Energy Storage Devices for Renewable Energy Based Systems

Energy Storage Devices for Renewable Energy Based Systems
Author: Nihal Kularatna,Kosala Gunawardane
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2021-06-15
ISBN 10: 9780128207789
ISBN 13: 0128207787
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Storage Devices for Renewable Energy Based Systems Book Review:

Energy Storage Devices for Renewable Energy-Based Systems: Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors, Second Edition is a fully revised edition of this comprehensive overview of the concepts, principles and practical knowledge on energy storage devices. This book provides the opportunity to expand your knowledge of innovative supercapacitor applications, comparing them to other commonly used energy storage devices. With new application case studies and definitions, it will strengthen your understanding of energy storage from a practical, applications-based point-of-view, without requiring detailed examination of underlying electrochemical equations. Exploring new working principles of rechargeable battery and capacitors this reference illustrates various design approaches and real time applications of ESDs. Electronic engineering experts and system designers will find this book useful to deepen their understanding on the application of electronic storage devices, circuit topologies, and industrial device data sheets to develop new applications. The book is also intended to be used as a textbook for masters and doctoral students who want to enhance their knowledge and understanding the concepts of renewable energy sources and state-of-the-art ESDs. Provides explanations of the latest energy storage devices in a practical applications-based context Includes examples of circuit designs that optimize the use of supercapacitors Covers unique compare and contrast application examination, highlighting the unique benefits

Special Topics in Renewable Energy Systems

Special Topics in Renewable Energy Systems
Author: Ebubekir Yüksel,Abdülkerim Gok,Murat Eyvaz
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 98
Release: 2018-10-03
ISBN 10: 1789239796
ISBN 13: 9781789239799
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Special Topics in Renewable Energy Systems Book Review:

Renewable energy is the answer for future energy demand. Renewable energy is the energy that occurs in a natural manner and utilizes unlimited resources. It is the solution for reducing the dependence on fossil fuels and diminishing greenhouse gas emission. It is the key for cleaner, greener, and sustainable energy. In today's world, increased energy needs and environmental and health concerns associated with traditional energy systems have made way for rapid progress in producing energy from renewable resources. However, large-scale integration of current technologies and newer approaches are still required for more efficient and cost-effective systems. This small book is a collection of single research chapters dealing with biofuel generation and some recent methods for grid integration and storage problems. The editors would like to record their sincere thanks to the authors for their contributions.

Energy Storage Devices for Electronic Systems

Energy Storage Devices for Electronic Systems
Author: Nihal Kularatna
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2014-11-27
ISBN 10: 0124081193
ISBN 13: 9780124081192
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Storage Devices for Electronic Systems Book Review:

Energy storage devices are a crucial area of research and development across many engineering disciplines and industries. While batteries provide the significant advantage of high energy density, their limited life cycles, disposal challenges and charge and discharge management constraints undercut their effectiveness in certain applications. Compared to electrochemical cells, supercapacitors are charge-storage devices with much longer life cycles, yet they have traditionally been hobbled by limited DC voltage capabilities and energy density. However, recent advances are improving these issues. This book provides the opportunity to expand your knowledge of innovative supercapacitor applications, comparing them to other commonly used energy storage devices. It will strengthen your understanding of energy storage from a practical, applications-based point-of-view, without requiring detailed examination of underlying electrochemical equations. No matter what your field, you will find inspiration and guidance in the cutting-edge advances in energy storage devices in this book. Provides explanations of the latest energy storage devices in a practical applications-based context Includes examples of circuit designs that optimize the use of supercapacitors, and pathways to improve existing designs by effectively managing energy storage devices crucial to both low and high power applications. Covers batteries, BMS (battery management systems) and cutting-edge advances in supercapacitors, providing a unique compare and contrast examination demonstrating applications where each technology can offer unique benefits

