Fatigue Failure of Textile Fibres

Fatigue Failure of Textile Fibres
Author: M Miraftab
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 264
Release: 2009-04-21
ISBN 10: 1845695720
ISBN 13: 9781845695729
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fatigue Failure of Textile Fibres Book Review:

Fibres are used both for traditional textile applications as well as in advanced technical structures. Understanding the fatigue processes in these fibres can suggest ways of eliminating or reducing the probability of unforeseen failures. This book addresses key aspects of fatigue failure in textile fibres. Part one explains the different types of fatigue failure in textiles such as tensile, torsional and flex fatigue. It describes the mechanisms of each type of fatigue and illustrates the kinds of fatigue failure that can occur. Part two moves on to explain the factors that can affect fatigue life and fatigue behaviour. It underlines the relationship that fatigue has with the environment and looks at testing and modelling fatigue in such areas as polymer matrices. Chapters relate actual fibre fatigue failures to those of laboratory tests and the way they influence mathematical modelling to predict potential failure. With an international range of contributors Fatigue failure of textile fibres is key reading for textile engineers, academics, textile technologists, fibre scientists and all those concerned with the topic of fatigue failure in textiles and textile-based assemblies. Addresses key aspects of fatigue failure in textile fibres including tensile, flex and torsional fatigue Examines factors that can effect fatigue life and fatigue behaviour including textile processing and environmental factors

Atlas of Fibre Fracture and Damage to Textiles

Atlas of Fibre Fracture and Damage to Textiles
Author: J. W. S. Hearle,Brenda Lomas,William D. Cooke,W. D. Cooke
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 468
Release: 1998
ISBN 10: 1855733196
ISBN 13: 9781855733190
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Atlas of Fibre Fracture and Damage to Textiles Book Review:

Based on over 25 years of research at the University of Manchester Institute of Science & Technology, this book contains more than 1,500 scanning electron micrographs and other pictures, offering a unique collection of documentary information. The explanatory text presents fiber and polymer scientists an explanation of fracture mechanisms and outlines way to maximize textile life span, enabling textile technologists and design engineers to manufacture improved textile products, and helping forensic scientists to identify cause of failure.

Fatigue of Textile Composites

Fatigue of Textile Composites
Author: Valter Carvelli,Stepan V Lomov
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 510
Release: 2015-05-16
ISBN 10: 1782422935
ISBN 13: 9781782422938
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fatigue of Textile Composites Book Review:

Fatigue of Textile Composites provides a current, state-of-art review on recent investigations on the fatigue behavior of composite materials, mainly those reinforced with textiles. As this particular group of composite materials is extremely important for a wide variety of industrial applications, including automotive, aeronautical, and marine, etc., mainly due to their peculiarities and advantages with respect to unidirectional laminated composites, the text presents comprehensive information on the huge variety of interlacement geometric architectures that are suitable for a broad range of different applications, their excellent drapability and versatility, which is highly important for complex double-curvature shape components and three-dimensional woven fabrics without plane reinforcement, and their main mechanical characteristics which are currently in high demand from industry. Presents the current state-of-the-art investigations on fatigue behavior of composite materials, mainly those reinforced with textiles Contains invaluable information pertaining to a wide variety of industries, including automotive, aeronautical, and marine, amongst others Provides comprehensive information on the huge variety of interlacement geometric architectures that are suitable for a broad range of different applications

Fatigue of Textile and Short Fiber Reinforced Composites

Fatigue of Textile and Short Fiber Reinforced Composites
Author: Valter Carvelli,Atul Jain,Stepan Lomov
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 212
Release: 2017-03-10
ISBN 10: 1119413451
ISBN 13: 9781119413455
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fatigue of Textile and Short Fiber Reinforced Composites Book Review:

