Functional Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications

Functional Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications
Author: Sabyasachi Maiti,Sougata Jana
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 526
Release: 2019-06-11
ISBN 10: 0081025564
ISBN 13: 9780081025567
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Functional Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications Book Review:

Functional Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications examines the fundamentals and properties of these natural materials and their potential biomedical applications. With an emphasis on therapeutic and sensing applications, the book also reviews how polysaccharides can be modified for tissue engineering applications. Sections discuss the basics of polysaccharides, give an overview of the potential applications, look at novel materials and technologies for use in tissue regeneration and therapeutics, and detail current biomedical applications. With a strong focus on materials, engineering and applications, this book is a valuable resource for those with an interest in harnessing the biomedical potential of natural polymers. Describes strategies for developing polysaccharides-based biomedical devices Illustrates concepts and encompasses scope for clinical development Provides advanced and comprehensive information on biomedical constructs

Natural Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications

Natural Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications
Author: Md Saquib Hasnain,Amit Kumar Nayak
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 654
Release: 2019-07-23
ISBN 10: 0128170565
ISBN 13: 9780128170564
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Natural Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications Book Review:

Natural Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications provides a fundamental overview of natural polysaccharides, their sources, extraction methodologies, and characterizations. It covers specific natural polysaccharides and their effective application in drug delivery and biomedical use. Additionally, chapters in the book discuss key topics including the sources and extraction methodologies of natural polysaccharides, their role in tissue engineering applications, polysaccharide-based nanoparticles in biomedical applications, and their role in the delivery of anticancer drugs. Written by industry leaders and edited by experts, this book emphasizes recent advances made in the field. Natural Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications provides academics, researchers, and pharmaceutical health care professionals with a comprehensive book on polysaccharides in pharmaceutical delivery process. Provides fundamental concepts of natural polysaccharides as it applies to the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and biotechnology industries Includes contributions from global leaders and experts from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies in the application of natural polysaccharides in pharmaceutical products and biomedical utilization Offers practical examples, illustrations, chemical structures, and research case studies to help explain natural polysaccharides concepts in drug delivery and biomedical applications

Renewable Resources for Functional Polymers and Biomaterials

Renewable Resources for Functional Polymers and Biomaterials
Author: Peter A. Williams
Publsiher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2011
ISBN 10: 1849732450
ISBN 13: 9781849732451
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Renewable Resources for Functional Polymers and Biomaterials Book Review:

Covers polysaccharides and other important biomacromolecules, detailing their source, production, structures, properties, and current and potential application in biotechnology and medicine.

Seaweed Polysaccharides

Seaweed Polysaccharides
Author: Jayachandran Venkatesan,Sukumaran Anil,Se-Kwon Kim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2017-05-30
ISBN 10: 0128098171
ISBN 13: 9780128098172
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Seaweed Polysaccharides Book Review:

Seaweed Polysaccharides: Isolation, Biological, and Biomedical Applications examines the isolation and characterization of algal biopolymers, including a range of new biological and biomedical applications. In recent years, significant developments have been made in algae-based polymers (commonly called polysaccharides), and in biomedical applications such as drug delivery, wound dressings, and tissue engineering. Demand for algae-based polymers is increasing and represent a potential—very inexpensive—resource for these applications. The structure and chemical modification of algal polymers are covered, as well as the biological properties of these materials – including antithrombic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antiviral aspects. Toxicity of algal biopolymers is also covered. Finally, the book introduces and explains real world applications of algal-based biopolymers in biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, and biosensors. This is the first book to cover the extraction techniques, biomedical applications, and the economic perspective of seaweed polysaccharides. It is an essential text for researchers and industry professionals looking to work with this renewable resource. Provides comprehensive coverage of the research currently taking place in biomedical applications of algae biopolymers Includes practical guidance on the isolation, extraction, and characterization of polysaccharides from sustainable marine sources Covers the extraction techniques, biomedical applications, and economic outlook of seaweed polysaccharides

Marine Polysaccharides

Marine Polysaccharides
Author: Vazhiyil Venugopal
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 396
Release: 2016-04-19
ISBN 10: 9781439815274
ISBN 13: 1439815275
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Marine Polysaccharides Book Review:

Increased public awareness of the importance of healthy living presents new challenges for the commercial food processing sector. The industry is always on the hunt for novel and safe additives with functional properties that can be used to impart healthy and appealing properties to foods. While the ocean is known as a conventional source of fish proteins and lipids, it is yet to be tapped as a source of polysaccharides. A clear exposition on how these resources can be developed, Marine Polysaccharides: Food Applications compiles recent data on the food applications of marine polysaccharides from such diverse sources as fishery products, seaweeds, microalgae, microorganisms, and corals. The book begins with discussions on the isolation of polysaccharides from marine sources and their properties, particularly those important from a food technology point of view. It then focuses on the actual food applications of these compounds and concludes with a brief examination of biomedical applications. The author presents an overview of the general functional properties of polysaccharides, including their structure; their hydration, gelation, emulsification, and rheological properties; and interactions among themselves and with other food components such as proteins that are relevant to food processing. He then explores the isolation and food-related properties of various marine polysaccharides, use of these polysaccharides in food product and biopackaging, recent developments in composite films and nanotechnology, and safety and regulatory issues. While there are many books available on polysaccharides, few address the applications of marine polysaccharide food product development. Written from a realistic, practical point of view avoiding technical jargon, this book highlights the ocean not as a conventional source of fish protein and lipids, but as a major supplier of versatile carbohydrates that can have diverse food applications.

Advanced Functional Polymers for Biomedical Applications

Advanced Functional Polymers for Biomedical Applications
Author: Masoud Mozafari,Narendra Pal Singh Chauhan
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2019-06-14
ISBN 10: 0128166045
ISBN 13: 9780128166048
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Functional Polymers for Biomedical Applications Book Review:

Advanced Functional Polymers for Biomedical Applications presents novel techniques for the preparation and characterization of functionalized polymers, enabling researchers, scientists and engineers to understand and utilize their enhanced functionality in a range of cutting-edge biomedical applications. Provides systematic coverage of the major types of functional polymers, discussing their properties, preparation techniques and potential applications Presents new synthetic approaches alongside the very latest polymer processing and characterization methods Unlocks the potential of functional polymers to support ground-breaking techniques for drug and gene delivery, diagnostics, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

Natural Based Polymers for Biomedical Applications

Natural Based Polymers for Biomedical Applications
Author: Rui L. Reis,Nuno M. Neves,Joao F. Mano,Manuela E. Gomes,Alexandra P. Marques,Helena S. Azevedo
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 832
Release: 2008-08-15
ISBN 10: 1845694813
ISBN 13: 9781845694814
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Natural Based Polymers for Biomedical Applications Book Review:

Polymers from natural sources are particularly useful as biomaterials and in regenerative medicine, given their similarity to the extracellular matrix and other polymers in the human body. This important book reviews the wealth of research on both tried and promising new natural-based biomedical polymers, together with their applications as implantable biomaterials, controlled-release carriers or scaffolds for tissue engineering. The first part of the book reviews the sources, processing and properties of natural-based polymers for biomedical applications. Part two describes how the surfaces of polymer-based biomaterials can be modified to improve their functionality. The third part of the book discusses the use of natural-based polymers for biodegradable scaffolds and hydrogels in tissue engineering. Building on this foundation, Part four looks at the particular use of natural-gelling polymers for encapsulation, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The penultimate group of chapters reviews the use of natural-based polymers as delivery systems for drugs, hormones, enzymes and growth factors. The final part of the book summarises research on the key issue of biocompatibility. Natural-based polymers for biomedical applications is a standard reference for biomedical engineers, those studying and researching in this important area, and the medical community. Examines the sources, processing and properties of natural based polymers for biomedical applications Explains how the surfaces of polymer based biomaterials can be modified to improve their functionality Discusses the use of natural based polymers for hydrogels in tissue engineering, and in particular natural gelling polymers for encapsulation and regenerative medicine

Polysaccharide Carriers for Drug Delivery

Polysaccharide Carriers for Drug Delivery
Author: Sabyasachi Maiti,Sougata Jana
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 802
Release: 2019-06-14
ISBN 10: 0081025548
ISBN 13: 9780081025543
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polysaccharide Carriers for Drug Delivery Book Review:

Polysaccharide Carriers for Drug Delivery presents the latest information on the selection of safe materials. Due to reported safety profiles on polysaccharides; they have been the natural choice for investigation. A wide variety of drug delivery and biomedical systems have been studied, however, the related information either concept-wise or application-oriented is scattered, therefore becoming difficult for readers and researchers to digest in a concise manner. This gathering of information will help readers easily comprehend the subject matter. Focuses on biopolysaccharide-based, distinct approaches for drug delivery applications Illustrates new concepts and highlights future scope for clinical development Provides comprehensive, up-to-date information on different aspects of drug delivery technology

Biomedical Applications of Functionalized Nanomaterials

Biomedical Applications of Functionalized Nanomaterials
Author: Bruno Sarmento,Jose Das Neves
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 778
Release: 2018-03-01
ISBN 10: 0323508790
ISBN 13: 9780323508797
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomedical Applications of Functionalized Nanomaterials Book Review:

Biomedical Applications of Functionalized Nanomaterials: Concepts, Development and Clinical Translation presents a concise overview of the most promising nanomaterials functionalized with ligands for biomedical applications. The first section focuses on current strategies for identifying biological targets and screening of ligand to optimize anchoring to nanomaterials, providing the foundation for the remaining parts. Section Two covers specific applications of functionalized nanomaterials in therapy and diagnostics, highlighting current practice and addressing major challenges, in particular, case studies of successfully developed and marketed functionalized nanomaterials. The final section focuses on regulatory issues and clinical translation, providing a legal framework for their use in biomedicine. This book is an important reference source for worldwide drug and medical devices policymakers, biomaterials scientists and regulatory bodies. Provides an overview of the methodologies for biological target identification and ligand screening Includes case studies showing the development of functionalized nanomaterials and their biomedical applications Highlights the importance of functionalized nanomaterials for drug delivery, diagnostics and regenerative medicine applications

Polysaccharides of Microbial Origin

Polysaccharides of Microbial Origin
Author: Joaquim Oliveira,Hajer Radhouani,Rui L. Reis
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 990
Release: 2021-04-28
ISBN 10: 9783030422141
ISBN 13: 3030422143
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polysaccharides of Microbial Origin Book Review:

This book provides a comprehensive analysis of microbial polysaccharides, their current uses, and highlights biomedical opportunities. The topics comprise principally a) their extraction, isolation, purification and advanced production processes; b) characterization of their structural, physicochemical, and biological properties, among others, by several techniques; c) description of the advanced functionalization and modification methods for the polysaccharide based-material; and d) their applications and uses in medical and pharmaceutical fields. Each chapter is written by world-renowned academics and practitioners on their field. This is an essential reference for students in biomedical, chemical, material, and microbiology engineering as well as researchers and professionals in the medical field.

Hydrogels

Hydrogels
Author: Rolando Barbucci
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 197
Release: 2010-07-23
ISBN 10: 9788847011045
ISBN 13: 8847011043
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hydrogels Book Review:

The studies on Biohydrogels have had a rapid, exponential evolution in the last decades. This book is the result of an International conference gathering the most recent results in this field.

Food Medical and Environmental Applications of Polysaccharides

Food  Medical  and Environmental Applications of Polysaccharides
Author: Kunal Pal,Indranil Banerjee,Preetam Sarkar,Dr. Arindam Bit,Doman Kim,Arfat Anis,Samarendra Maji
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 756
Release: 2020-12-03
ISBN 10: 0128193131
ISBN 13: 9780128193136
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Food Medical and Environmental Applications of Polysaccharides Book Review:

Food, Medical, and Environmental Applications of Polysaccharides provides a detailed resource for those interested in the design and preparation of polysaccharides for state-of-the-art applications. The book begins with an introductory section covering sources, chemistry, architectures, bioactivity, and chemical modifications of polysaccharides. Subsequent parts of the book are organized by field, with chapters focusing on specific applications across food, medicine, and the environment. This is an extremely valuable book for researchers, scientists, and advanced students in biopolymers, polymer science, polymer chemistry, biomaterials, materials science, biotechnology, biomedical engineering, cosmetics, medicine, food science, and environmental science. This important class of biopolymer can offer attractive properties and modification potential, enabling its use in groundbreaking areas across food, medical, and environmental fields. The book will be of interest to scientists, R&D professionals, designers, and engineers who utilize polysaccharide-based materials. Presents comprehensive information of the polymeric structures and properties that can be developed from polysaccharides Offers systematic coverage of classification, synthesis, and characterization, enabling targeted design and preparation of polysaccharides for specific applications Explores advanced methods, for novel applications across food, medicine, and the environment

Bioactive Polymeric Systems

Bioactive Polymeric Systems
Author: Charles G. Gebelein,Charles E. Carraher
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 689
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 1475704054
ISBN 13: 9781475704051
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioactive Polymeric Systems Book Review:

The vast array of libraries in the world bear mute witness to the truth of the 3000-year-old observation of King Solomon who stated " ... of making many books there is no end, and much study is a weariness of the flesh." Yet books are an essential written record of our lives and the progress of science and humanity. Here is another book to add to this huge collection, but, hopefully, not just another collection of pages, but rather a book with a specific purpose to aid in alleviating the "weariness of the flesh" that could arise from much studying of other journals and books in order to obtain the basic information contained herein. This book is about polymeric materials and biological activity, as the title notes. Polymeric materials, in the broad view taken here, would include not only synthetic polymers (e.g., polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyesters, polyamides, etc.), but also the natural macromolecules (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides) which compose natural tissues in humans, animals and plants. In the broad sense used here, biological activity is any type of such action whether it be in medication, pest control, plant-growth regu lation, and so on. In short, this book attempts to consider, briefly, the use of any type of polymeric material system with essentially any kind of biological activity.