Energy Storage Devices for Renewable Energy Based Systems

Energy Storage Devices for Renewable Energy Based Systems
Author: Nihal Kularatna,Kosala Gunawardane
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 438
Release: 2021-05-13
ISBN 10: 0128231858
ISBN 13: 9780128231852
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Storage Devices for Renewable Energy Based Systems Book Review:

Energy Storage Devices for Renewable Energy-Based Systems: Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors, Second Edition is a fully revised edition of this comprehensive overview of the concepts, principles and practical knowledge on energy storage devices. The book gives readers the opportunity to expand their knowledge of innovative supercapacitor applications, comparing them to other commonly used energy storage devices. With new application case studies and definitions, this resource will strengthen your understanding of energy storage from a practical, applications-based point-of-view without requiring detailed examination of underlying electrochemical equations. Users will learn about various design approaches and real-time applications of ESDs. Electronic engineering experts and system designers will find this book useful to deepen their understanding on the application of electronic storage devices, circuit topologies, and industrial device data sheets to develop new applications. The book is also intended to be used as a textbook for masters and doctoral students who want to enhance their knowledge and understanding the concepts of renewable energy sources and state-of-the-art ESDs. Provides explanations of the latest energy storage devices in a practical applications-based context Includes examples of circuit designs that optimize the use of supercapacitors Highlights the unique benefits of these devices

Power System Energy Storage Technologies

Power System Energy Storage Technologies
Author: Paul Breeze
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 100
Release: 2018-05-16
ISBN 10: 0128129034
ISBN 13: 9780128129036
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Power System Energy Storage Technologies Book Review:

Power System Energy Storage Technologies provides a comprehensive analysis of the various technologies used to store electrical energy on both a small and large scale. Although expensive to implement, energy storage plants can offer significant benefits for the generation, distribution and use of electrical power. This is particularly important in renewable energy, which is intermittent in its supply. This book provides coverage of major technologies, such as sections on Pumped Storage Hydropower, Compressed-Air Energy Storage, Large Scale Batteries and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, each of which is presented with discussions of their operation, performance, efficiency and the costs associated with implementation and management. Provides a description and analysis of various storage technologies, such as Pumped Storage Hydropower, Compressed-Air Energy Storage, Large Scale Batteries and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Breaks down each storage type and analyzes their operation, performance, efficiency and costs Considers how each energy storage plant benefits the generation distribution and use of electric power

Solar Power and Energy Storage Systems

Solar Power and Energy Storage Systems
Author: Hee-Je Kim
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 186
Release: 2019-03-04
ISBN 10: 0429858744
ISBN 13: 9780429858741
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Solar Power and Energy Storage Systems Book Review:

Extensive study of solar energy is increasing as fast as the threat of global warming is getting serious. Solar energy is considered the best source of renewable energy because it is clean and unlimited. Solar radiation can be harnessed and converted into different forms of energy that does not pollute the environment. In order to transform solar radiation, we need collectors of sunlight, such as solar cells. The main challenges are energy security, the increasing prices of carbon-based energy sources, and global warming. We cannot use sunlight during the night, so an energy storage system (ESS) is necessary. The best ESS is one with high power and high energy density. This book introduces the basic concepts of an ESS. Written by Prof. Hee-Je Kim, who leads an interdisciplinary team at the Pusan National University, this book compiles and details the cutting-edge research that is revolutionizing solar energy by improving its efficiency and storage techniques through the development of engineered sunlight. It discusses the fabrication and commercialization of next-generation solar cells such as dye-synthesized, quantum-dot, and perovskite solar cells, besides describing the high-energy and power-density-flexible supercapacitor for a hybrid ESS, as well as the dual active bridge (DAB), DC/DC converter, MPPT, PV inverter, and remote control by a smartphone with a novel algorithm for a power-conditioning system.

