From Smart Grid to Internet of Energy

From Smart Grid to Internet of Energy
Author: Ersan Kabalci,Yasin Kabalci
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 376
Release: 2019-07-30
ISBN 10: 0128197110
ISBN 13: 9780128197110
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

From Smart Grid to Internet of Energy Book Review:

From Smart Grid to Internet of Energy covers novel and emerging metering and monitoring technologies, communication systems, and technologies in smart grid areas to present a valuable reference for readers from various engineering backgrounds. Considering relevant topics on the essentials of smart grids and emerging wireless communication systems, such as IEEE 802.15.4 based novel technologies, cognitive radio networks and Internet of Energy, this book offers a discussion on the emerging trends and research direction for communication technologies. The book includes research concepts and visualization of smart grids and related communication technologies, making it a useful book for practicing network engineers. Includes global case studies and examples of communications systems integrated with smart grids Presents literature surveys for a wide variety of smart grids, wired and wireless communication technologies, big data, privacy and security Covers all aspects of IoE systems and discusses the differences between IoE and Smart Grids

Smart Grid and Internet of Things

Smart Grid and Internet of Things
Author: Der-Jiunn Deng,Ai-Chun Pang,Chun-Cheng Lin
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 141
Release: 2020-06-03
ISBN 10: 3030496104
ISBN 13: 9783030496104
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Grid and Internet of Things Book Review:

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third EAI International Conference on Smart Grid and Internet of Things, SGIoT 2019, held in TaiChung, Taiwan, in November 2019. The 10 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 22 submissions and present results on how to achieve more efficient use of resources based largely on the IoT-based machine-to-machine (M2M) interactions of millions of smart meters and sensors in the smart grid specific communication networks such as home area networks, building area networks, and neighborhood area networks. The smart grid also encompasses IoT technologies, which monitor transmission lines, manage substations, integrate renewable energy generation. Through these technologies, the authorities can smartly identify outage problems, and intelligently schedule the power generation and delivery to the customers. Furthermore, the smart grid should teach us a valuable lesson that security must be designed in from the start of any IoT deployment.

Social Impacts of Smart Grids

Social Impacts of Smart Grids
Author: Wadim Strielkowski
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 342
Release: 2019-10-22
ISBN 10: 0128177705
ISBN 13: 9780128177709
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Social Impacts of Smart Grids Book Review:

Social Impacts of Smart Grids: The Future of Smart Grids and Energy Market Design explores the significant, unexplored societal consequences of our meteoric evolution towards intelligent, responsive and sustainable power generation and distribution systems-the so-called 'smart grid'. These consequences include new patterns of consumption behavior, systems planning under increasing uncertainty, and the ever- growing complexities involved. The work covers the historical impact of the transformation, examines the changing role of production and consumption behavior, articulates the principles and options for socially responsible smart grid power market design, and explores social acceptance of the smart grid. Where relevant, it examines adjacent literatures from P2P electricity markets, electric vehicles, smart homes and smart cities, and related 'internet of energy' developments. Finally, it provides insights into mitigating the likely social consequences of our integrated low-carbon energy future. Evaluates the connections between the concept of sustainability and the social impacts of the smart grids Analyzes emerging trends in smart grids connected with trends towards the sharing economy Investigates environmental degradation awareness and environmental stewardship goals associated with smart grids Explores how to mitigate social challenges with effective smart grid power market design Integrates energy stewardship and social acceptance literatures into the discussion of the smart grid

Smart Grid in IoT-Enabled Spaces

Smart Grid in IoT-Enabled Spaces
Author: Fadi Al-Turjman
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 282
Release: 2020-10-06
ISBN 10: 1000193039
ISBN 13: 9781000193039
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Grid in IoT-Enabled Spaces Book Review:

Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled spaces have made revolutionary advances in the utility grid. Among these advances, intelligent and energy-efficient services are gaining considerable interest. The use of the smart grid is increasing day after day around us and is not only used in saving energy but also in our daily life for intelligent health, traffic, and even farming systems. The grid enabled with IoT features is also expected to communicate with cellular networks smoothly in the next-generation networks (6G and beyond). This will open the door for other interesting research areas. In this book, we consider the most significant and emergent research topics in this domain, addressing major issues and challenges in IoT-based solutions proposed for the smart grid. The chapters provide insight on comprehensive topics in IoT-based smart grids, combining technical aspects with the most up-to-date theory. It investigates the grid under varying and potential emerging paradigms such as edge/fog computing, in addition to big data aspects considerations in the IoT era. With comprehensive surveys and case studies, this book explores basic and high-level grid aspects in the emerging smart city paradigm, which makes it especially attractive to researchers, academics, and higher-level students. This authored book can be used by computer science undergraduate and postgraduate students, researchers and practitioners, city administrators, policymakers, and government regulators.

Smart Energy Grid Engineering

Smart Energy Grid Engineering
Author: Hossam Gabbar
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 568
Release: 2016-10-12
ISBN 10: 0128092327
ISBN 13: 9780128092323
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Energy Grid Engineering Book Review:

Smart Energy Grid Engineering provides in-depth detail on the various important engineering challenges of smart energy grid design and operation by focusing on advanced methods and practices for designing different components and their integration within the grid. Governments around the world are investing heavily in smart energy grids to ensure optimum energy use and supply, enable better planning for outage responses and recovery, and facilitate the integration of heterogeneous technologies such as renewable energy systems, electrical vehicle networks, and smart homes around the grid. By looking at case studies and best practices that illustrate how to implement smart energy grid infrastructures and analyze the technical details involved in tackling emerging challenges, this valuable reference considers the important engineering aspects of design and implementation, energy generation, utilization and energy conservation, intelligent control and monitoring data analysis security, and asset integrity. Includes detailed support to integrate systems for smart grid infrastructures Features global case studies outlining design components and their integration within the grid Provides examples and best practices from industry that will assist in the migration to smart grids

Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2011

Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2011
Author: Gereon Meyer,Jürgen Valldorf
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 357
Release: 2011-06-29
ISBN 10: 9783642213816
ISBN 13: 3642213812
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2011 Book Review:

Fundamental transformations are imminent for the automobile today: propulsion technologies are going to shift from combustion engines to electric motors; cars and roads will soon be as safe and convenient as never before; and traffic will flow increasingly efficient. Many of these advancements are due to innovative information and communication technologies, controls and smart systems, both in the vehicle and at its interfaces with the systems for power supply, mobility and data communication. The papers published in this book are selected from the submissions to the 15th International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA 2011) “Smart Systems for Electric, Safe and Networked Mobility”. They cover components, architectures and smart systems enabling the following functionalities: electric driving, safe cars and roads, and connected vehicles. Additional information is available at www.amaa.de

Smart Grid and Internet of Things

Smart Grid and Internet of Things
Author: Al-Sakib Khan Pathan,Zubair Md. Fadlullah,Mohamed Guerroumi
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 143
Release: 2018-12-29
ISBN 10: 3030059286
ISBN 13: 9783030059286
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Grid and Internet of Things Book Review:

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second EAI International Conference on Smart Grid and Internet of Things, SGIoT 2018, held in Niagara Falls, Canada, Ontario, in July 2018. The 14 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 25 submissions and present research results on how to achieve more efficient use of resources based largely on IoT-based machine-to-machine interactions in the smart grit communication networks. The smart grid also encompasses IoT technologies, which monitor transmission lines, manage substations, integrate renewable energy generation (e.g., solar or wind), and utilize hybrid vehicle batteries. Through these technologies, the authorities can smartly identify outage problems, and intelligently schedule the power generation and delivery to the customers

Internet of Things

Internet of Things
Author: Peter Friess
Publsiher: River Publishers
Total Pages: 364
Release: 2013-06
ISBN 10: 8792982735
ISBN 13: 9788792982735
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Internet of Things Book Review:

The book aims to provide a broad overview of various topics of the Internet of Things (IoT) from the research and development priorities to enabling technologies, architecture, security, privacy, interoperability and industrial applications. It is intended to be a stand-alone book in a series that covers the Internet of Things activities of the IERC - Internet of Things European Research Cluster - from technology to international cooperation and the global "state of play." The book builds on the ideas put forward by the European Research Cluster on the Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda and presents views and state of the art results on the challenges facing the research, development and deployment of IoT at the global level. Today we see the integration of Industrial, Business and Consumer Internet which is bringing together the Internet of People, Internet of Things, Internet of Energy, Internet of Vehicles, Internet of Media, Services and Enterprises in forming the backbone of the digital economy, the digital society and the foundation for the future knowledge and innovation based economy. These developments are supporting solutions for the emerging challenges of public health, aging population, environmental protection and climate change, the conservation of energy and scarce materials, enhancements to safety and security and the continuation and growth of economic prosperity. Penetration of smartphones and advances in nanoelectronics, cyber-physical systems, wireless communication, software, and Cloud computing technology will be the main drivers for IoT development. The IoT contribution is seen in the increased value of information created by the number of interconnections among things and the transformation of the processed information into knowledge shared into the Internet of Everything. The connected devices are part of ecosystems connecting people, processes, data, and things which are communicating in the Cloud using the increased storage and computing power while attempting to standardize communication and metadata. In this context, the next generation of Cloud computing technologies will need to be flexible enough to scale autonomously, adaptive enough to handle constantly changing connections and resilient enough to stand up to the huge flows of data that will occur. In 2025, analysts forecast that there will be six devices per human on the planet, which means around 50 billion more connected devices over the next 12 years. The Internet of Things market is connected to this anticipated device growth from industrial Machine to Machine (M2M) systems, smart meters and wireless sensors. Internet of Things technology will generate new services and new interfaces by creating smart environments and smart spaces with applications ranging from Smart Cities, Smart Transport, Buildings, Energy, Grid, to Smart Health and Life.

Smart Grid Technology

Smart Grid Technology
Author: Sudip Misra,Samaresh Bera
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 270
Release: 2018-07-12
ISBN 10: 1108475205
ISBN 13: 9781108475204
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Grid Technology Book Review:

Discusses concepts of smart grid technologies, from the perspective of integration with cloud computing and data management approaches.

EIoT

EIoT
Author: Steffi O. Muhanji,Alison E. Flint,Amro M. Farid
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 160
Release: 2019-01-01
ISBN 10: 3030104273
ISBN 13: 9783030104276
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

EIoT Book Review:

This open access book explores the collision between the sustainable energy transition and the Internet of Things (IoT). In that regard, this book’s arrival is timely. Not only is the Internet of Things for energy applications, herein called the energy Internet of Things (eIoT), rapidly developing but also the transition towards sustainable energy to abate global climate is very much at the forefront of public discourse. It is within the context of these two dynamic thrusts, digitization and global climate change, that the energy industry sees itself undergoing significant change in how it is operated and managed. This book recognizes that they impose five fundamental energy management change drivers: 1.) the growing demand for electricity, 2.) the emergence of renewable energy resources, 3.) the emergence of electrified transportation, 4.) the deregulation of electric power markets, 5.) and innovations in smart grid technology. Together, they challenge many of the assumptions upon which the electric grid was first built. The goal of this book is to provide a single integrated picture of how eIoT can come to transform our energy infrastructure. This book links the energy management change drivers mentioned above to the need for a technical energy management solution. It, then, describes how eIoT meets many of the criteria required for such a technical solution. In that regard, the book stresses the ability of eIoT to add sensing, decision-making, and actuation capabilities to millions or perhaps even billions of interacting “smart" devices. With such a large scale transformation composed of so many independent actions, the book also organizes the discussion into a single multi-layer energy management control loop structure. Consequently, much attention is given to not just network-enabled physical devices but also communication networks, distributed control & decision making, and finally technical architectures and standards. Having gone into the detail of these many simultaneously developing technologies, the book returns to how these technologies when integrated form new applications for transactive energy. In that regard, it highlights several eIoT-enabled energy management use cases that fundamentally change the relationship between end users, utilities, and grid operators. Consequently, the book discusses some of the emerging applications for utilities, industry, commerce, and residences. The book concludes that these eIoT applications will transform today’s grid into one that is much more responsive, dynamic, adaptive and flexible. It also concludes that this transformation will bring about new challenges and opportunities for the cyber-physical-economic performance of the grid and the business models of its increasingly growing number of participants and stakeholders.

