Forensic Practitioner s Guide to the Interpretation of Complex DNA Profiles

Forensic Practitioner s Guide to the Interpretation of Complex DNA Profiles
Author: Peter Gill,Øyvind Bleka,Oskar Hansson,Corina Benschop,Hinda Haned
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 530
Release: 2020-06-10
ISBN 10: 0128205687
ISBN 13: 9780128205686
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Practitioner s Guide to the Interpretation of Complex DNA Profiles Book Review:

Over the past twenty years, there’s been a gradual shift in the way forensic scientists approach the evaluation of DNA profiling evidence that is taken to court. Many laboratories are now adopting ‘probabilistic genotyping’ to interpret complex DNA mixtures. However, current practice is very diverse, where a whole range of technologies are used to interpret DNA profiles and the software approaches advocated are commonly used throughout the world. Forensic Practitioner’s Guide to the Interpretation of Complex DNA Profiles places the main concepts of DNA profiling into context and fills a niche that is unoccupied in current literature. The book begins with an introduction to basic forensic genetics, covering a brief historical description of the development and harmonization of STR markers and national DNA databases. The laws of statistics are described, along with the likelihood ratio based on Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and alternative models considering sub-structuring and relatedness. The historical development of low template mixture analysis, theory and practice, is also described, so the reader has a full understanding of rationale and progression. Evaluation of evidence and statement writing is described in detail, along with common pitfalls and their avoidance. The authors have been at the forefront of the revolution, having made substantial contributions to theory and practice over the past two decades. All methods described are open-source and freely available, supported by sets of test-data and links to web-sites with further information. This book is written primarily for the biologist with little or no statistical training. However, sufficient information will also be provided for the experienced statistician. Consequently, the book appeals to a diverse audience Covers short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, including database searching and massive parallel sequencing (both STRs and SNPs) Encourages dissemination and understanding of probabilistic genotyping by including practical examples of varying complexity Written by authors intimately involved with software development, training at international workshops and reporting cases worldwide using the methods described in this book

Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing Interpretation

Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing  Interpretation
Author: John M. Butler
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2014-07-28
ISBN 10: 012405854X
ISBN 13: 9780124058545
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing Interpretation Book Review:

Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing: Interpretation builds upon the previous two editions of John Butler’s internationally acclaimed Forensic DNA Typing textbook with forensic DNA analysts as its primary audience. Intended as a third-edition companion to the Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing volume published in 2010 and Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing: Methodology published in 2012, this book contains 16 chapters with 4 appendices providing up-to-date coverage of essential topics in this important field. Over 80 % of the content of this book is new compared to previous editions. Provides forensic DNA analysts coverage of the crucial topic of DNA mixture interpretation and statistical analysis of DNA evidence Worked mixture examples illustrate the impact of different statistical approaches for reporting results Includes allele frequencies for 24 commonly used autosomal STR loci, the revised Quality Assurance Standards which went into effect September 2011

Interpreting Complex Forensic DNA Evidence

Interpreting Complex Forensic DNA Evidence
Author: Jane Moira Taupin
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 162
Release: 2019-11-14
ISBN 10: 1351023764
ISBN 13: 9781351023764
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Interpreting Complex Forensic DNA Evidence Book Review:

Interpreting Complex Forensic DNA Evidence is a handy guide to recent advances—and emerging issues—in interpreting complex DNA evidence and profiles for use in criminal investigations. In certain cases, DNA cannot be connected to a specific biological material such as blood, semen or saliva. How or when the DNA was deposited may be an issue. However, the possibility of generating DNA profiles from touched objects, where there may not be a visible deposit, has expanded the scope and number of exhibits submitted for DNA analysis. With such advances, and increasing improvements in technological capabilities in testing samples, this means it is possible to detect ever smaller amounts of DNA. There are also many efforts underway to seek was to interpret DNA profiles that are sub-optimal—either relative to the amount required by the testing kit and, potentially, the quality of the obtained sample. Laboratories often use enhancements in order to obtain a readable DNA profile. The broad-reaching implications of improving DNA sensitivity have led to this next, emerging generation of more complex profiles. Examples partial profiles that do not faithfully reflect the proposed donor, or mixtures of partial DNA from multiple people. A complexity threshold has been proposed to limit interpretation of poor-quality data. Research is now addressing the interpretation of transfer of trace amounts of DNA. Complex issues are arising in trial that need to be reconciled as such complexity has added challenges to the interpretation of evidence and its introduction or dismissal in certain cases in the courts. Interpreting Complex Forensic DNA Evidence provides tools to assist the criminal investigator, forensic expert, and legal professional when posed with a DNA result in a forensic report or testimony. The result—and any associated statistic—may not reveal any ambiguity, complexity, or the assumptions involved in deriving it. Questions from resolved criminal cases are posed, and the relevant forensic literature, are provided for the reader to assess a DNA result and any associated statistic. Case studies included throughout illustrate concepts and emphasize the need for conclusions in the forensic report that are data-driven and supported by the data.

