Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Systems

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Systems
Author: D. Mukherjee,S.. Chakrabarti
Publsiher: New Age International
Total Pages: 251
Release: 2004
ISBN 10: 9788122415407
ISBN 13: 8122415407
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Systems Book Review:

This Book Can Be Used As A Text Book For The Under Graduate As Well As Post Graduate Curriculum Of Different Universities And Engineering Institutions. Working Personnel, Engaged In Designing, Installing And Analyzing Of Different Renewable Energy Systems, Can Make Good Use Of This Book In Course Of Their Scheduled Activities. It Provides A Clear And Detailed Exposition Of Basic Principles Of Operation, Their Material Science Aspects And The Design Steps.Particular Care Has Been Taken In Elaborating The Concepts Of Hybrid Energy Systems, Integrated Energy Systems And The Critical Role Of Renewable Energy In Preserving Today'S Environment. References At The End Of Each Chapter Have Been Taken From Publications In Different Reputed Journals, Recent Proceedings Of National And International Conferences And Recent Web Sites Along With Ireda And Teri Reports.

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes
Author: Aldo V. da Rosa
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 864
Release: 2009-05-07
ISBN 10: 9780080878232
ISBN 13: 0080878237
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes Book Review:

We are hearing a LOT about renewable energy these days! But unlike most available resources on alternative energy that focus on politics and economic impacts, da Rosa's practical guide, Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes, is dedicated to explaining the scientific and technological principles and processes that enable energy production from safe, renewable, clean sources. Advances in the renewable energy sphere are proceeding with an unprecedented speed, and in order for the world's alarming energy challenges to be solved, solid, up-to-date resources addressing the technical aspects of renewables are essential. This new, updated 2e of da Rosa's successful book continues to give readers all the background they need to gain a thorough understanding of the most popular types of renewable energy—hydrogen, solar power, biomass, wind power, and hydropower—from the ground up. The latest advances in all these technologies are given particular attention, and are carefully contextualized to help professionals and students grasp the "whys and hows" behind these breakthroughs. Discusses how and why the most popular renewable energy sources work, including wind, solar, bio and hydrogen Provides a thorough technical grounding for all professionals and students investigating renewable energy The new 2e of a highly regarded guide written by an internationally renowned pioneer

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes
Author: Aldo Vieira da Rosa,Juan Ordonez
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 944
Release: 2021-05-15
ISBN 10: 9780128160367
ISBN 13: 0128160365
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes Book Review:

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes, Fourth Edition provides accessible coverage of clean, safe alternative energy sources such as solar and wind power. Aldo da Rosa's classic and comprehensive resource has provided thousands of engineers, scientists, students and professionals alike with a thorough grounding in the scientific principles underlying the complex world of renewable energy technologies. The fourth edition has been fully updated and revised by new author Whitney Colella, an educator and top researcher in novel low-carbon energy systems, and includes new worked examples, more exercises, and more illustrations to help facilitate student learning. Illuminates the basic principles behind all key renewable power sources, including solar, wind, biomass, hydropower and fuel cells Connects scientific theory with practical implementation through physical examples and end-of-chapter questions of increasing difficulty to help readers apply their knowledge Offers completely revised content for better student accessibility Updated with expanded coverage of such topics as solar thermal processes, hydropower and renewable energy storage technologies

Fundamentals and Source Characteristics of Renewable Energy Systems

Fundamentals and Source Characteristics of Renewable Energy Systems
Author: Radian Belu
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 404
Release: 2019-09-10
ISBN 10: 1000439186
ISBN 13: 9781000439182
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals and Source Characteristics of Renewable Energy Systems Book Review:

This textbook is intended for an audience with little or no power engineering or renewable energy background. The book covers electric energy from alternative energy sources, including solar, wind, water, hydropower, geothermal, and ocean energy. Core issues discussed include wind and solar resource estimates and analysis, solar thermal systems, solar collectors, photovoltaics, wind turbines, geothermal energy, energy small hydropower, wave, tide and ocean energy, and characteristics of energy conversion, control, and electrical aspects. This is one of the most comprehensive textbooks for students, engineers, and professionals who study renewable energy. There are several questions and problems, presented with increasing difficulty, most of which focus on practical applications. The materials and problems are drawn from the author’s extensive experience in renewable energy analysis, assessment, design, control, and the power electronics of wind and solar energy conversion systems. Each section of the book contains several solved examples, as well as practical and advanced discussions, that instill critical thinking and apply to industrial applications. The book is divided into eight chapters and covers the most important aspects of renewable energy sources and technologies.

