Extending Financial Inclusion in Africa

Extending Financial Inclusion in Africa
Author: Daniel Makina
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 342
Release: 2019-06-09
ISBN 10: 0128142030
ISBN 13: 9780128142035
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Extending Financial Inclusion in Africa Book Review:

Extending Financial Inclusion in Africa unveils the genesis and transformation of Africa’s financial sector and its ability to provide finance for all. Contributors of the Book traverse the whole spectrum of African financial systems, examining their depth and breadth and empirically evaluating their appropriateness and effectiveness to achieve inclusive financial services. Explores the evolution of the financial sector in Africa from the pre-colonial to post-colonial era Investigates the financial inclusion–economic growth nexus Explores the role of financial regulation and governance in either enhancing or limiting financial inclusion Evaluates unintended consequences of financial inclusion, including over-indebtedness and increased propensity to spend Assesses cross-sectional evidence on the link between financial inclusion and technological developments such as the internet and mobile technology

Banking in Africa: Delivering on Financial Inclusion, Supporting Financial Stability

Banking in Africa: Delivering on Financial Inclusion, Supporting Financial Stability
Author: European Investment Bank
Publsiher: European Investment Bank
Total Pages: 236
Release: 2018-11-21
ISBN 10: 9286138482
ISBN 13: 9789286138485
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Banking in Africa: Delivering on Financial Inclusion, Supporting Financial Stability Book Review:

In its fourth edition, this report focuses on recent developments in Africa's banking sectors and the policy options for all stakeholders. The study of banking sectors across all African sub-regions includes the results of the EIB survey of banking groups operating in Africa. Three thematic chapters address challenges and opportunities for financing investment in Africa: Crowding out of private sector lending by public debt issuance The state of bank recovery and resolution laws in Africa Policy options on how to finance infrastructure development. The report finds that in many African banking markets, the last two years saw a pause in financial deepening. However, a rising share of banking groups report improving market conditions and plan a structural expansion of their operations in Africa and a continued push for new technologies.

Financial Inclusion for Poverty Alleviation

Financial Inclusion for Poverty Alleviation
Author: Essam Yassin Mohammed,Zenebe Bashaw Uraguchi
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 260
Release: 2017-12-12
ISBN 10: 1351595113
ISBN 13: 9781351595117
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Financial Inclusion for Poverty Alleviation Book Review:

More than one billion people still live below the poverty line – most of them in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Financial inclusion is a major issue, as more than three-quarters of the numbers of poor and disadvantaged women and men do not have access to financial products and services, such as bank accounts, affordable and suitable loans, and insurance. The key objective of this book is to provide practical case studies of financial inclusion, rather than focus on academic debates such as the ideological basis of promoting microfinance. Using the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals as an overall framing of the issues, it shows how poor and disadvantaged women and men can be bankable if the right facilitation for maximizing opportunities and addressing constraints are in place. Case studies confirm that achieving inclusive and sustainable access to financial products and services goes beyond simply enabling poor and disadvantaged women and men to have access to credit, or the ability to open a bank account. Examples from Africa, Asia and Latin America demonstrate encouraging progress in making microcredit accessible to millions of poor people. The foremost challenge, however, has been to ensure that they have access to, and usage intensity of, suitable and affordable financial products and services that meet the needs of their livelihoods as well as risks and mitigation strategies. This requires understanding that poor and disadvantaged women and men do not exist in isolation from complex and interdependent functions in the financial system, which includes a number of actors, diversified services, constraints (not just symptoms) and capacities and incentives. Overall, the book provides a rich source of examples of how building inclusive financial systems can empower the world's poor – by increasing income and employment opportunities, securing livelihoods and reducing poverty.