Solar Energy Storage

Solar Energy Storage
Author: Bent Sørensen
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 394
Release: 2015-06-03
ISBN 10: 0124095496
ISBN 13: 9780124095496
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Solar Energy Storage Book Review:

While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power’s inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides that energy storage will be pivotally important in the drive to boost the integration of variable renewable sources into power infrastructures across the globe. Thoughtfully implemented storage technologies can reduce peak demand, improve day-to-day reliability, provide emergency power in case of interrupted generation, reduce consumer and utility costs by easing load balance challenges, decrease emissions, and increase the amount of distributed and renewable energy that makes it into the grid. While energy storage has long been an area of concern for scientists and engineers, there has been no comprehensive single text covering the storage methods available to solar power producers, which leaves a lamentable gap in the literature core to this important field. Solar Energy Storage aims to become the authoritative work on the topic, incorporating contributions from an internationally recognized group of top authors from both industry and academia, focused on providing information from underlying scientific fundamentals to practical applications, and emphasizing the latest technological developments driving this discipline forward. Expert contributing authors explain current and emergent storage technologies for solar, thermal, and photovoltaic applications. Sheds light on the economic status of solar storage facilities, including case studies of the particular challenges that solar energy systems present to remote locations. Includes information on: chemical storage mechanisms, mechanical storage tactics, pumped hydro, thermal storage, and storage strategies for systems of all sizes—from centralized utilities to distributed generation.

Electrochemical Energy Storage for Renewable Sources and Grid Balancing

Electrochemical Energy Storage for Renewable Sources and Grid Balancing
Author: Patrick T. Moseley,Jürgen Garche
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 492
Release: 2014-10-27
ISBN 10: 0444626107
ISBN 13: 9780444626103
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electrochemical Energy Storage for Renewable Sources and Grid Balancing Book Review:

Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in ‘real time’. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen is the only solution for long-term storage systems to provide energy during extended periods of low wind speeds or solar insolation. Future electricity grid design has to include storage systems as a major component for grid stability and for security of supply. The technology of systems designed to achieve this regulation of the supply of renewable energy, and a survey of the markets that they will serve, is the subject of this book. It includes economic aspects to guide the development of technology in the right direction. Provides state-of-the-art information on all of the storage systems together with an assessment of competing technologies Features detailed technical, economic and environmental impact information of different storage systems Contains information about the challenges that must be faced for batteries and hydrogen-storage to be used in conjunction with a fluctuating (renewable energy) power supply

Electric Renewable Energy Systems

Electric Renewable Energy Systems
Author: Muhammad H. Rashid
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 450
Release: 2015-11-25
ISBN 10: 0128006366
ISBN 13: 9780128006368
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electric Renewable Energy Systems Book Review:

This derivative volume stemming from content included in our seminal Power Electronics Handbook takes its chapters related to renewables and establishes them at the core of a new volume dedicated to the increasingly pivotal and as yet under-published intersection of Power Electronics and Alternative Energy. While this re-versioning provides a corollary revenue stream to better leverage our core handbook asset, it does more than simply re-package existing content. Each chapter will be significantly updated and expanded by more than 50%, and all new introductory and summary chapters will be added to contextualize and tie the volume together. Therefore, unlike traditional derivative volumes, we will be able to offer new and updated material to the market and include this largely original content in our ScienceDirect Energy collection. Due to the inherently multi-disciplinary nature of renewables, many engineers come from backgrounds in Physics, Materials, or Chemical Engineering, and therefore do not have experience working in-depth with electronics. As more and more alternative and distributed energy systems require grid hook-ups and on-site storage, a working knowledge of batteries, inverters and other power electronics components becomes requisite. Further, as renewables enjoy broadening commercial implementation, power electronics professionals are interested to learn of the challenges and strategies particular to applications in alternative energy. This book will bring each group up-to-speed with the primary issues of importance at this technological node. This content clarifies the juncture of two key coverage areas for our Energy portfolio: alternative sources and power systems. It serves to bridge the information in our power engineering and renewable energy lists, supporting the growing grid cluster in the former and adding key information on practical implementation to the latter. Provides a thorough overview of the key technologies, methods and challenges for implementing power electronics in alternative energy systems for optimal power generation Includes hard-to-find information on how to apply converters, inverters, batteries, controllers and more for stand-alone and grid-connected systems Covers wind and solar applications, as well as ocean and geothermal energy, hybrid systems and fuel cells