Forensic Science Evidence and Expert Witness Testimony

Forensic Science Evidence and Expert Witness Testimony
Author: Paul Roberts,Michael Stockdale
Publsiher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2018-11-30
ISBN 10: 1788111036
ISBN 13: 9781788111034
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Science Evidence and Expert Witness Testimony Book Review:

Forensic science evidence plays a pivotal role in modern criminal proceedings. Yet such evidence poses intense practical and theoretical challenges. It can be unreliable or misleading and has been associated with miscarriages of justice. In this original and insightful book, a global team of prominent scholars and practitioners explore the contemporary challenges of forensic science evidence and expert witness testimony from a variety of theoretical, practical and jurisdictional perspectives. Chapters encompass the institutional organisation of forensic science, its procedural regulation, evaluation and reform, and brim with comparative insight.

Using Forensic DNA Evidence at Trial

Using Forensic DNA Evidence at Trial
Author: Jane Moira Taupin
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 196
Release: 2016-04-21
ISBN 10: 1482255820
ISBN 13: 9781482255829
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Using Forensic DNA Evidence at Trial Book Review:

Using Forensic DNA Evidence at Trial: A Case Study Approach covers the most common DNA analysis methods used in criminal trials today, including STR techniques, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-STRs. It presents some novel techniques—including familial testing and analyzing domestic animal hair—that have been recently introduced in unique cases, each of which is outlined in detail. It also illustrates special issues related to forensic DNA evidence by using court proceedings such as trials and appeals, commissions of inquiry, and government and laboratory reviews. With forensic DNA analysis becoming increasingly important at trial, the lively and sometimes bizarre cases presented in this book have been carefully chosen to highlight specific concepts, methods, and interpretations used in DNA analysis. Sections throughout examine the nature of expertise with a special focus on the role of subjectivity in the interpretation of forensic DNA evidence, emphasizing cognitive bias and extraneous context. Using both convictions and exonerations as examples, the book also discusses the strengths and limitations of DNA evidence and testing. The book is written in an accessible manner for the non-scientific reader, such that criminal lawyers, judges, and forensic experts will all understand the nature of analysis and application of DNA evidence in a variety of court cases. Extensive references—including notable trial proceedings, cross references of cases, and specific forensic statistics—round out the book and help to provide a complete understanding of forensic DNA analysis and its current usage in the courtroom.

Handbook of Trace Evidence Analysis

Handbook of Trace Evidence Analysis
Author: Vincent J. Desiderio,Chris E. Taylor,Niamh Nic Daéid
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2020-08-18
ISBN 10: 1118962109
ISBN 13: 9781118962107
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Trace Evidence Analysis Book Review:

Covers new trace evidence techniques and expanding areas of analysis, along with key theory and applications Developed around the need for updated information in the disciplines of trace evidence the Handbook of Trace Evidence Analysis focuses on the increasing awareness and need for validation, modern methods for addressing and controlling contamination, the shift towards incorporating statistical analyses into the interpretation phase and cutting edge research into new forensic science methods and their application. Beginning with an overview of the topic and discussing the important role that information derived from trace materials can provide during investigations, the book then presents chapters on key techniques. The first being the critical nature of microscopy, and the methods employed for the recognition, collection, and preservation of trace evidence. Subsequent chapters review the core disciplines of trace evidence examination: paints and polymers, hairs, fibers and textiles and glass. Each chapter contains in-depth discussions on the origin of the materials involved, including any natural or synthetic processes involved in their production, the nuances involved in their detection, and the methods of analysis that are used to extract valuable information from samples. In addition, suggested workflows in method and testing selections, as well as addressing specific scientific challenges as well as the limitations of knowledge on the transfer, persistence and background abundance of trace materials are discussed. The book ends by examining the interpretation of trace evidence findings from a historical perspective and examining the methods that are currently being developed. Provides an in-depth introduction to the general area of trace evidence and discusses current and new techniques Consolidates trace evidence and materials categories of testing into one reference series Offers a detailed focus on technical approaches and guidelines to trace evidence Includes analytical schemes/workflows and valuable guides for the interpretation of data and results The Handbook of Trace Evidence will appeal to forensic science academics, students, and practitioners in the trace evidence and materials science disciplines, as well as DNA analysts, toxicologists, forensic anthropologists, crime laboratory managers, criminal justice students and practitioners, and legal professionals. It would also be a valuable resource for every crime laboratory reference library.