Banking the World

Banking the World
Author: Robert Cull,Robert J. Cull,Aslı Demirgüç-Kunt,Jonathan Morduch
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 511
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 026201842X
ISBN 13: 9780262018425
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Banking the World Book Review:

Experts report on the latest research on extending access to financial services to the 2.5 billion adults around the world who lack it. About 2.5 billion adults, just over half the world's adult population, lack bank accounts. If we are to realize the goal of extending banking and other financial services to this vast "unbanked" population, we need to consider not only such product innovations as microfinance and mobile banking but also issues of data accuracy, impact assessment, risk mitigation, technology adaptation, financial literacy, and local context. In Banking the World, experts take up these topics, reporting on new research that will guide both policy makers and scholars in a broader push to extend financial markets. The contributors consider such topics as the complexity of surveying people about their use of financial services; evidence of the impact of financial services on income; the occasional negative effects of financial services on poor households, including disincentives to work and overindebtedness; and tools for improving access such as nontraditional credit scores, financial incentives for banking, and identification technologies that can dramatically reduce loan default rates.

Banking in Africa: Delivering on Financial Inclusion, Supporting Financial Stability

Banking in Africa: Delivering on Financial Inclusion, Supporting Financial Stability
Author: European Investment Bank
Publsiher: European Investment Bank
Total Pages: 236
Release: 2018-11-21
ISBN 10: 9286138482
ISBN 13: 9789286138485
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Banking in Africa: Delivering on Financial Inclusion, Supporting Financial Stability Book Review:

In its fourth edition, this report focuses on recent developments in Africa's banking sectors and the policy options for all stakeholders. The study of banking sectors across all African sub-regions includes the results of the EIB survey of banking groups operating in Africa. Three thematic chapters address challenges and opportunities for financing investment in Africa: Crowding out of private sector lending by public debt issuance The state of bank recovery and resolution laws in Africa Policy options on how to finance infrastructure development. The report finds that in many African banking markets, the last two years saw a pause in financial deepening. However, a rising share of banking groups report improving market conditions and plan a structural expansion of their operations in Africa and a continued push for new technologies.

The Global Findex Database 2017

The Global Findex Database 2017
Author: Asli Demirguc-Kunt,Leora Klapper,Dorothe Singer,Saniya Ansar
Publsiher: World Bank Publications
Total Pages: 148
Release: 2018-04-19
ISBN 10: 1464812683
ISBN 13: 9781464812682
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Global Findex Database 2017 Book Review:

In 2011 the World Bank—with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation—launched the Global Findex database, the world's most comprehensive data set on how adults save, borrow, make payments, and manage risk. Drawing on survey data collected in collaboration with Gallup, Inc., the Global Findex database covers more than 140 economies around the world. The initial survey round was followed by a second one in 2014 and by a third in 2017. Compiled using nationally representative surveys of more than 150,000 adults age 15 and above in over 140 economies, The Global Findex Database 2017: Measuring Financial Inclusion and the Fintech Revolution includes updated indicators on access to and use of formal and informal financial services. It has additional data on the use of financial technology (or fintech), including the use of mobile phones and the Internet to conduct financial transactions. The data reveal opportunities to expand access to financial services among people who do not have an account—the unbanked—as well as to promote greater use of digital financial services among those who do have an account. The Global Findex database has become a mainstay of global efforts to promote financial inclusion. In addition to being widely cited by scholars and development practitioners, Global Findex data are used to track progress toward the World Bank goal of Universal Financial Access by 2020 and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The database, the full text of the report, and the underlying country-level data for all figures—along with the questionnaire, the survey methodology, and other relevant materials—are available at www.worldbank.org/globalfindex.

Financing Africa

Financing Africa
Author: Samuel Munzele Maimbo,Issa Faye,Thouraya Triki
Publsiher: World Bank Publications
Total Pages: 301
Release: 2011-09-07
ISBN 10: 0821387979
ISBN 13: 9780821387979
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Financing Africa Book Review:

Financing Africa takes stock of Africa's financial systems in light of recent changes in the global financial system --including the greater risk aversion of international investors, a shift in economic and financial powers towards emerging markets and the regulatory reform debate - and the increasing role of technology. Using a wider and more detailed array of data than previous publications, we observe a trend towards financial deepening, more stability and more inclusion leading up to the crisis; serious challenges, however, continue, including limited access to financial services, focus on short-term contracts and hidden fragility, related to weak regulatory frameworks, undue government interference and governance deficiencies. Our policy analysis therefore focuses on (i) expanding outreach, (ii) fostering long-term finance and (iii) improving regulation and supervision. We identify the positive role of innovation and competition, a stronger focus on non-traditional financial service providers, and more emphasis on demand-side constraints as priority areas for policy actions. Specifically, competition from new players outside the banking system, including telecomm companies can increase outreach with technological innovation that changes the economics of retail finance. Moving beyond national stock exchanges that are not sustainable in most African countries towards regional solutions and over-the-counter trades can help foster long-term finance, as can addressing governance challenges in contractual savings institutions, including life insurance companies and pension funds. Finally, there is a need to look beyond supply-side constraints towards users of financial services, focusing more on financial literacy of households and firms, but also consumer protection. In formulating policy messages, we carefully distinguish between different country groupings, differentiating -- among others -- between low- and middle-income and small and larger economies, with a special focus on resource-based economies and post-conflict countries. This book reaches out to both policy makers concerned about a more inclusive and effective financial system and other stakeholders, including practitioners and development partners. With this book we aim to contribute to the on-going financial sector debate on Africa, with the ultimate goal of faster economic development and poverty reduction.

Economics of South African Townships

Economics of South African Townships
Author: Sandeep Mahajan
Publsiher: World Bank Publications
Total Pages: 294
Release: 2014-08-25
ISBN 10: 1464803021
ISBN 13: 9781464803024
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Economics of South African Townships Book Review:

Countries everywhere are divided within into two distinct spatial realms: one urban, one rural. Classic models of development predict faster growth in the urban sector, causing rapid migration from rural areas to cities, lifting average incomes in both places. The situation in South Africa throws up an unconventional challenge. The country has symptoms of a spatial realm that is not not rural, not fully urban, lying somewhat in limbo. This is the realm of the country’s townships and informal settlements (T&IS). In many ways, the townships and especially the informal settlements are similar to developing world slums, although never was a slum formed with as much central planning and purpose as were some of the larger South African townships. And yet, there is something distinct about the T&IS. For one thing, unlike most urban slums, most T&IS are geographically distant from urban economic centers. Exacerbated by the near absence of an affordable public transport system, this makes job seeking and other forms of economic integration prohibitively expensive. Motivated by their uniqueness and their special place in South African economic and social life, this study seeks to develop a systematic understanding of the structure of the township economy. What emerges is a rich information base on the migration patterns to T&IS, changes in their demographic profiles, their labor market characteristics, and their access to public and financial services. The study then look closely at Diepsloot, a large township in the Johannesburg Metropolitan Area, to bring out more vividly the economic realities and choices of township residents. Given the current dichotomous urban structure, modernizing the township economy and enabling its convergence with the much richer urban centers has the potential to unleash significant productivity gains. Breaking out of the current low-level equilibrium however will require a comprehensive and holistic policy agenda, with significant complementarities among the major policy reforms. While the study tells a rich and coherent story about development patterns in South African townships and points to some broad policy directions, its research and analysis will generally need to be deepened before being translated into direct policy action.

Technologies for Modern Digital Entrepreneurship

Technologies for Modern Digital Entrepreneurship
Author: Abeba N. Turi
Publsiher: Apress
Total Pages: 210
Release: 2020-06-17
ISBN 10: 1484260058
ISBN 13: 9781484260050
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Technologies for Modern Digital Entrepreneurship Book Review:

