Gene Environment Interactions

Gene Environment Interactions
Author: Moyra Smith
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 438
Release: 2020-01-14
ISBN 10: 0128197978
ISBN 13: 9780128197974
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Gene Environment Interactions Book Review:

Gene Environment Interactions: Nature and Nurture in the Twenty-first Century offers a rare, synergistic view of ongoing revelations in gene environment interaction studies, drawing together key themes from epigenetics, microbiomics, disease etiology, and toxicology to illuminate pathways for clinical translation and the paradigm shift towards precision medicine. Across eleven chapters, Dr. Smith discusses interactions with the environment, human adaptations to environmental stimuli, pathogen encounters across the centuries, epigenetic modulation of gene expression, transgenerational inheritance, the microbiome’s intrinsic effects on human health, and the gene-environment etiology of cardiovascular, metabolic, psychiatric, behavioral and monogenic disorders. Later chapters illuminate how our new understanding of gene environment interactions are driving advances in precision medicine and novel treatments. In addition, the book's author shares strategies to support clinical translation of these scientific findings to improve heath literacy among the general population. Offers a thorough, interdisciplinary discussion on recent revelations from gene environment interaction studies Illuminates environmental factors affecting disease-gene etiology and treatment Supports the clinical translation of gene environment interaction findings into novel therapeutics and precision medicine

Gene Environment Interactions in Psychiatry

Gene Environment Interactions in Psychiatry
Author: Bart Ellenbroek,Ji Un Youn
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 366
Release: 2016-07-26
ISBN 10: 012801783X
ISBN 13: 9780128017838
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Gene Environment Interactions in Psychiatry Book Review:

Gene-Environment Interactions in Psychiatry: Nature, Nurture, Neuroscience begins with the basic aspects of gene–environment studies, such as basic genetics, principles of animals modeling, and the basic processes of how environmental factors affect brain and behavior, with part two describing the most important psychiatric disorders in detail. Each chapter has a similar structure that includes a general description of the disorder that is followed by an analysis of the role of genes and how they are affected by environmental factors. Each chapter ends with a description of the most relevant animal models, again focusing on gene–environment interactions. The book concludes with a critical evaluation of the current research and an outlook for the (possible) future, offering a vignette into the fascinating world of nature, nurture, and neuroscience. Written to provide in-depth basic knowledge on gene–environment interactions for graduate students, postgraduate students, clinicians, and scientists Includes descriptions of the major psychiatric disorders Provides detailed descriptions of animal models and basic genetic information Presents well-illustrated color figures to explain complex features in a simple manner

Gene Environment Interaction Analysis

Gene Environment Interaction Analysis
Author: Sumiko Anno
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 212
Release: 2016-03-30
ISBN 10: 9814669644
ISBN 13: 9789814669641
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Gene Environment Interaction Analysis Book Review:

Gene–environment (G × E) interaction analysis is a statistical method for clarifying G × E interactions applicable to a phenotype or a disease that is the result of interactions between genes and the environment. This book is the first to deal with the theme of G × E interaction analysis. It compiles and details cutting-edge research in bioinformatics and computational biology and will appeal to anyone involved in bioinformatics and computational biology.

Gene Environment Interactions

Gene Environment Interactions
Author: Lucio G. Costa,David L. Eaton
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2005-12-16
ISBN 10: 0471758035
ISBN 13: 9780471758037
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Gene Environment Interactions Book Review:

Understanding the play between heredity and environment, andrelating it to disease causation, is the task of ecogenetics.Gene-Environment Interactions: Fundamentals of Ecogenetics presentsthe first comprehensive survey of this discipline, reflecting itsrelationship with toxicology, epidemiology, pharmacology, publichealth, and other medical and biological fields. Divided into four sections, the text elucidates key basic andadvanced topics: * Section 1 covers fundamentals, including the history of thediscipline, a discussion of the molecular laboratory toolscurrently available to assess genotypes, using such measurements inmolecular epidemiology studies, and the statistical issues involvedin their analysis. * Section 2 focuses on a number of key genetic polymorphismsrelevant for ecogenetics, including enzymes of phase I and phase IImetabolism, enzymes involved in DNA repair, as well as receptorsand ion channels. This highlights characteristics of selected,widely studied genotypic/phenotypic differences, and allowsdiscussion of how given genetic variations can influence responsesto exogenous chemicals. * Section 3 examines gene-environment interactions through adisease-based approach, addressing how genetic polymorphisms caninfluence susceptibility to various diseases. Chapters coverimportant disease conditions such as various types of cancer,neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, chronicpulmonary diseases, infectious diseases, diabetes, andobesity. * The final section discusses the ethical, legal, and social issuesthat arise when investigating and evaluating genetic polymorphismsin human populations, as well as the impact of ecogenetics on riskassessment, regulatory policies, and medicine and publichealth. Packed with clear examples illustrating concepts, as well asnumerous tables and figures, Gene-Environment Interactions:Fundamentals of Ecogenetics is a unique resource for a wide rangeof physicians, students, and other specialists.

Gene Environment Interactions in Developmental Psychopathology

Gene Environment Interactions in Developmental Psychopathology
Author: Kenneth A. Dodge,Michael Rutter
Publsiher: Guilford Press
Total Pages: 286
Release: 2011-09-01
ISBN 10: 1609181905
ISBN 13: 9781609181901
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Gene Environment Interactions in Developmental Psychopathology Book Review:

Bringing together foremost experts, this book reviews groundbreaking gene–environment research and explores implications for clinical practice, prevention, and public policy. Presented is cutting-edge work on the interplay of genetic factors and childhood experiences in the development of mental disorders such as depression, conduct disorder, and schizophrenia. Essential topics include what scientists currently know about "susceptibility genes"; the mechanisms by which maltreatment and other stressors interact with biological susceptibilities across development; and factors that make certain children more resilient than others. Future directions for personalizing treatment and prevention efforts, thus making them more effective, are discussed.

Gene Environment Transactions in Developmental Psychopathology

Gene Environment Transactions in Developmental Psychopathology
Author: Patrick H. Tolan,Bennett L. Leventhal
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 301
Release: 2017-04-29
ISBN 10: 3319492276
ISBN 13: 9783319492278
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Gene Environment Transactions in Developmental Psychopathology Book Review:

This book examines the current research in gene-environment transactions (GEX) and its potential use in developing interventions and applications tailored to individual genetic makeups. Key concepts underlying GEX studies in this area are defined, identifying fundamental challenges in devising informed research questions and conducting valid and useful experiments. Chapters analyze GEX models inspired by the present day genome-based frameworks, particularly in terms of advances in identifying and understanding complex environmental factors, using examples from common psychological conditions, such as antisocial behavior, chronic physical aggression, and chronic internalizing disorder. In addition, the book presents new and potential applications of the framework in the contexts of prevention science and intervention research. Topics featured in this book include: Epigenetics and the biology of gene x environment interactions. Gene by environment interactions and its potential use for intervention strategies in anxiety disorders. The challenges and potential for research on gene-environment interactions within autism spectrum disorder. Using genetically informed prevention trials to test gene x environment hypothese. Challenges for intervention research within the GEX framework. Gene-Environment Transactions in Developmental Psychopathology is a must-have resource for researchers/professors, clinicians, and related professionals as well as graduate students in developmental psychology, psychiatry, human genetics, and related disciplines.