Advanced Functional Materials from Nanopolysaccharides

Advanced Functional Materials from Nanopolysaccharides
Author: Ning Lin,Juntao Tang,Alain Dufresne,Michael K.C. Tam
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 414
Release: 2019-11-15
ISBN 10: 9811509131
ISBN 13: 9789811509131
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Functional Materials from Nanopolysaccharides Book Review:

This book describes the latest research on nanopolysaccharides in the development of functional materials, from their preparation, properties and functional modifications to the architecture of diverse functional materials. Polysaccharide-based nanoparticles, including nanocellulose, nanochitin, and nanostarch have attracted interest in the field of nanoscience, nanotechnology, and materials science that encompasses various industrial sectors, such as biomedicine, catalyst, coating, energy, optical materials, environmental materials, construction materials, and antibacterial materials. This book establishes a fundamental framework, highlighting the architecture strategies of typical functional systems based on nanopolysaccharides and integrated analysis of their significant influence and properties to various functional behaviors of materials, to help readers to fully understand the fundamental features of nanopolysaccharides and functional materials. Addressing the potential for practical applications, the book also covers the related industrial interests and reports on highly valued products from nanopolysaccharides, providing ideas for future studies in the area. Intended both for academics and professionals who are interested in nanopolysaccharides, it is also a valuable resource for postgraduate students, researchers, and engineers involved in R&D of natural polymers, nanotechnology, and functional materials.

Handbook of Chitin and Chitosan

Handbook of Chitin and Chitosan
Author: Sabu Thomas,Anitha Pius,Sreerag Gopi
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 858
Release: 2020-07-22
ISBN 10: 0128179678
ISBN 13: 9780128179673
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Chitin and Chitosan Book Review:

The Handbook of Chitin and Chitosan: Chitin and Chitosan Based Polymer Materials for Various Applications, Volume Three, is a must-read for polymer chemists, physicists and engineers interested in the development of ecofriendly micro and nanostructured functional materials based on chitin and their various applications. The book addresses their isolation, preparation and properties and their composites, nanomaterials, manufacturing and characterizations. This is the third of three volumes in a series that contains the latest on the major applications of chitin and chitosan based IPN’s, blends, gels, composites and nanocomposites, including environmental remediation, biomedical applications and smart material applications. Provides a comprehensive overview of Chitin and Chitosan materials, from their synthesis and nanomaterials, to their manufacture and applications Volume Three focuses on the applications of Chitin and Chitosan Includes contributions from leading researchers across the globe and from industry, academia, government and private research institutions Highlights current status and future opportunities

Biological Activities and Application of Marine Polysaccharides

Biological Activities and Application of Marine Polysaccharides
Author: Emad Shalaby
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2017-01-11
ISBN 10: 9535128590
ISBN 13: 9789535128595
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biological Activities and Application of Marine Polysaccharides Book Review:

Marine organisms have been under research for the last decades as a source for different active compounds with various biological activities and application in agriculture, pharmacy, medicine, environment, and industries. Marine polysaccharides from these active compounds are used as antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammation, bioremediations, etc. During the last three decades, several important factors that control the production of phytoplankton polysaccharides have been identified such as chemical concentrations, temperature, light, etc. The current book includes 14 chapters contributed by experts around the world; the chapters are categorized into three sections: Marine Polysaccharides and Agriculture, Marine Polysaccharides and Biological Activities, and Marine Polysaccharides and Industries.

Carbon Nanostructures for Biomedical Applications

Carbon Nanostructures for Biomedical Applications
Author: Tatiana Da Ros,Nazario Martín,Jean-Francois Nierengarten
Publsiher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2021-02-15
ISBN 10: 1788015673
ISBN 13: 9781788015677
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Carbon Nanostructures for Biomedical Applications Book Review:

Carbon nanostructures, namely fullerenes, single and multiwall carbon nanotubes, graphene as well as the most recent graphene quantum dots and carbon nanodots, have experienced a tremendous progress along the last two decades in terms of the knowledge acquired on their chemical and physical properties. These insights have enabled their increasing use in biomedical applications, from scaffolds to devices. Edited by renowned experts in the subject, this book collects and delineates the most notable advances within the growing field surrounding carbon nanostructures for biomedical purposes. Exploration ranges from fundamentals around classifications to toxicity, biocompatibility and the immune response. Modified nanocarbon-based materials and emergent classes, such as carbon dots and nanohorns are discussed, with chapters devoted from carriers for drug delivery and inhibitors of emergent viruses infection, to applications across imaging, biosensors, tissue scaffolding and biotechnology. The book will provide a valuable reference resource and will extensively benefit researchers and professionals working across the fields of chemistry, materials science, and biomedical and chemical engineering.

