and a useful resource for more advanced students. Each chapter is divided into two sections. The first section assumes no foreknowledge of the subject introduced, and the second section builds upon the first by bringing into the conversation more advanced, complementary topics. Definitions, key propositions, examples and figures overview all of the core material. At the end of every chapter there are selected readings and exercises (with solutions at the end of the book). The book also includes a comprehensive bibliography and an index.

Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences

Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 1472
Release: 2009-11-27
ISBN 10: 9780080930749
ISBN 13: 0080930743
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences Book Review:

The Handbook Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences addresses numerous issues in the emerging field of the philosophy of those sciences that are involved in the technological process of designing, developing and making of new technical artifacts and systems. These issues include the nature of design, of technological knowledge, and of technical artifacts, as well as the toolbox of engineers. Most of these have thus far not been analyzed in general philosophy of science, which has traditionally but inadequately regarded technology as mere applied science and focused on physics, biology, mathematics and the social sciences. • First comprehensive philosophical handbook on technology and the engineering sciences • Unparalleled in scope including explorative articles • In depth discussion of technical artifacts and their ontology • Provides extensive analysis of the nature of engineering design • Focuses in detail on the role of models in technology

Current Controversies in Philosophy of Science

Current Controversies in Philosophy of Science
Author: Shamik Dasgupta,Ravit Dotan,Brad Weslake
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 204
Release: 2020-10-28
ISBN 10: 1317497147
ISBN 13: 9781317497141
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Current Controversies in Philosophy of Science Book Review:

Current Controversies in Philosophy of Science asks twelve philosophers to debate six questions that are driving contemporary work in this area of philosophy. The questions are: I. Are Boltzmann Brains Bad? II. Does Mathematical Explanation Require Mathematical Truth? III. Does Quantum Mechanics Suggest Spacetime is Nonfundamental? IV. Is Evolution Fundamental When It Comes to Defining Biological Ontology? V. Is Chance Ontologically Fundamental? VI. Are Sexes Natural Kinds? These debates explore the philosophical foundations of particular scientific disciplines, while also examining more general issues in the philosophy of science. The result is a book that’s perfect for the advanced philosophy student, building up their knowledge of the foundations of the field and engaging with its cutting-edge questions. Preliminary descriptions of each chapter, annotated lists of further readings for each controversy, and study questions for each chapter help provide clearer and richer snapshots of active controversies for all readers.

The Logic in Philosophy of Science

The Logic in Philosophy of Science
Author: Hans Halvorson
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 286
Release: 2019-06-30
ISBN 10: 1107110998
ISBN 13: 9781107110991
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Logic in Philosophy of Science Book Review:

Major figures of twentieth-century philosophy were enthralled by the revolution in formal logic, and many of their arguments are based on novel mathematical discoveries. Hilary Putnam claimed that the Lwenheim-Sklem theorem refutes the existence of an objective, observer-independent world; Bas van Fraassen claimed that arguments against empiricism in philosophy of science are ineffective against a semantic approach to scientific theories; W. V. O. Quine claimed that the distinction between analytic and synthetic truths is trivialized by the fact that any theory can be reduced to one in which all truths are analytic. This book dissects these and other arguments through in-depth investigation of the mathematical facts undergirding them. It presents a systematic, mathematically rigorous account of the key notions arising from such debates, including theory, equivalence, translation, reduction, and model. The result is a far-reaching reconceptualization of the role of formal methods in answering philosophical questions.

Understanding Philosophy of Science

Understanding Philosophy of Science
Author: James Ladyman
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2012-08-06
ISBN 10: 1134597908
ISBN 13: 9781134597901
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Understanding Philosophy of Science Book Review:

Few can imagine a world without telephones or televisions; many depend on computers and the Internet as part of daily life. Without scientific theory, these developments would not have been possible. In this exceptionally clear and engaging introduction to philosophy of science, James Ladyman explores the philosophical questions that arise when we reflect on the nature of the scientific method and the knowledge it produces. He discusses whether fundamental philosophical questions about knowledge and reality might be answered by science, and considers in detail the debate between realists and antirealists about the extent of scientific knowledge. Along the way, central topics in philosophy of science, such as the demarcation of science from non-science, induction, confirmation and falsification, the relationship between theory and observation and relativism are all addressed. Important and complex current debates over underdetermination, inference to the best explaination and the implications of radical theory change are clarified and clearly explained for those new to the subject.