Beyond Our Genes

Beyond Our Genes
Author: Raffaele Teperino
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 266
Release: 2020-01-24
ISBN 10: 3030352137
ISBN 13: 9783030352134
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Beyond Our Genes Book Review:

The genotype/phenotype dichotomy is being slowly replaced by a more complex relationship whereby the majority of phenotypes arise from interactions between one’s genotype and the environment in which one lives. Interestingly, it seems that not only our lives, but also our ancestors’ lives, determine how we look. This newly recognized form of inheritance is known as (epi)genetic, as it involves an additional layer of information on top of the one encoded by the genes. Its discovery has constituted one of the biggest paradigm shifts in biology in recent years. Understanding epigenetic factors may help explain the pathogenesis of several complex human diseases (such as diabetes, obesity and cancer) and provide alternative paths for disease prevention, management and therapy. This book introduces the reader to the importance of the environment for our own health and the health of our descendants, sheds light on the current knowledge on epigenetic inheritance and opens a window to future developments in the field.

Statistical Approaches to Gene X Environment Interactions for Complex Phenotypes

Statistical Approaches to Gene X Environment Interactions for Complex Phenotypes
Author: Michael Windle
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2016-07-08
ISBN 10: 0262034689
ISBN 13: 9780262034685
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Statistical Approaches to Gene X Environment Interactions for Complex Phenotypes Book Review:

Diverse methodological and statistical approaches for investigating the role of gene-environment interactions in a range of complex diseases and traits.

Schizophrenia A Consequence of Gene Environment Interactions

Schizophrenia  A Consequence of Gene Environment Interactions
Author: Tim Karl, Jonathon C. Arnold
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2015-06-06
ISBN 10: 2889195317
ISBN 13: 9782889195312
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Schizophrenia A Consequence of Gene Environment Interactions Book Review:

Schizophrenia is a multi-factorial disease characterized by a high heritability and environmental risk factors (e.g. stress and cannabis use). In recent years, an increasing number of researchers worldwide have started investigating the ‘two-hit hypothesis’ of schizophrenia predicting that genetic and environmental risk factors interactively cause the development of the disorder. This work is starting to produce valuable new animal models and reveal novel insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Eventually, it might help advance studies of the molecular pathways involved in this mental disorder and propose more specific molecular medicine. However, the complexity of this multi-factorial line of research has also caused difficulties in data interpretation and comparison. Our research topic is intended to cover past and current directions in research dedicated to the understanding and measurement of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in schizophrenia, the neurobiological and behavioural consequences of such interactions as well as the challenges and limitations one encounters when working on complex aetiological systems.

Health Outcomes in a Foreign Land

Health Outcomes in a Foreign Land
Author: Bernard Kwabi-Addo
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2017-07-15
ISBN 10: 331955865X
ISBN 13: 9783319558653
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Health Outcomes in a Foreign Land Book Review:

This stimulating volume uses multiple lenses to analyze the complex causes of health disparities affecting African Americans, and explains how this knowledge can be used to reduce their destructive effects. Pinpointing genetic, non-genetic, and epigenetic factors underlying health conditions common to the population—including heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer—the author traces intricate links among these factors in the current environmental and social context. The section on non-genetic factors in health disparities, such as social determinants and health behaviors, add depth to the ongoing discourse on public health and health policy objectives. And the chapters on gene/environment interactions outline the vast potential for developing new multidisciplinary frontiers in shrinking health inequities and personalizing care. Included in the coverage: The African diaspora and disease-specific disparities. The genetic basis to health disparities. The role of epigenetics Economic factors and health Psychological issues and how they affect disparities Gene-environment interactions in health disparities Race, a biological or social concept Compelling and accessible, Health Outcomes in a Foreign Land will challenge and inspire medical students, epidemiologists, public health professionals, biomedical research scientists, and social scientists to go farther in their work. A wider audience would include policymakers, government officials, nurses, physicians, lawyers, economists, community outreach investigators, and interested general readers.

Recent Advances in Tomato Breeding and Production

Recent Advances in Tomato Breeding and Production
Author: Seloame Tatu Nyaku,Agyemang Danquah
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 126
Release: 2019-01-23
ISBN 10: 1789850339
ISBN 13: 9781789850338
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Recent Advances in Tomato Breeding and Production Book Review:

Tomato cultivation is a major economic activity in many countries of the world. Thus, strategic efforts should be directed towards mitigating production constraints that limit overall yields and quality. In addressing some of these constraints, researchers are developing and using varieties of modern and innovative techniques to improve local tomato germplasm, make rapid genetic gains, and breed for varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. This book focuses on recent advances in genomics and genetic improvement of the tomato crop, and production systems, and center around the following themes: (i) disease and pest management in tomato production, and (ii) breeding tools and improvement of the tomato.