Emerging technologies offer a plethora of unprecedented opportunities for entrepreneurs in the digital space. Understanding this evolution is essential for web-based business models to succeed. The Web 3.0 economy is here, and this book has arrived to serve as your guide. Technologies for Modern Digital Entrepreneurship is an in-depth look at the new developments of the digital economic system. Cryptocurrencies, Central Bank Digital Currencies, and Stable Coins are explained through timely case studies, as well as innovations in crowdfunding, educational marketplaces, and scalability in blockchain-based transactions. Author Dr. Abeba N. Turi expertly navigates the industry transition from platform-based centralized Web 2.0 economy to the distributed network economy. Turi additionally explores trust and reputation as currency in the digital economy and allays common fears in digital entrepreneurship such as mistrust by investors and intellectual property loss. Avoid falling behind your competitors in the Wild West that is modern digital entrepreneurship. Whether you are a business leader, a technology enthusiast, or a researcher in the field, Technologies for Modern Digital Entrepreneurship gives you the advantage of insightful knowledge using real data and meaningful examples. Amid global regulatory changes and the ever-shifting methods of digital entrepreneurship, our modern era demands this book. What You Will Learn Discover new trends in the digital economic system Comprehend the crowd-based digital business models Analyze the distributed information network economy Understand the workings of the currency system under the Web 3.0 economy, including Cryptocurrencies, Central Bank Digital Currencies, and Stable Coins Who This Book Is ForTechnology enthusiasts, tech and interdisciplinary students, digital business leaders, and researchers in the field

Developing Africa’s Financial Services

Developing Africa’s Financial Services
Author: Dana T. Redford
Publsiher: Emerald Group Publishing
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2017-05-11
ISBN 10: 1787146367
ISBN 13: 9781787146365
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developing Africa’s Financial Services Book Review:

Financial services are an essential element in powering entrepreneurial activity beyond resource extraction in Africa. This book examines the macro-trends and highlights inspiring success stories of entrepreneurial financial sector ventures that are making a lasting contribution to the economic development of various sub-Saharan African countries.

The Microfinance Revolution: Sustainable finance for the poor

The Microfinance Revolution: Sustainable finance for the poor
Author: Marguerite S. Robinson,World Bank Staff
Publsiher: World Bank Publications
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2001
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015053784172
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Microfinance Revolution: Sustainable finance for the poor Book Review:

Microfinance is the method whereby financial services and credit is made available to the economically active but low income people of developiong countries. This book focusses on three key aspects of the phenomenon: 1) the shift from government- and donor-subsidized credit delivery systems to self-sufficient, sustainable microfinance institutions; 2) the results on the ground, on the way in which microfinance is helps people expand and diversify their enterprises, increase their incomes, raise their living standards and those of theri families, and boost their self-confidence; 3) the theroretical frameworks that had previously impeded the microfinance revolution, with suggestions for their improvement.

Banking in Africa: financing transformation amid uncertainty

Banking in Africa: financing transformation amid uncertainty
Author: European Investment Bank
Publsiher: European Investment Bank
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2020-02-26
ISBN 10: 9286144938
ISBN 13: 9789286144936
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Banking in Africa: financing transformation amid uncertainty Book Review:

In its fifth edition, this report focuses on recent developments in Africa's banking sectors and the policy options for all stakeholders. The study of banking sectors across all African sub-regions includes the results of the EIB survey of banking groups operating in Africa. Three thematic chapters address challenges and opportunities for financing investment in Africa: Investing sustainably in Africa's cities; Mobilising agricultural value chain financing in Africa: why and how; Remittances and financial sector development in Africa.

Achieving Financial Stability and Growth in Africa

Achieving Financial Stability and Growth in Africa
Author: Stephany Griffith-Jones,Ricardo Gottschalk
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 186
Release: 2016-03-24
ISBN 10: 1317301692
ISBN 13: 9781317301691
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Achieving Financial Stability and Growth in Africa Book Review:

This book explores how the financial system should be regulated and structured to achieve the twin goals of inclusive growth and financial stability, with a focus on African low-income countries (LICs). The subject and content of this book is original in that it attempts to draw on the lessons and radical rethinking on the financial sector in developed and middle income countries, arising in the wake of the international financial crisis. It includes four in- depth country case studies, of Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria and Ethiopia, but also analyses the empirical evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole, evaluating the relevance (or not) of such major changes for the very different financial sectors and economies in low income countries. Achieving Financial Stability and Growth in Africa has major academic and policy implications, especially for low income countries, but also more generally, on broader issues. These include the desirable size of the financial sector, as well as more specific issues, such as the high cost of borrowing of small and medium enterprises in LICs, and possible measures to reduce it. Highly topical subjects like the appropriate regulation of the financial sector and management of capital flows are discussed in depth. Though drawing on comprehensive reviews of the literature, this volume has the virtue of the large comparative academic and policy experience of researchers, as well as in-depth case studies, that take account of institutional and economic features of low- income countries. Written by senior academics and policy-makers, this book is a must read for those researching or participating in the financial sectors of low-income countries, as well as in developed economies. It is also suitable for those who study political economy and public finance.