Renewable Energy Systems

Renewable Energy Systems
Author: Ahmad Taher Azar,Nashwa Ahmad Kamal
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 732
Release: 2021-09-09
ISBN 10: 0128203986
ISBN 13: 9780128203989
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Renewable Energy Systems Book Review:

Renewable Energy Systems: Modelling, Optimization and Control aims to cross-pollinate recent advances in the study of renewable energy control systems by bringing together diverse scientific breakthroughs on the modeling, control and optimization of renewable energy systems by leading researchers. The book brings together the most comprehensive collection of modeling, control theorems and optimization techniques to help solve many scientific issues for researchers in renewable energy and control engineering. Many multidisciplinary applications are discussed, including new fundamentals, modeling, analysis, design, realization and experimental results. The book also covers new circuits and systems to help researchers solve many nonlinear problems. This book fills the gaps between different interdisciplinary applications, ranging from mathematical concepts, modeling, and analysis, up to the realization and experimental work. Covers modeling, control theorems and optimization techniques which will solve many scientific issues for researchers in renewable energy Discusses many multidisciplinary applications with new fundamentals, modeling, analysis, design, realization and experimental results Includes new circuits and systems, helping researchers solve many nonlinear problems

Energy Storage

Energy Storage
Author: Alfred Rufer
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 274
Release: 2017-10-31
ISBN 10: 1351621920
ISBN 13: 9781351621922
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Storage Book Review:

This book will provide the technical community with an overview of the development of new solutions and products that address key topics, including electric/hybrid vehicles, ultrafast battery charging, smart grids, renewable energy (e.g., solar and wind), peak shaving, and reduction of energy consumption. The needs for storage discussed are within the context of changes between the centralized power generation of today and the distributed utility of tomorrow, including the integration of renewable energy sources. Throughout the book, methods for quantitative and qualitative comparison of energy storage means are presented through their energy capacity as well as through their power capability for different applications. The definitions and symbols for energy density and power density are given and relate to the volume and weight of a given system or component. A relatively underdeveloped concept that is crucial to this text is known as the theory of Ragone plots. This theory makes possible the evaluation of the real amount of energy that can possibly release out of a given system, with respect to the level of power dependency chosen for the discharge process. From systems using electrochemical transformations, to classical battery energy storage elements and so-called flow batteries, to fuel cells and hydrogen storage, this book further investigates storage systems based on physical principles (e.g., gravitational potential forces, air compression, and rotational kinetic energy). This text also examines purely electrical systems such as superconductive magnets and capacitors. Another subject of analysis is the presentation of power electronic circuits and architectures that are needed for continuously controllable power flow to and from different storage means. For all systems described, the elementary principles of operation are given as well as the relationships for the quantified storage of energy. Finally, Energy Storage: Systems and Components contains multiple international case studies and a rich set of exercises that serve both students and practicing engineers.

Energy Management of Distributed Generation Systems

Energy Management of Distributed Generation Systems
Author: Lucian Mihet-Popa
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 262
Release: 2016-07-13
ISBN 10: 9535124730
ISBN 13: 9789535124733
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Management of Distributed Generation Systems Book Review:

The book contains 10 chapters, and it is divided into four sections. The first section includes three chapters, providing an overview of Energy Management of Distributed Systems. It outlines typical concepts, such as Demand-Side Management, Demand Response, Distributed, and Hierarchical Control for Smart Micro-Grids. The second section contains three chapters and presents different control algorithms, software architectures, and simulation tools dedicated to Energy Management Systems. In the third section, the importance and the role of energy storage technology in a Distribution System, describing and comparing different types of energy storage systems, is shown. The fourth section shows how to identify and address potential threats for a Home Energy Management System. Finally, the fifth section discusses about Economical Optimization of Operational Cost for Micro-Grids, pointing out the effect of renewable energy sources, active loads, and energy storage systems on economic operation.