Bioactive Polysaccharides

Bioactive Polysaccharides
Author: Shaoping Nie,Steve W. Cui,Mingyong Xie
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 566
Release: 2017-10-27
ISBN 10: 0128114517
ISBN 13: 9780128114513
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioactive Polysaccharides Book Review:

Bioactive Polysaccharides offers a comprehensive review of the structures and bioactivities of bioactive polysaccharides isolated from traditional herbs, fungi, and seaweeds. It describes and discusses specific topics based on the authors’ rich experience, including extraction technologies, practical techniques required for purification and fractionation, strategies and skills for elucidating the fine structures, in-vitro and in-vivo protocols, and methodologies for evaluating the specific bioactivities, including immune-modulating activities, anti-cancer activities, anti-oxidant activities, and others. This unique book also discusses partial structure-functionality (bioactivities) relationships based on conformational studies. This comprehensive work can be used as a handbook to explore potential applications in foods, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceutical areas for commercial interests. Serves as a comprehensive review on extraction technologies, and as a practical guide for the purification and fractionation of bioactive polysaccharides Brings step-by-step strategies for elucidating the fine structures and molecular characterizations of bioactive polysaccharides Includes detailed experimental design and methodologies for investigation bioactivities using both in-vitro and in-vivo protocols Clarifies how to extract, purify, and fractionate bioactive polysaccharides, also exploring health benefits Useful as a guide to explore the commercial potentials of bioactive polysaccharides as pharmaceuticals, medicine, and functional foods

Biopolymer Grafting Synthesis and Properties

Biopolymer Grafting  Synthesis and Properties
Author: Vijay Kumar Thakur
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 594
Release: 2017-09-27
ISBN 10: 0128104619
ISBN 13: 9780128104613
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biopolymer Grafting Synthesis and Properties Book Review:

Biopolymer Grafting: Synthesis and Properties presents the latest research and developments in fundamental of synthesis and properties of biopolymer-based graft copolymers. The book presents a broad overview of the biopolymer grafting process, along with trends in the field. It also introduces a range of grafting methods which lead to materials with enhanced properties for a range of practical applications, along with the positives and limitations of these techniques. The book bridges the knowledge gap between the scientific principles and industrial applications of polymer grafting. This book covers synthesis and characterization of graft-copolymers of plant polysaccharides, functional separation membranes from grafted biopolymers, and polysaccharides in alternative methods for insulin delivery. Recent trends and advances in this area are discussed, assisting materials scientists and researchers in mapping out the future of these new "green" materials through value addition to enhance their use. Introduces polymer researchers to a promising, rapidly developing method for modifying naturally derived biopolymers Provides a one-stop shop covering synthesis, properties, characterization and graft copolymerization of bio-based polymeric materials Increases familiarity with a range of biopolymer grafting processes, enabling materials scientists and engineers to improve material properties and widen the range of potential biopolymer applications

Polysaccharide Based Nanocrystals

Polysaccharide Based Nanocrystals
Author: Jin Huang,Peter R. Chang,Ning Lin,Alain Dufresne
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2015-03-09
ISBN 10: 3527336192
ISBN 13: 9783527336197
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polysaccharide Based Nanocrystals Book Review:

Polysaccharide nanocrystals can be derived from the renewable resources cellulose, chitin or starch, which makes them ideal candidates for "Green Materials Science". This versatile material class can be used in nanocomposites such as rubber or polyester, and in functional materials such as drug carriers, bio-inspired mechanically adaptive materials or membranes. Moreover, polysaccharide-based nanomaterials are environmentally friendly due to their intrinsic biodegradability. With its interdisciplinary approach the book gives a thorough introduction to extraction, structure, properties, surface modification, theory, and mechanisms of material formation of polysaccharide nanocrystals from renewable resources. In addition, it provides an in-depth description of plastics, composites, and nanomaterials from cellulose nanocrystals, chitin nanowhiskers and starch nanocrystals. The first focused, concise and coherent treatment of nanomaterials made from renewable resources such as cellulose, chitin, and starch - for scientists, engineers, graduate students and industrial researchers in the field of polymeric materials.