Forensic DNA Profiling

Forensic DNA Profiling
Author: Jo-Anne Bright,Michael Coble
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 242
Release: 2019-12-20
ISBN 10: 0429671423
ISBN 13: 9780429671425
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic DNA Profiling Book Review:

DNA testing and its forensic analysis are recognized as the “gold standard” in forensic identification science methods. However, there is a great need for a hands-on step-by-step guide to teach the forensic DNA community how to interpret DNA mixtures, how to assign a likelihood ratio, and how to use the subsequent likelihood ratio when reporting interpretation conclusions. Forensic DNA Profiling: A Practical Guide to Assigning Likelihood Ratios will provide a roadmap for labs all over the world and the next generation of analysts who need this foundational understanding. The techniques used in forensic DNA analysis are based upon the accepted principles of molecular biology. The interpretation of a good-quality DNA profile generated from a crime scene stain from a single-source donor provides an unambiguous result when using the most modern forensic DNA methods. Unfortunately, many crime scene profiles are not single source. They are described as mixed since they contain DNA from two or more individuals. Interpretation of DNA mixtures represents one of the greatest challenges to the forensic DNA analyst. As such, the book introduces terms used to describe DNA profiles and profile interpretation. Chapters explain DNA extraction methods, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), capillary electrophoresis (CE), likelihood ratios (LRs) and their interpretation, and population genetic models—including Mendelian inheritance and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. It is important that analysts understand how LRs are generated in a probabilistic framework, ideally with an appreciation of both semicontinuous and fully continuous probabilistic approaches. KEY FEATURES: • The first book to focus entirely on DNA mixtures and the complexities involved with interpreting the results • Takes a hands-on approach offering theory with worked examples and exercises to be easily understood and implementable by laboratory personnel • New methods, heretofore unpublished previously, provide a means to innovate deconvoluting a mixed DNA profile, assign an LR, and appropriately report the weight of evidence • Includes a chapter on assigning LRs for close relatives (i.e., “It’s not me, it was my brother”), and discusses strategies for the validation of probabilistic genotyping software Forensic DNA Profiling fills the void for labs unfamiliar with LRs, and moving to probabilistic solutions, and for labs already familiar with LRs, but wishing to understand how they are calculated in more detail. The book will be a welcome read for lab professionals and technicians, students, and legal professionals seeking to understand and apply the techniques covered.

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 348
Release: 2009-07-29
ISBN 10: 0309142393
ISBN 13: 9780309142397
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Book Review:

Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.

Criminal Evidence

Criminal Evidence
Author: Paul Roberts,Adrian Zuckerman
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 729
Release: 2010-08-26
ISBN 10: 0199231648
ISBN 13: 9780199231645
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Criminal Evidence Book Review:

Based on Adrian Zuckerman's 'The Principles of Criminal Evidence', this book presents a comprehensive treatment of the fundamental principles & underlying logic of the law of criminal evidence. It includes changes relating to presumption of innocence, privilege against self-incrimination, character, & the law of corroboration.

Introduction to Forensic DNA Evidence for Criminal Justice Professionals

Introduction to Forensic DNA Evidence for Criminal Justice Professionals
Author: Jane Moira Taupin
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2017-07-27
ISBN 10: 143989910X
ISBN 13: 9781439899106
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to Forensic DNA Evidence for Criminal Justice Professionals Book Review:

The use of DNA profiling in forensic cases has been considered the most innovative technique in forensic science since fingerprinting, yet for those with limited scientific knowledge, understanding DNA enough to utilize it properly can be a daunting task. Introduction to Forensic DNA Evidence for Criminal Justice Professionals is designed for nonsc

The Dialogue Between Forensic Scientists Statisticians and Lawyers about Complex Scientific Issues for Court