Smart Grids and Their Communication Systems

Smart Grids and Their Communication Systems
Author: Ersan Kabalci,Yasin Kabalci
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 644
Release: 2018-09-01
ISBN 10: 9811317682
ISBN 13: 9789811317682
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Grids and Their Communication Systems Book Review:

The book presents a broad overview of emerging smart grid technologies and communication systems, offering a helpful guide for future research in the field of electrical engineering and communication engineering. It explores recent advances in several computing technologies and their performance evaluation, and addresses a wide range of topics, such as the essentials of smart grids for fifth generation (5G) communication systems. It also elaborates the role of emerging communication systems such as 5G, internet of things (IoT), IEEE 802.15.4 and cognitive radio networks in smart grids. The book includes detailed surveys and case studies on current trends in smart grid systems and communications for smart metering and monitoring, smart grid energy storage systems, modulations and waveforms for 5G networks. As such, it will be of interest to practitioners and researchers in the field of smart grid and communication infrastructures alike.

IoT for Smart Grids

IoT for Smart Grids
Author: Kostas Siozios,Dimitrios Anagnostos,Dimitrios Soudris,Elias Kosmatopoulos
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 282
Release: 2018-11-24
ISBN 10: 3030036405
ISBN 13: 9783030036409
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

IoT for Smart Grids Book Review:

This book explains the fundamentals of control theory for Internet of Things (IoT) systems and smart grids and its applications. It discusses the challenges imposed by large-scale systems, and describes the current and future trends and challenges in decision-making for IoT in detail, showing the ongoing industrial and academic research in the field of smart grid domain applications. It presents step-by-step design guidelines for the modeling, design, customisation and calibration of IoT systems applied to smart grids, in which the challenges increase with each system’s increasing complexity. It also provides solutions and detailed examples to demonstrate how to use the techniques to overcome these challenges, as well as other problems related to decision-making for successful implementation. Further, it anaylses the features of decision-making, such as low-complexity and fault-tolerance, and uses open-source and publicly available software tools to show readers how they can design, implement and customise their own system control instantiations. This book is a valuable resource for power engineers and researchers, as it addresses the analysis and design of flexible decision-making mechanisms for smart grids. It is also of interest to students on courses related to control of large-scale systems, since it covers the use of state-of-the-art technology with examples and solutions in every chapter. And last but not least, it offers practical advice for professionals working with smart grids.

Advances in Smart Grid and Renewable Energy

Advances in Smart Grid and Renewable Energy
Author: Sabyasachi SenGupta,Ahmed F. Zobaa,Karma Sonam Sherpa,Akash Kumar Bhoi
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 716
Release: 2017-10-25
ISBN 10: 9811042861
ISBN 13: 9789811042867
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Smart Grid and Renewable Energy Book Review:

This volume comprises select proceedings of ETAEERE-2016. The volume offers state-of-the-art chapters on energy management systems (EMS), renewable energy resources, micro-generation, green communications architectures and frameworks, green computing and education as well as energy-aware process optimization. The contents covers a wide variety of topics and aspects including management of renewable energy systems and environmental challenges. The contents of this volume will be useful to researchers and practicing engineers working in the areas of smart grids and renewable energy generation, distribution, and management.