Renewable energy conversion systems

Renewable energy conversion systems
Author: Muhammad Kamran,Muhammad Rayyan Fazal
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2021-05-15
ISBN 10: 0128235985
ISBN 13: 9780128235980
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Renewable energy conversion systems Book Review:

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Systems goes beyond theoretical aspects of advances in renewable energy and addresses future trends. By focusing on the design of developing technologies, relevant operation and detailed background and an understanding of the application of power electronics and thermodynamics processes in renewable energy, this book provides an analysis of advancing energy systems. The book will be of interest to engineering graduates, researchers, professors and industry professionals involved in the renewable energy sector and is ideal for advanced engineering courses dealing with renewable energy, sources, thermal and electrical energy production and sustainability. With increasing focus on developing low carbon energy production, audiences need to have the engineering knowledge and practical skills to develop and implement creative solutions to engineering problems encountered with renewable energy technologies. By looking at renewable energy capture and conversion, system design and analysis, project development and implementation, each modular chapter examines recent advances in specific renewable energy systems with detailed methods, calculations and worked examples. Includes recent techniques used to design and model different renewable energy sources (RES) Demonstrates how to use power electronics in renewable systems Discusses how to identify, design, integrate and operate the most suitable technologies through key problems

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy
Author: N.S. Rathore,N.L. Panwar
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 428
Release: 2021-11-30
ISBN 10: 1000506010
ISBN 13: 9781000506013
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Book Review:

This book is to provide in-depth information on fundamentals of different renewable energy resources. The primary emphasis is on fundamentals of thermodynamics and heat transfer aspects of renewable energy gadgets and their actual applications. Various renewable energy systems are described and their fundamental analyses are described. Note: T&F does not sell or distribute the hardback in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. This title is co-published with NIPA.

Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems and Applications

Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems and Applications
Author: Radian Belu
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 450
Release: 2018-08-15
ISBN 10: 9781482257441
ISBN 13: 1482257440
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems and Applications Book Review:

This book covers electric energy from alternative energy sources including solar, wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and ocean energy. Core issues discussed include wind and solar resource estimates, characteristics of direct conversion, renewable energy analysis, electromechanical conversion, and storage devices used in alternative energy systems. Power system and smart grid issues associated with integration of renewable energy sources into the electric grid are explored in detail. Readers are encouraged to write their own solutions using the included MATLAB(R) scripts.

Understanding Renewable Energy Systems

Understanding Renewable Energy Systems
Author: Volker Quaschning
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2014-01-09
ISBN 10: 1317762703
ISBN 13: 9781317762706
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Understanding Renewable Energy Systems Book Review:

Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. Following a successful edition in German and in response to growing demand for high quality, user-friendly textbooks on renewable energy, the author has prepared a revised version of this classic text in English. Understanding Renewable Energy Systems is an ideal companion for students of renewable energy at universities or technical colleges - on courses such as renewable energy, electrical engineering, engineering technology, physics, process engineering, building engineering, environment, applied mechanics and mechanical engineering - as well as scientists and engineers in research and industry.

Electric Renewable Energy Systems

Electric Renewable Energy Systems
Author: Muhammad H. Rashid
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 450
Release: 2015-11-25
ISBN 10: 0128006366
ISBN 13: 9780128006368
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electric Renewable Energy Systems Book Review:

This derivative volume stemming from content included in our seminal Power Electronics Handbook takes its chapters related to renewables and establishes them at the core of a new volume dedicated to the increasingly pivotal and as yet under-published intersection of Power Electronics and Alternative Energy. While this re-versioning provides a corollary revenue stream to better leverage our core handbook asset, it does more than simply re-package existing content. Each chapter will be significantly updated and expanded by more than 50%, and all new introductory and summary chapters will be added to contextualize and tie the volume together. Therefore, unlike traditional derivative volumes, we will be able to offer new and updated material to the market and include this largely original content in our ScienceDirect Energy collection. Due to the inherently multi-disciplinary nature of renewables, many engineers come from backgrounds in Physics, Materials, or Chemical Engineering, and therefore do not have experience working in-depth with electronics. As more and more alternative and distributed energy systems require grid hook-ups and on-site storage, a working knowledge of batteries, inverters and other power electronics components becomes requisite. Further, as renewables enjoy broadening commercial implementation, power electronics professionals are interested to learn of the challenges and strategies particular to applications in alternative energy. This book will bring each group up-to-speed with the primary issues of importance at this technological node. This content clarifies the juncture of two key coverage areas for our Energy portfolio: alternative sources and power systems. It serves to bridge the information in our power engineering and renewable energy lists, supporting the growing grid cluster in the former and adding key information on practical implementation to the latter. Provides a thorough overview of the key technologies, methods and challenges for implementing power electronics in alternative energy systems for optimal power generation Includes hard-to-find information on how to apply converters, inverters, batteries, controllers and more for stand-alone and grid-connected systems Covers wind and solar applications, as well as ocean and geothermal energy, hybrid systems and fuel cells