This book covers several aspects of the fatigue behavior of textile and short fiber reinforced composites. The first part is dedicated to 2D and 3D reinforced textile composites and includes a systematic description of the damage evolution for quasi-static and tensile-tensile fatigue loadings. Acoustic emissions and digital image correlation are considered in order to detect the damage modes’ initiation and development. The acoustic emission thresholds of the quasi-static loading are connected to the “fatigue limit” of the materials with distinctions for glass and carbon reinforcements. The second part is devoted to the fatigue behavior of injection molded short fiber reinforced composites. Experimental evidence highlights the dependence of their fatigue response on various factors: fiber and matrix materials, fiber distribution, environmental and loading conditions are described. A hybrid (experimental/simulations) multi-scale method is presented, which drastically reduces the amount of experimental data necessary for reliable fatigue life predictions.

Handbook of Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres

Handbook of Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres
Author: A. R. Bunsell
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 1052
Release: 2018-01-02
ISBN 10: 008101886X
ISBN 13: 9780081018866
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres Book Review:

Handbook of Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres, Second Edition introduces tensile properties and failure and testing of fibers, also examining tensile properties and the failure of natural fibers, such as cotton, hemp, flax, agave, wool and silk. Next, the book discusses the tensile properties and failure of synthetic fibers, ranging from polyamide, polyester, polyethylene and carbon fibers. Chapters provide a general background of the fiber, including its manufacture, microstructure, factors that affect tensile properties and methods to improve tensile failure. With its distinguished editor and international contributors, this book is an important reference for fiber scientists, textile technologists, engineers and academics. Offers up-to-date coverage of new and advanced materials for the fiber and textile industries Reviews structure-property relationships of high-performance natural, synthetic polymer and inorganic fibers Offers a range of perspectives on the tensile properties of fibers from an international team of authors with diverse expertise in academic research and in textile development and manufacture

Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure

Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure
Author: Stephen Eichhorn,J. W. S. Hearle,M Jaffe,T Kikutani
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 536
Release: 2009-10-26
ISBN 10: 1845697316
ISBN 13: 9781845697310
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure Book Review:

Due to their complexity and diversity, understanding the structure of textile fibres is of key importance. This authoritative two-volume collection provides a comprehensive review of the structure of an extensive range of textile fibres. Volume 2 begins by reviewing natural fibres such as cellulosic, cotton, protein, wool and silk fibres. Part two considers regenerated cellulosic, protein, alginate, chitin and chitosan fibres. The final part of the book discusses inorganic fibres such as glass, carbon and ceramic fibres as well as specialist fibres such as thermally and chemically-resistant fibres, optical and hollow fibres. Chapters review how fibre structure contributes to key mechanical properties. A companion volume reviews the structure of manufactured polymer fibres. Edited by leading authorities on the subject and with a team of international authors, the two volumes of the Handbook of textile fibre structure is an essential reference for textile technologists, fibre scientists, textile engineers and those in academia. Discusses how fibre structure contributes to key mechanical properties Reviews natural fibres such as cellulosic, cotton and silk fibres and considers various regenerated fibres Examines inorganic fibres including glass and carbon as well as specialist fibres such as chemically-resistant and optical fibres

Physical Properties of Textile Fibres

Physical Properties of Textile Fibres
Author: J. W. S. Hearle,W E Morton
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 796
Release: 2008-10-10
ISBN 10: 1845694422
ISBN 13: 9781845694425
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physical Properties of Textile Fibres Book Review:

First published in 1962, and now in its fourth edition, Physical properties of textile fibres has become a classic, providing the standard reference on key aspects of fibre performance. The new edition has been substantially reorganised and revised to reflect new research. After introductory chapters on fibre structure, testing and sampling, the book reviews key fibre properties, their technical significance, factors affecting these properties and measurement issues. Each chapter covers both natural and synthetic fibres, including high-performance fibres. The book first reviews properties such as fineness, length and density. It then considers thermal properties and reaction to moisture. A further group of chapters then reviews tensile properties, thermo-mechanical responses, fibre breakage and fatigue. Finally, the book discusses dielectric properties, electrical resistance and static, optical properties and fibre friction. Written by one of the world’s leading authorities, the fourth edition of Physical properties of textile fibres consolidates its reputation as a standard work both for those working in the textile industry and those teaching and studying textile science. A standard reference on key aspects of fibre performance An essential read and reference for textile technologists, fibre scientists, textile engineers and those in academia Provides substantial updated material on fibre structure and new test methods, data and theories regarding properties of textile fibres