The Philosophy of Science

The Philosophy of Science
Author: Anouk Barberousse,Denis Bonnay,Mikael Cozic
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 688
Release: 2018-06-28
ISBN 10: 0190690658
ISBN 13: 9780190690656
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Philosophy of Science Book Review:

Philosophy of science studies the methods, theories, and concepts used by scientists. It mainly developed as a field in its own right during the twentieth century and is now a diversified and lively research area. This book surveys the current state of the discipline by focusing on central themes like confirmation of scientific hypotheses, scientific explanation, causality, the relationship between science and metaphysics, scientific change, the relationship between philosophy of science and science studies, the role of theories and models, unity of science. These themes define general philosophy of science. The book also presents sub-disciplines in the philosophy of science dealing with the main sciences: logic, mathematics, physics, biology, medicine, cognitive science, linguistics, social sciences, and economics. While it is common to address the specific philosophical problems raised by physics and biology in such a book, the place assigned to the philosophy of special sciences is much more unusual. Most authors collaborate on a regular basis in their research or teaching and share a common vision of philosophy of science and its place within philosophy and academia in general. The chapters have been written in close accordance with the three editors, thus achieving strong unity of style and tone.

Philosophy of Science Today

Philosophy of Science Today
Author: Peter Clark,Katherine Hawley
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 299
Release: 2003
ISBN 10: 9780199250554
ISBN 13: 0199250553
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy of Science Today Book Review:

A state-of-the-art guide to the fast-developing area of the philosophy of science.

Philosophy of Complex Systems

Philosophy of Complex Systems
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 952
Release: 2011-05-23
ISBN 10: 9780080931227
ISBN 13: 0080931227
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy of Complex Systems Book Review:

The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of complex nonlinear dynamical systems, especially in recent years. -Comprehensive coverage of all main theories in the philosophy of Complex Systems -Clearly written expositions of fundamental ideas and concepts -Definitive discussions by leading researchers in the field -Summaries of leading-edge research in related fields are also included

Philosophy of Social Science

Philosophy of Social Science
Author: Mark Risjord
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2014-05-16
ISBN 10: 1136627510
ISBN 13: 9781136627514
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy of Social Science Book Review:

The Philosophy of Social Science: A Contemporary Introduction examines the perennial questions of philosophy by engaging with the empirical study of society. The book offers a comprehensive overview of debates in the field, with special attention to questions arising from new research programs in the social sciences. The text uses detailed examples of social scientific research to motivate and illustrate the philosophical discussion. Topics include the relationship of social policy to social science, interpretive research, action explanation, game theory, social scientific accounts of norms, joint intentionality, reductionism, causal modeling, case study research, and experimentation.

Theory and Reality

Theory and Reality
Author: Peter Godfrey-Smith
Publsiher: University of Chicago Press
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2009-12-11
ISBN 10: 9780226300610
ISBN 13: 0226300617
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Theory and Reality Book Review:

How does science work? Does it tell us what the world is "really" like? What makes it different from other ways of understanding the universe? In Theory and Reality, Peter Godfrey-Smith addresses these questions by taking the reader on a grand tour of one hundred years of debate about science. The result is a completely accessible introduction to the main themes of the philosophy of science. Intended for undergraduates and general readers with no prior background in philosophy, Theory and Reality covers logical positivism; the problems of induction and confirmation; Karl Popper's theory of science; Thomas Kuhn and "scientific revolutions"; the views of Imre Lakatos, Larry Laudan, and Paul Feyerabend; and challenges to the field from sociology of science, feminism, and science studies. The book then looks in more detail at some specific problems and theories, including scientific realism, the theory-ladeness of observation, scientific explanation, and Bayesianism. Finally, Godfrey-Smith defends a form of philosophical naturalism as the best way to solve the main problems in the field. Throughout the text he points out connections between philosophical debates and wider discussions about science in recent decades, such as the infamous "science wars." Examples and asides engage the beginning student; a glossary of terms explains key concepts; and suggestions for further reading are included at the end of each chapter. However, this is a textbook that doesn't feel like a textbook because it captures the historical drama of changes in how science has been conceived over the last one hundred years. Like no other text in this field, Theory and Reality combines a survey of recent history of the philosophy of science with current key debates in language that any beginning scholar or critical reader can follow.