Design and Performance Optimization of Renewable Energy Systems

Design and Performance Optimization of Renewable Energy Systems
Author: Mamdouh Assad,Marc A. Rosen
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 318
Release: 2021-01-12
ISBN 10: 0128232323
ISBN 13: 9780128232323
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Design and Performance Optimization of Renewable Energy Systems Book Review:

Design and Performance Optimization of Renewable Energy Systems provides an integrated discussion of issues relating to renewable energy performance design and optimization using advanced thermodynamic analysis with modern methods to configure major renewable energy plant configurations (solar, geothermal, wind, hydro, PV). Vectors of performance enhancement reviewed include thermodynamics, heat transfer, exergoeconomics and neural network techniques. Source technologies studied range across geothermal power plants, hydroelectric power, solar power towers, linear concentrating PV, parabolic trough solar collectors, grid-tied hybrid solar PV/Fuel cell for freshwater production, and wind energy systems. Finally, nanofluids in renewable energy systems are reviewed and discussed from the heat transfer enhancement perspective. Reviews the fundamentals of thermodynamics and heat transfer concepts to help engineers overcome design challenges for performance maximization Explores advanced design and operating principles for solar, geothermal and wind energy systems with diagrams and examples Combines detailed mathematical modeling with relevant computational analyses, focusing on novel techniques such as artificial neural network analyses Demonstrates how to maximize overall system performance by achieving synergies in equipment and component efficiency

Renewable Energy Systems

Renewable Energy Systems
Author: Ahmad Taher Azar
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 732
Release: 2021-09-09
ISBN 10: 0128203986
ISBN 13: 9780128203989
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Renewable Energy Systems Book Review:

Renewable Energy Systems: Modelling, Optimization and Control aims to cross-pollinate recent advances in the study of renewable energy control systems by bringing together diverse scientific breakthroughs on the modeling, control and optimization of renewable energy systems by leading researchers. The book brings together the most comprehensive collection of modeling, control theorems and optimization techniques to help solve many scientific issues for researchers in renewable energy and control engineering. Many multidisciplinary applications are discussed, including new fundamentals, modeling, analysis, design, realization and experimental results. The book also covers new circuits and systems to help researchers solve many nonlinear problems. This book fills the gaps between different interdisciplinary applications, ranging from mathematical concepts, modeling, and analysis, up to the realization and experimental work. Covers modeling, control theorems and optimization techniques which will solve many scientific issues for researchers in renewable energy Discusses many multidisciplinary applications with new fundamentals, modeling, analysis, design, realization and experimental results Includes new circuits and systems, helping researchers solve many nonlinear problems

Fundamentals and Applications of Renewable Energy

Fundamentals and Applications of Renewable Energy
Author: Mehmet Kanoglu,Yunus A. Cengel,John M. Cimbala
Publsiher: McGraw Hill Professional
Total Pages: 398
Release: 2019-06-14
ISBN 10: 1260455319
ISBN 13: 9781260455311
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals and Applications of Renewable Energy Book Review:

Master the principles and applications of today’s renewable energy sources and systems Written by a team of recognized experts and educators, this authoritative textbook offers comprehensive coverage of all major renewable energy sources. The book delves into the main renewable energy topics such as solar, wind, geothermal, hydropower, biomass, tidal, and wave, as well as hydrogen and fuel cells. By stressing real-world relevancy and practical applications, Fundamentals and Applications of Renewable Energy helps prepare students for a successful career in renewable energy. The text contains detailed discussions on the thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics aspects of renewable energy systems in addition to technical and economic analyses. Numerous worked-out example problems and over 850 end-of-chapter review questions reinforce main concepts, formulations, design, and analysis. Coverage includes: Renewable energy basics Thermal sciences overview Fundamentals and applications of Solar energy Wind energy Hydropower Geothermal energy Biomass energy Ocean energy Hydrogen and fuel cells • Economics of renewable energy • Energy and the environment