Identification of Textile Fibers

Identification of Textile Fibers
Author: M M Houck
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 396
Release: 2009-01-30
ISBN 10: 1845695658
ISBN 13: 9781845695651
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Identification of Textile Fibers Book Review:

The identification of fibers is important to the textile industry, forensic science, fashion designers and historians among others. Identifying fibers involves observing the physical and chemical properties of the fiber for which there are a wide diversity of instruments available. This book provides a comprehensive review of fiber structure, the diversity of instruments available to identify fibers and applicications for a range of industries. The first part of the book examines the main fibers, their structure and characteristics. Part two focuses on methods of fiber identification, ranging from microscopic to DNA analysis. Specific applications, including how textiles are identified in forensic investigations. Identification of textile fibers is an important text for forensic scientists, police and lawyers who may be involved with the use of textile fibers to provide evidence in criminal cases. It will also be relevant for textile designers, technologists and inspectors wishing to assess fiber quality and understand fiber damage. Provides a comprehensive review of the main types of fibre together with their structure, characteristics and identification Assesses methods of fibre identification from optical microscopy to DNA analysis as well as instruments available to identify fibres

Engineering Apparel Fabrics and Garments

Engineering Apparel Fabrics and Garments
Author: J Fan,L Hunter
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2009-05-30
ISBN 10: 1845696441
ISBN 13: 9781845696443
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Engineering Apparel Fabrics and Garments Book Review:

As consumer demands for specific attributes in their textiles increase and global competition intensifies, it is important that the industry finds ways of engineering certain performance requirements into textiles and apparel. This book reviews how fabrics and garments can be engineered to meet technical performance and other characteristics required for the specific end-use. Chapters begin with fabric and garment handle and making – up performance, followed by wear appearance issues, such as wrinkling, pilling and bagging. Further chapters include fabric and garment drape, durability related issues, as well as physiological and psychological comfort. Key topics of fire retardancy, waterproofing, breathability and ultraviolet protection are also discussed. Written by two highly distinguished authors, this is an invaluable book for a wide range of readers in the textile and apparel industries, ranging from textile and garment manufacturers, designers, researchers, developers to buyers. Reviews the engineering of fabrics to meet technical performance requirements for specific end-use Chapters examine various wear appearance issues such as wrinkling, bagging and fabric and garment drape Discusses durability related issues including fire retardancy and waterproofing as well as psychological and physiological fabric comfort

Activated Carbon Fiber and Textiles

Activated Carbon Fiber and Textiles
Author: Jonathan Y Chen
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 362
Release: 2016-08-05
ISBN 10: 0081006780
ISBN 13: 9780081006788
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Activated Carbon Fiber and Textiles Book Review:

Activated Carbon Fiber and Textiles provides systematic coverage of the fundamentals, properties, and current and emerging applications of carbon fiber textiles in a single volume, providing industry professionals and academics working in the field with a broader understanding of these materials. Part I discusses carbon fiber principles and production, including precursors and pyrolysis, carbon fiber spinning, and carbonization and activation. Part II provides more detailed analysis of the key properties of carbon fiber textiles, including their thermal, acoustic, electrical, adsorption, and mechanical behaviors. The final section covers applications of carbon fiber such as filtration, energy protection, and energy and gas storage. Features input from an editor who is an expert in his field: Professor Jonathan Chen has a wealth of experience in the area of activated carbon fiber materials Provides systematic and comprehensive coverage of the key aspects of activated carbon fiber textiles, from their principles, processing, and properties to their industrial applications Offers up-to-date coverage of new technology for the fiber and textiles industries Covers applications such as filtration, energy protection, and energy and gas storage