ICT, Financial Inclusion, and Growth Evidence from African Countries

ICT, Financial Inclusion, and Growth Evidence from African Countries
Author: Kangni Kpodar,Mihasonirina Andrianaivo
Publsiher: International Monetary Fund
Total Pages: 45
Release: 2011-04-01
ISBN 10: 1455225010
ISBN 13: 9781455225019
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

ICT, Financial Inclusion, and Growth Evidence from African Countries Book Review:

This paper studies the impact of information and communication technologies (ICT), especially mobile phone rollout, on economic growth in a sample of African countries from 1988 to 2007. Further, we investigate whether financial inclusion is one of the channels through which mobile phone development influences economic growth. In estimating the impact of ICT on economic growth, we use a wide range of ICT indicators, including mobile and fixed telephone penetration rates and the cost of local calls. We address any endogeneity issues by using the System Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) estimator. Financial inclusion is captured by variables measuring access to financial services, such as the number of deposits or loans per head, compiled by Beck, Demirguc-Kunt, and Martinez Peria (2007) and the Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP, 2009). The results confirm that ICT, including mobile phone development, contribute significantly to economic growth in African countries. Part of the positive effect of mobile phone penetration on growth comes from greater financial inclusion. At the same time, the development of mobile phones consolidates the impact of financial inclusion on economic growth, especially in countries where mobile financial services take hold.

The Oxford Handbook of Banking

The Oxford Handbook of Banking
Author: Allen N. Berger,Philip Molyneux,John O. S. Wilson
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 1328
Release: 2019-10-31
ISBN 10: 0192558080
ISBN 13: 9780192558084
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Handbook of Banking Book Review:

The Oxford Handbook of Banking, Third Edition provides an overview and analysis of developments and research in this rapidly evolving field. Aimed at graduate students of economics, banking, and finance; academics; practitioners; regulators; and policy makers, it strikes a balance between abstract theory, empirical analysis, and practitioner and policy-related material. Split into five distinct parts The Oxford Handbook of Banking is a one-stop source of relevant research in banking. It examines the theory of banking, bank operations and performance, regulatory and policy perspectives, macroeconomic perspectives in banking, and international differences in banking structures and environments. Taking a global perspective it examines banking systems in the United States, China, Japan, Australia and New Zealand, Africa, the European Union, transition countries of Europe, and Latin America. Thematic issues covered include financial innovation and technological change; consumer and mortgage lending; Islamic banking; and how banks influence real economic activity. Fully revised and now including brand new chapters on a range of geographical regions, bank bailouts and bail-ins, and behavioral economics amongst many other topics, this third edition of The Oxford Handbook of Banking provides readers with insights to seminal and contemporary research in banking and an opportunity to learn about the diversity of financial systems around the world.

Making Finance Work for Africa

Making Finance Work for Africa
Author: Patrick Honohan,Thorsten Beck
Publsiher: World Bank Publications
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2007
ISBN 10: 0821369105
ISBN 13: 9780821369104
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Making Finance Work for Africa Book Review:

Drawing on its extensive experience in helping restructure and reform financial systems, the World Bank examines the state of African domestic financial systems in a global comparison. It identifies promising trends as well as pinpointing the major shortcomings that are observed across sub-Saharan Africa. Policy recommendations distinguish between those designed to make finance a more effective driver of economic growth and those designed to give low income, small-scale and other excluded groups better access to financial services.