Energy Services Fundamentals and Financing

Energy Services Fundamentals and Financing
Author: David Borge-Diez,Enrique Rosales-Asensio
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 342
Release: 2020-10-30
ISBN 10: 0128226676
ISBN 13: 9780128226674
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Services Fundamentals and Financing Book Review:

Energy Services Fundamentals and Financing, first volume of the Energy Services and Management series, provides a global view of energy services schemes and practices. The book discusses the role of energy services within the larger energy landscape and explores key technical aspects of energy systems for power, heating and cooling, including renewable energy systems and combined heat and power. The book analyzes energy efficiency in several electrical devices, such as motors, lighting and vehicles. It then examines actual energy services business models and policy, before presenting a quick reference section that includes key models and calculations. Provides an innovative approach to the fundamental aspects related with energy services, including technology implementation and financial schemes Discusses tools to measure process efficiency and sustainability in power and heating applications Includes case studies, models and calculations, both technical and financial, as well as downloadable data for simulation and modeling

Renewable Energy System Design

Renewable Energy System Design
Author: Ziyad Salameh
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 404
Release: 2014-05-12
ISBN 10: 0080961673
ISBN 13: 9780080961675
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Renewable Energy System Design Book Review:

The limitation of fossil fuels has challenged scientists and engineers to search for alternative energy resources that can meet future energy demand. Renewable Energy System Design is a valuable reference focusing on engineering, design, and operating principles that engineers can follow in order to successfully design more robust and efficient renewable energy systems. Written by Dr. Ziyad Salameh, an expert with over thirty years of teaching, research, and design experience, Renewable Energy System Design provides readers with the "nuts and bolts" of photovoltaic, wind energy, and hybrid wind/PV systems. It explores renewable energy storage devices with an emphasis on batteries and fuel cells and emerging sustainable technologies like biomass, geothermal power, ocean thermal energy conversion, solar thermal, and satellite power. Renewable Energy System Design is a must-have resource that provides engineers and students with a comprehensive yet practical guide to the characteristics, principles of operation, and power potential of the most prevalent renewable energy systems. Explains and demonstrates design and operating principles for solar, wind, hybrid and emerging systems with diagrams and examples Utilizes case studies to help engineers anticipate and overcome common design challenges Explores renewable energy storage methods particularly batteries and fuel cells and emerging renewable technologies

Integrated Energy Systems for Multigeneration

Integrated Energy Systems for Multigeneration
Author: Ibrahim Dincer,Yusuf Bicer
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2019-09-13
ISBN 10: 0128131756
ISBN 13: 9780128131756
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Integrated Energy Systems for Multigeneration Book Review:

Integrated Energy Systems for Multigeneration looks at how measures implemented to limit greenhouse gas emissions must consider smart utilization of available limited resources and employ renewable resources through integrated energy systems and the utilization of waste energy streams. This reference considers the main concepts of thermal and conventional energy systems through detailed systems description, analyses of methodologies, performance assessment and optimization, and illustrative examples and case studies. The book examines producing power and heat with cooling, freshwater, green fuels and other useful commodities designed to tackle rising greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. With worldwide energy demand increasing, and the consequences of meeting supply with current dependency on fossil fuels, investigating and developing sustainable alternatives to the conventional energy systems is a growing concern for global stakeholders. Analyzes the links between clean energy technologies and achieving sustainable development Illustrates several examples of design and analysis of integrated energy systems Discusses performance assessment and optimization Uses illustrative examples and global case studies to explain methodologies and concepts

Fundamentals of Ocean Renewable Energy

Fundamentals of Ocean Renewable Energy
Author: Simon P. Neill,M Reza Hashemi
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2018-06-20
ISBN 10: 012810449X
ISBN 13: 9780128104491
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Ocean Renewable Energy Book Review:

Fundamentals of Ocean Renewable Energy: Generating Electricity from the Sea presents the basic concepts of mechanics and introduces the various technical aspects of ocean renewable energy. Contents follow a logical sequence, starting with hydrodynamics and then separately examining each conversion technology, with special focus on tidal energy, offshore wind and wave energy, as well as current and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The authors explore key topics for resource characterization and optimization, such as monitoring and measurement methods and ocean modeling. They also discuss the sustainability, planning, integration and distribution challenges for the implementation of these technologies, including co-location with other systems. Finally, case studies of ocean energy sites and devices allow for a better understanding of how ocean energy conversion works in real-world settings. This book is an invaluable resource for students at graduate and senior undergraduate level engineering (ocean, mechanical, and civil) and oceanography with prior knowledge of fluid mechanics and mechanics of materials. Presents the fundamental physics and theory behind ocean energy systems, covering both oceanographic and engineering aspects of ocean energy Explores the most widely adopted conversion technologies, including tidal, wave, offshore wind, ocean thermal and currents