Energy Management of Internet Data Centers in Smart Grid

Energy Management of Internet Data Centers in Smart Grid
Author: Tao Jiang,Liang Yu,Yang Cao
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 102
Release: 2015-01-02
ISBN 10: 3662456761
ISBN 13: 9783662456767
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Management of Internet Data Centers in Smart Grid Book Review:

This book reports the latest findings on intelligent energy management of Internet data centers in smart-grid environments. The book gathers novel research ideas in Internet data center energy management, especially scenarios with cyber-related vulnerabilities, power outages and carbon emission constraints. The book will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in communication and networking areas who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms, and applications of energy management of Internet data centers in smart grids.

The Advanced Smart Grid

The Advanced Smart Grid
Author: Andres Carvallo
Publsiher: Artech House
Total Pages: 268
Release: 2011
ISBN 10: 1608071286
ISBN 13: 9781608071289
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Advanced Smart Grid Book Review:

Placing emphasis on practical how-to guidance, this cutting-edge resource provides you with a first-hand, insiderOCOs perspective on the advent and evolution of smart grids in the 21st century (smart grid 1.0). You gain a thorough understanding of the building blocks that comprise basic smart grids, including power plant, transmission substation, distribution, and meter automation. Moreover, this forward-looking volume explores the next step of this technologyOCOs evolution. It provides a detailed explanation of how an advanced smart grid incorporates demand response with smart appliances and management mechanisms for distributed generation, energy storage, and electric vehicles.The Advanced Smart Grid uses the design and construction of the first citywide smart grid in the US as a case study, sharing the many successes and lessons learned. You gain working knowledge of successful tools and best practices that are needed to overcome diverse technological and organizational challenges as you strive to build a next-generation advanced smart grid (smart grid 2.0). Additionally, this unique book offers a glimpse at the future with interconnected advanced smart grids and a redesigned energy ecosystem (smart grid 3.0)."

Smart Grids

Smart Grids
Author: Stuart Borlase
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 805
Release: 2017-11-22
ISBN 10: 135123093X
ISBN 13: 9781351230933
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Grids Book Review:

The latest edition features a new chapter on implementation and operation of an integrated smart grid with updates to multiple chapters throughout the text. New sections on Internet of things, and how they relate to smart grids and smart cities, have also been added to the book. It describes the impetus for change in the electric utility industry and discusses the business drivers, benefits, and market outlook of the smart grid initiative. The book identifies the technical framework of enabling technologies and smart solutions and describes the role of technology developments and coordinated standards in smart grid, including various initiatives and organizations helping to drive the smart grid effort. With chapters written by leading experts in the field, the text explains how to plan, integrate, implement, and operate a smart grid.

The Energy Internet

The Energy Internet
Author: Wencong Su,Alex Huang
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 398
Release: 2018-10-26
ISBN 10: 0081022158
ISBN 13: 9780081022153
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Energy Internet Book Review:

The Energy Internet: An Open Energy Platform to Transform Legacy Power Systems into Open Innovation and Global Economic Engines is an innovative concept that changes the way people generate, distribute and consume electrical energy. With the potential to transform the infrastructure of the electric grid, the book challenges existing power systems, presenting innovative and pioneering theories and technologies that will challenge existing norms on generation and consumption. Researchers, academics, engineers, consultants and policymakers will gain a thorough understanding of the Energy Internet that includes a thorough dissemination of case studies from the USA, China, Japan, Germany and the U.K. The book's editors provide analysis of various enabling technologies and technical solutions, such as control theory, communication, and the social and economic aspects that are central to obtaining a clear appreciation of the potential of this complex infrastructure. Presents the first complete resource on the innovative concept of the Energy Internet Provides a clear analysis of the architecture of the Energy Internet to ensure an understanding of the technologies behind generating, distributing and consuming electricity in this way Includes a variety of global case studies of real-world implementation and pilot projects to thoroughly demonstrate the theoretical, technological and economic considerations

Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Security

Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Security
Author: Lars T. Berger,Krzysztof Iniewski
Publsiher: Wiley
Total Pages: 488
Release: 2012-04-10
ISBN 10: 1118004396
ISBN 13: 9781118004395
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Security Book Review:

For many, smart grids are the biggest technological revolutionsince the Internet. They have the potential to reduce carbondioxide emissions, increase the reliability of electricity supply,and increase the efficiency of our energy infrastructure. Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Securityexplains how diverse technologies play hand-in-hand in building andmaintaining smart grids around the globe. The book delves into thecommunication aspects of smart grids, provides incredible insightinto power electronics, sensing, monitoring, and controltechnologies, and points out the potential for new technologies andmarkets. Extensively cross-referenced, the book contains comprehensivecoverage in four major parts: Part I: Applications provides a detailedintroduction to smart grid applications—spanning thetransmission, distribution, and consumer side of the electricitygrid Part II: Communications discusses wireless,wireline, and optical communication solutions—from thephysical layers up to sensing, automation, and control protocolsrunning on the application layers Part III: Security deals with cybersecurity—sharpening the awareness of security threats,reviewing the ongoing standardization, and outlining the future ofauthentication and encryption key management Part IV: Case Studies and Field Trials presentsself-contained chapters of studies where the smart grid of tomorrowhas already been put into practice With contributions from majorindustry stakeholders such as Siemens, Cisco, ABB, and Motorola,this is the ideal book for both engineering professionals andstudents.

Nanogrids, Microgrids, and the Internet of Things (IoT)

Nanogrids, Microgrids, and the Internet of Things (IoT)
Author: Antonio Moreno-Munoz
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 128
Release: 2019-11-20
ISBN 10: 3039217941
ISBN 13: 9783039217946
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanogrids, Microgrids, and the Internet of Things (IoT) Book Review:

Driven by new regulations, new market structures, and new energy resources, the smart grid has been the trigger for profound changes in the way that electricity is generated, distributed, managed, and consumed. The smart grid has raised the traditional power grid by using a two-way electricity and information flow to create an advanced, automated power supply network. However, these pioneering smart grid technologies must grow to adapt to the demands of the current digital society. In today’s digital landscape, we can access feasible data and knowledge that were merely inconceivable. This Special Issue aims to address the landscape in which smart grids are progressing, due to the advent of pervasive technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT). It will be the advanced exploitation of the massive amounts of data generated from (low-cost) IoT sensors that will become the main driver to evolve the concept of the smart grid, currently focused on infrastructure, towards the digital energy network paradigm, focused on service. Furthermore, collective intelligence will improve the processes of decision making and empower citizens. Original manuscripts focusing on state-of-the-art IoT networking and communications, M2M communications, cyberphysical system architectures, big data analytics or cloud computing applied to digital energy platforms, including design methodologies and practical implementation aspects, are welcome.

Advances in Smart Grid Power System

Advances in Smart Grid Power System
Author: Anuradha Tomar,Ritu Kandari
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 404
Release: 2020-10-23
ISBN 10: 0128243384
ISBN 13: 9780128243381
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Smart Grid Power System Book Review:

Advances in Smart Grid Power System: Network, Control and Security discusses real world problems, solutions, and best practices in related fields. The book includes executable plans for smart grid systems, their network communications, tactics on protecting information, and response plans for cyber incidents. Moreover, it enables researchers and energy professionals to understand the future of energy delivery systems and security. Covering fundamental theory, mathematical formulations, practical implementations, and experimental testing procedures, this book gives readers invaluable insights into the field of power systems, their quality and reliability, their impact, and their importance in cybersecurity. Includes supporting illustrations and tables along with valuable end of chapter reference sets Provides a working guideline for the design and analysis of smart grids and their applications Features experimental testing procedures in smart grid power systems, communication networks, reliability, and cybersecurity