Computational Philosophy of Science

Computational Philosophy of Science
Author: Paul Thagard
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 240
Release: 1993
ISBN 10: 9780262700481
ISBN 13: 0262700484
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computational Philosophy of Science Book Review:

By applying research in artificial intelligence to problems in the philosophy of science, Paul Thagard develops an exciting new approach to the study of scientific reasoning. This approach uses computational ideas to shed light on how scientific theories are discovered, evaluated, and used in explanations. Thagard describes a detailed computational model of problem solving and discovery that provides a conceptually rich yet rigorous alternative to accounts of scientific knowledge based on formal logic, and he uses it to illuminate such topics as the nature of concepts, hypothesis formation, analogy, and theory justification.

Philosophy of Science

Philosophy of Science
Author: Samir Okasha
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 140
Release: 2016
ISBN 10: 0198745583
ISBN 13: 9780198745587
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy of Science Book Review:

How much faith should we place in what scientists tell us? Is it possible for scientific knowledge to be fully "objective?" What, really, can be defined as science? In the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, Samir Okasha explores the main themes and theories of contemporary philosophy of science, and investigates fascinating, challenging questions such as these. Starting at the very beginning, with a concise overview of the history of science, Okasha examines the nature of fundamental practices such as reasoning, causation, and explanation. Looking at scientific revolutions and the issue of scientific change, he asks whether there is a discernible pattern to the way scientific ideas change over time, and discusses realist versus anti-realist attitudes towards science. He finishes by considering science today, and the social and ethical philosophical questions surrounding modern science. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Social Philosophy of Science for the Social Sciences

Social Philosophy of Science for the Social Sciences
Author: Jaan Valsiner
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 305
Release: 2020-02-10
ISBN 10: 3030330990
ISBN 13: 9783030330996
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Social Philosophy of Science for the Social Sciences Book Review:

This is an international and interdisciplinary volume that provides a new look at the general background of the social sciences from a philosophical perspective and provides directions for methodology. It seeks to overcome the limitations of the traditional treatises of a philosophy of science rooted in the physical sciences, as well as extend the coverage of basic science to intentional and socially normative features of the social sciences. The discussions included in this book are divided into four thematic sections: Social and cognitive roots for reflexivity upon the research process Philosophies of explanation in the social sciences Social normativity in social sciences Social processes in particular sciences Social Philosophy of Science for the Social Sciences will find an interested audience in students of the philosophy of science and social sciences. It is also relevant for researchers and students in the fields of psychology, sociology, economics, anthropology, education, and political science.

Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science

Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 522
Release: 2006-10-23
ISBN 10: 9780080466620
ISBN 13: 0080466621
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science Book Review:

Psychology is the study of thinking, and cognitive science is the interdisciplinary investigation of mind and intelligence that also includes philosophy, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. In these investigations, many philosophical issues arise concerning methods and central concepts. The Handbook of Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science contains 16 essays by leading philosophers of science that illuminate the nature of the theories and explanations used in the investigation of minds. Topics discussed include representation, mechanisms, reduction, perception, consciousness, language, emotions, neuroscience, and evolutionary psychology. Comprehensive coverage of philosophy of psychology and cognitive science Distinguished contributors: leading philosophers in this area Contributions closely tied to relevant scientific research

The Philosophy of Science

The Philosophy of Science
Author: George Couvalis
Publsiher: SAGE
Total Pages: 224
Release: 1997-04-10
ISBN 10: 1849206929
ISBN 13: 9781849206921
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Philosophy of Science Book Review:

This comprehensive textbook provides a clear nontechnical introduction to the philosophy of science. Through asking whether science can provide us with objective knowledge of the world, the book provides a thorough and accessible guide to the key thinkers and debates that define the field. George Couvalis surveys traditional themes around theory and observation, induction, probability, falsification and rationality as well as more recent challenges to objectivity including relativistic, feminist and sociological readings. This provides a helpful framework in which to locate the key intellectual contributions to these debates, ranging from those of Mill and Hume, through Popper and Kuhn to Laudan, Bloor and Garfinkel among others.