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide
Author: Yogesh Dwivedi
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 482
Release: 2012-06-25
ISBN 10: 143983881X
ISBN 13: 9781439838815
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide Book Review:

With recent studies using genetic, epigenetic, and other molecular and neurochemical approaches, a new era has begun in understanding pathophysiology of suicide. Emerging evidence suggests that neurobiological factors are not only critical in providing potential risk factors but also provide a promising approach to develop more effective treatment and prevention strategies. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide discusses the most recent findings in suicide neurobiology. Psychological, psychosocial, and cultural factors are important in determining the risk factors for suicide; however, they offer weak prediction and can be of little clinical use. Interestingly, cognitive characteristics are different among depressed suicidal and depressed nonsuicidal subjects, and could be involved in the development of suicidal behavior. The characterization of the neurobiological basis of suicide is in delineating the risk factors associated with suicide. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide focuses on how and why these neurobiological factors are crucial in the pathogenic mechanisms of suicidal behavior and how these findings can be transformed into potential therapeutic applications.

Genetics Environment and Behavior

Genetics  Environment  and Behavior
Author: Lee Ehrman,Gilbert S. Omenn,Ernst Caspari
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 344
Release: 2013-09-17
ISBN 10: 1483269159
ISBN 13: 9781483269153
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetics Environment and Behavior Book Review:

Genetics, Environment, and Behavior: Implications for Educational Policy is a collection of papers from the "Genetic Endowment and Environment in the Determination of Behavior" workshop in New York in October 1971. The book discusses the relationships between genetic characteristics and behavior as being significant in understanding human behavior and learning. The text also considers the different approaches made by geneticists and psychologists on this subject. Several papers review, in terms of both quantitative and qualitative analysis, the role that genetics and the environment play in determining behavior. One paper explains the possible role of genetic determination in behaviors as found in mice and men that show high probabilities of heritabilities. Another paper tackles biochemical genetics and explains the evolution of human behavior by addressing the enzyme variations in human brains and the role of language and culture. The book also cites gene-environment interactions and the variability that can be found in behavior with references to the works of Ginsburg (1967) and Vale and Vale (1969). One paper comments on the future of human behavior genetics, highlighting the distinction between what should happen and what most probably will happen. This text is suitable for sociologists, behavioral scientists, geneticists, educators, and students in psychology, psychiatry, and related branches of medicine.

Exposed Science

Exposed Science
Author: Sara Shostak
Publsiher: Univ of California Press
Total Pages: 297
Release: 2013-02-15
ISBN 10: 0520275187
ISBN 13: 9780520275188
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Exposed Science Book Review:

We rely on environmental health scientists to document the presence of chemicals where we live, work, and play and to provide an empirical basis for public policy. In the last decades of the 20th century, environmental health scientists began to shift their focus deep within the human body, and to the molecular level, in order to investigate gene-environment interactions. In Exposed Science, Sara Shostak analyzes the rise of gene-environment interaction in the environmental health sciences and examines its consequences for how we understand and seek to protect population health. Drawing on in-depth interviews and ethnographic observation, Shostak demonstrates that what we know – and what we don’t know – about the vulnerabilities of our bodies to environmental hazards is profoundly shaped by environmental health scientists’ efforts to address the structural vulnerabilities of their field. She then takes up the political effects of this research, both from the perspective of those who seek to establish genomic technologies as a new basis for environmental regulation, and from the perspective of environmental justice activists, who are concerned that that their efforts to redress the social, political, and economical inequalities that put people at risk of environmental exposure will be undermined by molecular explanations of environmental health and illness. Exposed Science thus offers critically important new ways of understanding and engaging with the emergence of gene-environment interaction as a focal concern of environmental health science, policy-making, and activism.