The Dialogue Between Forensic Scientists  Statisticians and Lawyers about Complex Scientific Issues for Court
Author: Sue Pope,Alex Biedermann
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-10-08
ISBN 10: 2889660494
ISBN 13: 9782889660490
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Dialogue Between Forensic Scientists Statisticians and Lawyers about Complex Scientific Issues for Court Book Review:

Assessing Genetic Risks

Assessing Genetic Risks
Author: Institute of Medicine,Committee on Assessing Genetic Risks
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 352
Release: 1994-01-01
ISBN 10: 0309047986
ISBN 13: 9780309047982
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Assessing Genetic Risks Book Review:

Raising hopes for disease treatment and prevention, but also the specter of discrimination and "designer genes," genetic testing is potentially one of the most socially explosive developments of our time. This book presents a current assessment of this rapidly evolving field, offering principles for actions and research and recommendations on key issues in genetic testing and screening. Advantages of early genetic knowledge are balanced with issues associated with such knowledge: availability of treatment, privacy and discrimination, personal decisionmaking, public health objectives, cost, and more. Among the important issues covered: Quality control in genetic testing. Appropriate roles for public agencies, private health practitioners, and laboratories. Value-neutral education and counseling for persons considering testing. Use of test results in insurance, employment, and other settings.

Forensic DNA Typing

Forensic DNA Typing
Author: John M. Butler
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 688
Release: 2005-02-08
ISBN 10: 9780080470610
ISBN 13: 0080470610
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic DNA Typing Book Review:

Forensic DNA Typing, Second Edition, is the only book available that specifically covers detailed information on mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome. It examines the science of current forensic DNA typing methods by focusing on the biology, technology, and genetic interpretation of short tandem repeat (STR) markers, which encompass the most common forensic DNA analysis methods used today. The book covers topics from introductory level right up to cutting edge research. High-profile cases are addressed throughout the text, near the sections dealing with the science or issues behind these cases. Ten new chapters have been added to accommodate the explosion of new information since the turn of the century. These additional chapters cover statistical genetic analysis of DNA data, an emerging field of interest to DNA research. Several chapters on statistical analysis of short tandem repeat (STR) typing data have been contributed by Dr. George Carmody, a well-respected professor in forensic genetics. Specific examples make the concepts of population genetics more understandable. This book will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in forensic DNA analysis, forensic scientists, population geneticists, military and private and public forensic laboratories (for identifying individuals through remains), and students of forensic science. *The only book available that specifically covers detailed information on mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome *Chapters cover the topic from introductory level right up to "cutting edge" research *High-profile cases are addressed throughout the book, near the sections dealing with the science or issues behind these cases *NEW TO THIS EDITION: D.N.A. Boxes--boxed "Data, Notes & Applications" sections throughout the book offer higher levels of detail on specific questions

Forensic Speaker Identification

Forensic Speaker Identification
Author: Phil Rose
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 380
Release: 2002-07-01
ISBN 10: 1134486189
ISBN 13: 9781134486182
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic Speaker Identification Book Review:

A voice is much more than just a string of words. Voices, unlike fingerprints, are inherently complex. They signal a great deal of information in addition to the intended message: the speakers' sex, for example, or their emotional state, or age. Although evidence from DNA analysis grabs the headlines, DNA can't talk. It can't be recorded planning,

Interpreting Evidence

Interpreting Evidence
Author: Bernard Robertson,G. A. Vignaux,Charles E. H. Berger
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 214
Release: 2016-09-19
ISBN 10: 111849248X
ISBN 13: 9781118492482
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Interpreting Evidence Book Review:

This book explains the correct logical approach to analysis of forensic scientific evidence. The focus is on general methods of analysis applicable to all forms of evidence. It starts by explaining the general principles and then applies them to issues in DNA and other important forms of scientific evidence as examples. Like the first edition, the book analyses real legal cases and judgments rather than hypothetical examples and shows how the problems perceived in those cases would have been solved by a correct logical approach. The book is written to be understood both by forensic scientists preparing their evidence and by lawyers and judges who have to deal with it. The analysis is tied back both to basic scientific principles and to the principles of the law of evidence. This book will also be essential reading for law students taking evidence or forensic science papers and science students studying the application of their scientific specialisation to forensic questions.