Fiber Fracture

Fiber Fracture
Author: M. Elices,J. Llorca
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 393
Release: 2002-11-29
ISBN 10: 9780080441047
ISBN 13: 0080441041
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fiber Fracture Book Review:

The idea for this book came out of the EURESCO Conference on High Performance Fibers: Euroconference on Fiber Fracture in 2000. Many of the books that are currently available look at different aspects of fiber processing, properties, or applications, but none are focussed on the fracture behaviour of fibers. This book presents the mechancisms and models of fiber fracture currently available for both natural and synthetic fibers, and it is expected that increasingly there will be cross fertilization between the fields, opening new frontiers in academic research and more competitive products for industry. It covers the following areas of fiber fracture: ceramic fibers; glass fibers; carbon filters; metallic fibers and thin wires; polymeric fibers; and carbon nanotubes.

Woven Terry Fabrics

Woven Terry Fabrics
Author: Jitendra Pratap Singh,Swadesh Verma
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 364
Release: 2016-08-19
ISBN 10: 008100687X
ISBN 13: 9780081006870
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Woven Terry Fabrics Book Review:

Woven Terry Fabrics: Manufacturing and Quality Management encompasses all aspects of terry fabric production, from raw material choice and weave design to technological developments, dyeing, and quality evaluation. Nothing feels more luxurious and comforting than wrapping myself or one of my children in a thick, soft, fluffy towel after bathing says Lindsey, a healthcare administrator and mother of two children in Boston. Consumers pay an average 15 USD for a bath towel. So, it has become a luxury item today. To meet the demand of growing population, the terry fabric industry has grown to a large extent. Lots of technological developments have taken place in this field. Provides an excellent overview of the best production methods, quality control systems, latest research, and process parameters Offers in-depth information on all aspects of production Covers comprehensively, for the first time, the whole process from raw material through to finished fabric Includes coverage of technological developments

Fatigue of Textile and Short Fiber Reinforced Composites

Fatigue of Textile and Short Fiber Reinforced Composites
Author: Valter Carvelli,Atul Jain,Stepan Lomov
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 212
Release: 2017-03-13
ISBN 10: 1119413524
ISBN 13: 9781119413523
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fatigue of Textile and Short Fiber Reinforced Composites Book Review:

This book covers several aspects of the fatigue behavior of textile and short fiber reinforced composites. The first part is dedicated to 2D and 3D reinforced textile composites and includes a systematic description of the damage evolution for quasi-static and tensile-tensile fatigue loadings. Acoustic emissions and digital image correlation are considered in order to detect the damage modes’ initiation and development. The acoustic emission thresholds of the quasi-static loading are connected to the “fatigue limit” of the materials with distinctions for glass and carbon reinforcements. The second part is devoted to the fatigue behavior of injection molded short fiber reinforced composites. Experimental evidence highlights the dependence of their fatigue response on various factors: fiber and matrix materials, fiber distribution, environmental and loading conditions are described. A hybrid (experimental/simulations) multi-scale method is presented, which drastically reduces the amount of experimental data necessary for reliable fatigue life predictions.

Handbook of Natural Fibres

Handbook of Natural Fibres
Author: Ryszard M Kozłowski
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 544
Release: 2012-09-21
ISBN 10: 085709551X
ISBN 13: 9780857095510
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Natural Fibres Book Review:

Growing awareness of environmental issues has led to increasing demand for goods produced from natural products, including natural fibres. The two-volume Handbook of natural fibres is an indispensable tool in understanding the diverse properties and applications of these important materials. Volume 2: Processing and applications focuses on key processing techniques for the improvement and broader application of natural fibres. Part one reviews processing techniques for natural fibres. Silk production and the future of natural silk manufacture are discussed, as well as techniques to improve the flame retardancy of natural fibres and chemical treatments to improve natural fibre properties. Ultraviolet-blocking properties, enzymatic treatment, and electrokinetic properties are also discussed. Part two goes on to investigate applications of natural fibres, including automotive applications, geotextiles, paper and packaging, and natural fibre composites (NFCs) for the construction and automotive industries. The use of flax and hemp, textiles made from jute and coir, antimicrobial natural fibres, and biomimetic textile materials are also considered, before a final discussion of enhancing consumer demand for natural textile fibres. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, the two volumes of the Handbook of natural fibres are essential texts for professionals and academics in textile science and technology. Focuses on key processing techniques for the improvement and broader application of natural fibres Reviews processing techniques for natural fibres, including silk production and the future of natural silk manufacture Discusses ultraviolet-blocking properties, enzymatic treatment, and alectrokinetic properties, among other topics

Surface Modification of Textiles

Surface Modification of Textiles
Author: Q Wei
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2009-08-26
ISBN 10: 1845696689
ISBN 13: 9781845696689
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Surface Modification of Textiles Book Review:

The surface of textiles offers an important platform for functional modifications in order to meet special requirements for a variety of applications. The surface modification of textiles may be achieved by various techniques ranging from traditional solution treatment to biological approaches. This book reviews fundamental issues relating to textile surfaces and their characterisation and explores the exciting opportunities for surface modification of a range of different textiles. Introductory chapters review some important surface modification techniques employed for improved functional behaviour of textiles and the various surface characterisation methods available. Further chapters examine the different types of surface modification suitable for textiles, ranging from the use of plasma treatments and physical vapour deposition to the use of nanoparticles. Concluding chapters discuss surface modification strategies for various applications of textiles. Surface modification of textiles is a valuable resource for chemists, surface scientists, textile technologists, fibre scientists, textile engineers and textile students. Reviews fundamental issues relating to textiles surfaces and their characterisation Examines various types of surface modification suitable for textiles, including plasma treatments and nanoparticles Discusses surface modification strategies for textile applications such as expansion into technical textile applications

Structure and Properties of High Performance Fibers

Structure and Properties of High Performance Fibers
Author: Gajanan Bhat
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 438
Release: 2016-08-21
ISBN 10: 0081005512
ISBN 13: 9780081005514
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Structure and Properties of High Performance Fibers Book Review:

Structure and Properties of High-Performance Fibers explores the relationship between the structure and properties of a wide range of high-performance fibers. Part I covers high-performance inorganic fibers, including glasses and ceramics, plus carbon fibers of various types. In Part II, high-performance synthetic polymer fibers are discussed, while Part III reviews those natural fibers that can be used to create advanced textiles. The high-performance properties of these fibers are related to their chemistry and morphology, as well as the ways in which they are synthesized and spun. High-performance fibers form the basis of textile materials with applications in protection, medicine, and composite reinforcement. Fibers are selected for these technical applications due to their advanced physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. Offers up-to-date coverage of new and advanced materials for the fiber and textile industries Reviews structure-property relationships of high-performance inorganic, carbon, synthetic polymer, and natural fibers Includes contributions from an international team of authors edited by an expert in the field Reviews those natural fibers that can be used to create advanced textiles

Applications of Nonwovens in Technical Textiles

Applications of Nonwovens in Technical Textiles
Author: R Chapman
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2010-06-15
ISBN 10: 1845699742
ISBN 13: 9781845699741
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applications of Nonwovens in Technical Textiles Book Review:

Nonwovens have been one of the fastest growing and most exciting sectors of the textiles market. Such fabrics have a broad spectrum of end uses, ranging from medical products to interior textiles. This book focuses on the variety of technical nonwoven applications available. Opening chapters in part one briefly discuss the fundamental principles of nonwoven fabrics, topics such as the formation of nonwovens and the influence of fibre and fabric properties on nonwoven performance are covered. Part two provides valuable examples of how nonwoven materials can be used in a variety of textile products for apparel, filtration and personal hygiene. With a collection of international contributors, this book is an important reference for professionals involved in the production, technology and use of nonwoven materials, extending from industries such as the medical textile industry to the apparel sector. It will also be suitable for researchers in academia with an interest in nonwoven fabrics. Focuses on the variety of technical nonwoven applications available and provides a comprehensive overview of current developments and likely future trends Reviews the formulation of various types of nonwovens and examines the influence of fibre and fabric properties on nonwoven performance Provides a broad overview of nonwoven applications in a variety of different areas from apparel to automotive interiors