Financial Inclusion

Financial Inclusion
Author: Ratna Sahay,Martin Čihák,Papa M'Bagnick Paté N'Diaye,Adolfo Barajas,Srobona Mitra,Annette Kyobe,Yen Nian Mooi,Seyed Reza Yousefi
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 33
Release: 2015
ISBN 10: 9781513585154
ISBN 13: 1513585150
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Financial Inclusion Book Review:

Using several recently available global datasets, this Staff Discussion Note examines macroeconomic effects of financial inclusion. It finds significant benefits to economic growth from financial inclusion, but the benefits diminish as financial inclusion and depth become large. Broadening access to credit can compromise economic and bank stability in countries with weak bank supervision. Other forms of financial inclusion---such as access to and use of bank accounts, branches, and ATMs---do not hurt stability, and can be promoted extensively. The note finds that gaps in financial inclusion are associated with economic inequality, but the association appears relatively weak.

Global Financial Development Report 2014

Global Financial Development Report 2014
Author: World Bank Group
Publsiher: World Bank Publications
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2013-11-07
ISBN 10: 082139990X
ISBN 13: 9780821399903
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Global Financial Development Report 2014 Book Review:

The second issue in a new series, Global Financial Development Report 2014 takes a step back and re-examines financial inclusion from the perspective of new global datasets and new evidence. It builds on a critical mass of new research and operational work produced by World Bank Group staff as well as outside researchers and contributors.

Managing Natural Resources for Development in Africa

Managing Natural Resources for Development in Africa
Author: Washington Odongo Ochola,P. C. Sanginga,Isaac Bekalo
Publsiher: IDRC
Total Pages: 538
Release: 2010
ISBN 10: 9966792090
ISBN 13: 9789966792099
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Managing Natural Resources for Development in Africa Book Review:

The complex and dynamic interlinks between natural resource management (NRM) and development have long been recognized by national and international research and development organizations and have generated voluminous literature. However, much of what is available in the form of university course books, practical learning manuals and reference materials in NRM is based on experiences from outside Africa. Managing Natural Resources for Development in Africa: A Resource Book provides an understanding of the various levels at which NRM issues occur and are being addressed scientifically, economically, socially and politically. The book's nine chapters present state-of-the-art perspectives within a holistic African context. The book systematically navigates the tricky landscape of integrated NRM, with special reference to Eastern and Southern Africa, against the backdrop of prevailing local, national, regional and global social, economic and environmental challenges. The authors' wide experience, the rich references made to emerging challenges and opportunities, and the presentation of different tools, principles, approaches, case studies and processes make the book a rich and valuable one-stop resource for postgraduate students, researchers, policymakers and NRM practitioners. The book is designed to help the reader grasp in-depth NRM perspectives and presents innovative guidance for research design and problem solving, including review questions, learning activities and recommended further reading. The book was developed through a writeshop process by a multi-disciplinary team of lecturers from the University of Nairobi, Egerton University, Kenyatta University, the University of Zimbabwe, the University of Malawi, Makerere University and the University of Dar es Salam. In addition, selected NRM experts from regional and international research organizations including the World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF), the Africa Forest Forum, RUFORUM, IIRR and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) participated in the writeshop and contributed material to the book.

Finance for All?

Finance for All?
Author: World Bank
Publsiher: World Bank Publications
Total Pages: 264
Release: 2007-11-09
ISBN 10: 9780821372920
ISBN 13: 0821372920
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Finance for All? Book Review:

Access to financial services varies sharply around the world. In many developing countries less than half the population has an account with a financial institution, and in most of Africa less than one in five households do. Lack of access to finance is often the critical mechanism for generating persistent income inequality, as well as slower growth. 'Finance for All?: Policies and Pitfalls in Expanding Access' documents the extent of financial exclusion around the world; addresses the importance of access to financial services for growth, equity and poverty reduction; and discusses policy interventions and institutional reforms that can improve access for underserved groups. The report is a broad ranging review of the work already completed or in progress, drawing on research utilizing data at the country, firm and household level. Given that financial systems in many developing countries serve only a small part of the population, expanding access remains an important challenge across the world, leaving much for governments to do. However, not all government actions are equally effective and some policies can be counterproductive. The report sets out principles for effective government policy on broadening access, drawing on the available evidence and illustrating with examples.