Environmental Factors Genes and the Development of Human Cancers

Environmental Factors  Genes  and the Development of Human Cancers
Author: Deodutta Roy,M. Tevfik Dorak
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 520
Release: 2010-09-11
ISBN 10: 9781441967527
ISBN 13: 1441967524
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Factors Genes and the Development of Human Cancers Book Review:

Cancer is a complex disease. Only 5-10% of human cancers are hereditary in nature. Many of us think of environmental agents when we think of carcinogens. The environment includes all that surrounds us, and environmental influences include not only chemical, physical and biological toxicants, but also diet and lifestyle. In this broadest sense, the environment contributes substantially in the development of human cancer. This book will describe how environment contributes to malignant transformation leading to profound changes in the genetic and signaling networks that control the functioning of the cell. It will critically discuss the understanding of the effects of environment on the development, progression and metastasis of cancer with current knowledge of the signaling networks that support functioning of transformed human cells. Genes and environmental factors that influence the origins of cancer are not necessarily the same as those that contribute to its progression and metastasis. Susceptibility gene variants for each specific cancer are being identified with emerging evidence of gene–environment interaction. Gene-environment interactions will be discussed through each specific cancer-based approach to address the question of how genetic variations can influence susceptibility to the individual type of cancer. It will also highlight and summarize epigenetic changes that increase the risk for susceptibility to a particular type of cancer, particularly in the presence of specific environmental factors. Thus, this book will contain chapters from the world’s experts focused on the current evidences that support the role of environment in the cancer etiology and in the growth of malignant lesions, and discuss who may be susceptible to environmental influences.

Adaptation and Fitness in Animal Populations

Adaptation and Fitness in Animal Populations
Author: Julius van der Werf,Hans-Ulrich Graser,Richard Frankham,Cedric Gondro
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 258
Release: 2008-10-17
ISBN 10: 1402090056
ISBN 13: 9781402090059
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Adaptation and Fitness in Animal Populations Book Review:

Fitness and adaptation are fundamental characteristics of plant and animal species, enabling them to survive in their environment and to adapt to the inevitable changes in this environment. This is true for both the genetic resources of natural ecosystems as well as those used in agricultural production. Extensive genetic variation exists between varieties/breeds in a species and amongst individuals within breeds. This variation has developed over very long periods of time. A major ongoing challenge is how to best utilize this variation to meet short-term demands whilst also conserving it for longer-term possible use. Many animal breeding programs have led to increased performance for production traits but this has often been accompanied by reduced fitness. In addition, the global use of genetic resources prompts the question whether introduced genotypes are adapted to local production systems. Understanding the genetic nature of fitness and adaptation will enable us to better manage genetic resources allowing us to make efficient and sustainable decisions for the improvement or breeding of these resources. This book had an ambitious goal in bringing together a sample of the world’s leading scientists in animal breeding and evolutionary genetics to exchange knowledge to advance our understanding of these vital issues.

Frontiers in Eating and Weight Regulation

Frontiers in Eating and Weight Regulation
Author: Wolfgang Langhans,Nori Geary
Publsiher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Total Pages: 208
Release: 2010
ISBN 10: 3805593007
ISBN 13: 9783805593007
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Frontiers in Eating and Weight Regulation Book Review:

The development of effective preventive and therapeutic measures to control eating and body weight involves basic physiology as well as cognitive and social psychology. The potential of molecular genetics to illuminate brain-behavior relationships became apparent with the discovery of the leptin gene in 1994. At present, molecular methodologies are being integrated with other physiological approaches, resulting in a number of options from which effective therapeutic strategies may evolve. This book highlights this exciting juncture: Fifteen leading experts present brief descriptions of some of the latest developments of the physiology of eating and weight regulation, ranging from endocrine and neural controls to genetics and functional brain imaging. These Frontier chapters are preceded by a general overview that provides requisite background on the physiology of eating as well as a conceptual framework for the Frontier chapters.Due to its special nature, this book will be of great interest to students at a variety of levels, to basic researchers already in the area or new to it, and to researchers and clinicians interested in translational issues.