Handbook of Medical Textiles

Handbook of Medical Textiles
Author: V Bartels
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2011-08-19
ISBN 10: 085709369X
ISBN 13: 9780857093691
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Medical Textiles Book Review:

With a rising population and the increasing range of textiles for medical products, the need to understand and improve medical textiles is gaining in importance. The Handbook of medical textiles provides an overview of the different types of medical textiles currently available as well as specific information on more specialised topics and applications. In part one, the types and properties of medical textiles are discussed, with chapters covering topics including reusable textiles, textiles for implants and textiles with cosmetic effects. Part two focuses on the interaction of textiles with the skin, examining key issues such as contact sensations, allergies and mechanical irritation. Chapters in part three provide information on the latest developments in textiles for hygiene and infection control, while part four provides a range of applications and case studies, including improvements in medical occupational clothing, medical filters and superabsorbent fibres. With its expert editor and contributions from some of the world’s leading authorities, the Handbook of medical textiles is a standard reference for designers and manufacturers of medical textile products, as well as for biomaterials scientists and medical professionals. Explores the different types of medical textiles currently available as well as specific information on more specialised areas and applications Chapters cover topics such as reusable textiles, textiles for implants and interaction of textiles with the skin Is a standard reference for designers and manufacturers of medical textile products, as well as for biomaterials scientists and medical professionals

Advances in Smart Medical Textiles

Advances in Smart Medical Textiles
Author: Lieva van Langenhove
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 298
Release: 2015-12-02
ISBN 10: 1782424008
ISBN 13: 9781782424000
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Smart Medical Textiles Book Review:

Advances in Smart Medical Textiles: Treatments and Health Monitoring provides comprehensive coverage on smart textiles, the emerging and important materials that are finding applications in the fields of medicine and healthcare. The book explores the range of smart textiles available for use in medicine and the transfer of these innovative technologies into medical applications. Early chapters survey various smart fibers, fabrics, and finishes, while subsequent sections focus on the role of smart textiles in treating patients, from wound care to rehabilitation, and the use of textile-based sensors and wearable electronics for monitoring patient health. Provides a comprehensive review of the materials used in smart medical textiles Analyzes the application of these textiles in medical treatments and sensors for health monitoring Covers the range of international research in the field and keeps focus on the needs of the textile industry

Active Coatings for Smart Textiles

Active Coatings for Smart Textiles
Author: Jinlian Hu
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 482
Release: 2016-04-06
ISBN 10: 0081002653
ISBN 13: 9780081002650
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Active Coatings for Smart Textiles Book Review:

Active Coatings for Smart Textiles presents the latest information on active materials and their application to textiles in the form of coatings and finishes for the purpose of improving performance and creating active functional effects. This important book provides detailed coverage of smart coating types, processes, and applications. After an introduction to the topic, Part One introduces various types of smart and active coatings, including memory polymer coatings, durable and self-cleaning coatings, and breathable coatings. Technologies and related processes for the application of coatings to textiles is the focus of Part Two, with chapters devoted to microencapsulation technology, plasma surface treatments, and nanotechnology-based treatments. The book ends with a section on applications of smart textiles with responsive coatings, which are increasingly finding commercial niches in sportswear, protective clothing, medical textiles, and architecture. Introduces various types of smart and active coatings for textiles Covers technologies and application processes for the coating and finishing of textiles Reviews commercial applications of such coatings, including in sportswear, protective clothing, medical textiles and architecture