Renewable Energy Systems

Renewable Energy Systems
Author: David Buchla,Thomas E. Kissell,Thomas L. Floyd
Publsiher: Prentice Hall
Total Pages: 504
Release: 2014
ISBN 10: 9780132622516
ISBN 13: 0132622513
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Renewable Energy Systems Book Review:

Renewable Energy Systems is an introductory text that offers broad coverage of all major renewable energy systems, resources, and related topics, such as wind turbines, solar energy, biomass, geothermal energy, water related power generation, fuel cells and generators. Teaching and Learning Experience The text provides readers the detailed, accessible overview needed to understand the breadth of renewable energy technologies and materials. Accessible presentation. Chapter and section openers, margin features, and clear presentation of physics and mathematics help students learn the subject matter. Applied practice. Section check-ups, worked examples, and coverage of key technologies show how technologies and materials are applied. Visually engaging. The text is loaded with illustrations, original drawings, and photographs in full color.

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems and Microgrids

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems and Microgrids
Author: Ersan Kabalci
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 526
Release: 2020-11-21
ISBN 10: 012823248X
ISBN 13: 9780128232484
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems and Microgrids Book Review:

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems and Microgrids covers the modeling and analysis for each type of integrated and operational hybrid energy system. Looking at the fundamentals for conventional energy systems, decentralized generation systems, RES technologies and hybrid integration of RES power plants, the most important contribution this book makes is combining emerging energy systems that improve micro and smart grid systems and their components. Sections cover traditional system characteristics, features, challenges and benefits of hybrid energy systems over the conventional power grid, the deployment of emerging power electronic technologies, and up-to-date electronic devices and systems, including AC and DC waveforms. Conventional, emerging and hierarchical control methods and technologies applied in microgrid operations are covered to give researchers and practitioners the information needed to ensure reliability, resilience and flexibility of implemented hybrid energy systems. Presents detailed contents on emerging power networks provided by decentralized and distributed generation approaches Covers driving factors, photovoltaic based power plant modeling and planning studies Introduces hierarchical control methods and technologies applied in microgrid operations to ensure reliability, resilience and flexibility of hybrid energy systems

Energy Storage Grid Integration Energy Economics and the Environment

Energy Storage  Grid Integration  Energy Economics  and the Environment
Author: Radian Belu
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 376
Release: 2019-09-27
ISBN 10: 1000449025
ISBN 13: 9781000449020
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Storage Grid Integration Energy Economics and the Environment Book Review:

The book covers energy storage systems, bioenergy and hydrogen economy, grid integration of renewable energy systems, distributed generation, economic analysis, and environmental impacts of renewable energy systems. The overall approaches are interdisciplinary and comprehensive, covering economic, environmental, and grid integration issues as well as the physical and engineering aspects. Core issues discussed include mechanical, electrical, and thermal energy storage systems, batteries, fuel cells, biomass and biofuels, hydrogen economy, distributed generation, a brief presentation of microgrids, and in-depth discussions of economic analysis and methods of renewable energy systems, environmental impacts, life-cycle analysis, and energy conservation issues. With several solved examples, holistic material presentation, in-depth subject matter discussions and self-content material presentation, this textbook will appeal strongly to students and professional and nonprofessional readers who wish to understand this fascinating subject. Readers are encouraged to solve the problems and questions, which are useful ways to understand and apply the concepts and the topics included.

Handbook Of Renewable Energy Technology

Handbook Of Renewable Energy Technology
Author: Zobaa Ahmed F,Bansal Ramesh C
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 876
Release: 2011-01-26
ISBN 10: 9814466549
ISBN 13: 9789814466547
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook Of Renewable Energy Technology Book Review:

Effects of environmental, economic, social, political and technical factors have led to the rapid deployment of various sources of renewable energy-based power generation. The incorporation of these generation technologies have led to the development of a broad array of new methods and tools to integrate this new form of generation into the power system network. This book, arranged into six sections, highlights various renewable energy based generation technologies, and consists a series of papers written by experts in their respective fields of specialization.The Handbook of Renewable Energy Technology will be of great practical benefit to professionals, scientists and researchers in the relevant industries, and will be of interest to those of the general public wanting to know more about renewable energy technologies.