Introduction to Criminal Investigation

Introduction to Criminal Investigation
Author: Michael Birzer,Cliff Roberson
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2018-07-31
ISBN 10: 1439897484
ISBN 13: 9781439897485
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to Criminal Investigation Book Review:

The manner in which criminal investigators are trained is neither uniform nor consistent, ranging from sophisticated training protocols in some departments to on-the-job experience alongside senior investigators in others. Ideal for students taking a first course in the subject as well as professionals in need of a refresher, Introduction to Crimin

Forensic DNA Evidence Interpretation

Forensic DNA Evidence Interpretation
Author: Christopher M. Triggs,John S. Buckleton,Simon J. Walsh
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 552
Release: 2004-11-29
ISBN 10: 1420037927
ISBN 13: 9781420037920
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forensic DNA Evidence Interpretation Book Review:

Forensic DNA Evidence Interpretation is the most comprehensive resource for DNA casework available today. Written by leaders in the fields of biology and statistics, the book emphasizes the interpretation of test results and provides the necessary formulae in an easily accessible manner. The book begins by reviewing all pertinent biology, a

Misleading DNA Evidence

Misleading DNA Evidence
Author: Peter Gill
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 100
Release: 2014-06-18
ISBN 10: 0124172202
ISBN 13: 9780124172203
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Misleading DNA Evidence Book Review:

Misleading DNA Evidence: A Guide for Scientists, Judges, and Lawyers presents the reasons miscarriages of justice can occur when dealing with DNA, what the role of the forensic scientist is throughout the process, and how judges and lawyers can educate themselves about all of the possibilities to consider when dealing with cases that involve DNA evidence. DNA has become the gold standard by which a person can be placed at the scene of a crime, and the past decade has seen great advances in this powerful crime solving tool. But the statistics that analysts can attach to DNA evidence often vary, and in some cases the statistical weight assigned to that match, can vary enormously. The numbers provided to juries often overstate the evidence, and can result in a wrongful conviction. In addition to statistics, the way the evidence is collected, stored and analyzed can also result in a wrongful conviction due to contamination. This book reviews high-profile and somewhat contentious cases to illustrate these points, including the death of Meredith Kercher. It examines crucial topics such as characterization of errors and determination of error rates, reporting DNA profiles and the source and sub-source levels, and the essentials of statement writing. It is a concise, readable resource that will help not only scientists, but legal professionals with limited scientific backgrounds, to understand the intricacies of DNA use in the justice system. Ideal reference for scientists and for those without extensive scientific backgrounds Written by one of the pioneers in forensic DNA typing and interpretation of DNA profiling results Ideal format for travel, court environments, or wherever easy access to reference material is vital

Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence

Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 637
Release: 1994
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: PURD:32754065347985
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence Book Review:

Report to the President

Report to the President
Author: Executive Office Executive Office of the President
Publsiher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Total Pages: 132
Release: 2016-09-15
ISBN 10: 9781539172000
ISBN 13: 1539172007
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Report to the President Book Review:

Published and needed studies for pattern-based forensic science methods What studies have been published in the past 5 years that support the foundational aspects of each of the pattern-based forensic science methods, including (but not limited to) latent print analysis; firearms/toolmarks; shoe/tire prints; bitemark analysis; questioned documents? What studies are needed to demonstrate the reliability and validity of these methods? Have studies been conducted to establish baseline frequencies of characteristics or features used in these pattern-based matching techniques? If not, how might such studies be conducted? What publicly accessible databases exist that could support such studies? What closed databases exist? Where such databases exist, how are they controlled and curated? If studies have not been conducted, what conclusions can and cannot be stated about the relationship between the crime scene evidence and a known suspect or tool (e.g., firearm)? How is performance testing (testing designed to determine the frequency with which individual examiners obtain correct answers) currently used in forensic laboratories? Are performance tests conducted in a blind manner? How could well-designed performance testing be used more systematically for the above pattern-based techniques to establish baseline error rates for individual examiners? What are the opportunities and challenges for developing and employing blind performance testing? What studies have been published in this area? What are the most promising new scientific techniques that are currently under development or could be developed in the next decade that would be most useful for forensic applications? Examples could include hair analysis by mass spectrometry, advances in digital forensics, and phenotypic DNA profiling. What standards of validity and reliability should new forensic methods be required to meet before they are introduced in court? Are there scientific and technology disciplines other than the traditional forensic science disciplines that could usefully contribute to and/or enhance the scientific, technical and/or societal aspects of forensic science? What mechanisms could be employed to encourage further collaboration between these disciplines and the forensic science community?