Handbook of Psychocardiology

Handbook of Psychocardiology
Author: Marlies Alvarenga,Don Byrne
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 750
Release: 2017-11-11
ISBN 10: 9789812872050
ISBN 13: 9812872051
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Psychocardiology Book Review:

This handbook brings together the full weight of contemporary evidence bearing on what is now commonly termed “psycho-cardiology”. It focuses on the role of psycho-social factors in the genesis and clinical management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The book constitutes a critically reviewed compendium of current knowledge in the area, coupled with guides to evidence-based best practice in the field of psycho-cardiology. The following categories are covered: Social/demographic risk for CVD, Personality and CVD risk, Stress and CVD risk, Psychopathology (particularly affective disorders) and CVD risk, The psychological management of those with clinical CVD, Psychology in the prevention of CVD. The book integrates the evidence into a compelling argument that clinicians, researchers and those in public health will discount the role of psychological factors in regard to CVD at their own peril. And importantly for clinicians charged with the care of patients with CVD, the book poses the argument that failure to recognize the links between psychological factors and CVD may well be at the considerable peril of those patients under their care.

Genes Behavior and the Social Environment

Genes  Behavior  and the Social Environment
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Assessing Interactions Among Social, Behavioral, and Genetic Factors in Health
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2006-12-07
ISBN 10: 0309101964
ISBN 13: 9780309101967
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genes Behavior and the Social Environment Book Review:

Over the past century, we have made great strides in reducing rates of disease and enhancing people's general health. Public health measures such as sanitation, improved hygiene, and vaccines; reduced hazards in the workplace; new drugs and clinical procedures; and, more recently, a growing understanding of the human genome have each played a role in extending the duration and raising the quality of human life. But research conducted over the past few decades shows us that this progress, much of which was based on investigating one causative factor at a time—often, through a single discipline or by a narrow range of practitioners—can only go so far. Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment examines a number of well-described gene-environment interactions, reviews the state of the science in researching such interactions, and recommends priorities not only for research itself but also for its workforce, resource, and infrastructural needs.

No Two Alike Human Nature and Human Individuality

No Two Alike  Human Nature and Human Individuality
Author: Judith Rich Harris
Publsiher: W. W. Norton & Company
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2010-02-15
ISBN 10: 0393079511
ISBN 13: 9780393079517
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

No Two Alike Human Nature and Human Individuality Book Review:

A groundbreaking theory of personality. The author of the controversial book The Nurture Assumption tackles the biggest mystery in all of psychology: What makes people differ so much in personality and behavior? It can't just be "nature and nurture," because even identical twins who grow up together—same genes, same parents—have different personalities. And if psychologists can't explain why identical twins are different, they also can't explain why each of us differs from everyone else. Why no two people are alike. Harris turns out to be well suited for the role of detective—it isn't easy to pull the wool over her eyes. She rounds up the usual suspects and shows why none of the currently popular explanations for human differences—birth order effects, for example, or interactions between genes and environment—can be the perpetrator she is looking for. None of these theories can solve the mystery of human individuality. The search for clues carries Harris into some fascinating byways of science. The evidence she examines ranges from classic experiments in social psychology to cutting-edge research in neuroscience. She looks at studies of twins, research on autistic children, observations of chimpanzees, birds, and even ants. Her solution is a startlingly original one: the first completely new theory of personality since Freud's. Based on a principle of evolutionary psychology—the idea that the human mind is a toolbox of special-purpose devices—Harris's theory explains how attributes we all have in common can make us different. This is the story of a scientific quest, but it is also the personal story of a courageous and innovative woman who refused to be satisfied with "what everyone knows is true."