Engineering Energy Storage

Engineering Energy Storage
Author: Odne Stokke Burheim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 252
Release: 2017-07-26
ISBN 10: 0128141018
ISBN 13: 9780128141014
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Engineering Energy Storage Book Review:

Engineering Energy Storage explains the engineering concepts of different relevant energy technologies in a coherent manner, assessing underlying numerical material to evaluate energy, power, volume, weight and cost of new and existing energy storage systems. With numerical examples and problems with solutions, this fundamental reference on engineering principles gives guidance on energy storage devices, setting up energy system plans for smart grids. Designed for those in traditional fields of science and professional engineers in applied industries with projects related to energy and engineering, this book is an ideal resource on the topic. Contains chapter based numerical examples, with applied industry problems and solutions Assesses underlying numerical material for evaluating energy, power, volume, weight and cost of new and existing energy storage systems Offers a cross-disciplinary look across electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering aspects of energy storage

Grid Scale Energy Storage Systems and Applications

Grid Scale Energy Storage Systems and Applications
Author: Fu-Bao Wu,Bo Yang,Ji-Lei Ye
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 322
Release: 2019-06-11
ISBN 10: 0128152931
ISBN 13: 9780128152935
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Grid Scale Energy Storage Systems and Applications Book Review:

Grid-Scale Energy Storage Systems and Applications provides a timely introduction to state-of-the-art technologies and important demonstration projects in this rapidly developing field. Written with a view to real-world applications, the authors describe storage technologies and then cover operation and control, system integration and battery management, and other topics important in the design of these storage systems. The rapidly-developing area of electrochemical energy storage technology and its implementation in the power grid is covered in particular detail. Examples of Chinese pilot projects in new energy grids and micro grips are also included. Drawing on significant Chinese results in this area, but also including data from abroad, this will be a valuable reference on the development of grid-scale energy storage for engineers and scientists in power and energy transmission and researchers in academia. Addresses not only the available energy storage technologies, but also topics significant for storage system designers, such as technology management, operation and control, system integration and economic assessment Draws on the wealth of Chinese research into energy storage and describes important Chinese energy storage demonstration projects Provides practical examples of the application of energy storage technologies that can be used by engineers as references when designing new systems

Energy Storage for Power Systems

Energy Storage for Power Systems
Author: A.G. Ter-Gazarian
Publsiher: IET
Total Pages: 232
Release: 1994-06-30
ISBN 10: 9780863412646
ISBN 13: 0863412645
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Storage for Power Systems Book Review:

Based on the study of energy storage this book comprehensively covers the various types of secondary storage systems (storing energy until it is needed), and discusses the multidisciplinary problem of choice of their types and parameters.

Latent Heat Based Thermal Energy Storage Systems

Latent Heat Based Thermal Energy Storage Systems
Author: Amritanshu Shukla,Atul Sharma,Pascal Henry Biwolé
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 354
Release: 2020-09-27
ISBN 10: 1000586936
ISBN 13: 9781000586930
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Latent Heat Based Thermal Energy Storage Systems Book Review:

In light of increasing human-induced global climate change, there is a greater need for clean energy resources and zero carbon projects. This new volume offers up-to-date coverage of the fundamentals as well as recent advancements in energy efficient thermal energy storage materials, their characterization, and technological applications. Thermal energy storage (TES) systems offer very high-energy savings for many of our day-to-day applications and could be a strong component for enhancing the usage of renewable/clean energy-based devices. Because of its beneficial environmental impact, this technology has received wide attention in the recent past, and dedicated research efforts have led to the development of novel materials, as well to innovative applications in very many fields, ranging from buildings to textile, healthcare to agriculture, space to automobiles. This book offers a valuable and informed systematic treatment of latent heat-based thermal energy storage systems, covering current energy research and important developmental work.

Renewable Energy System Design

Renewable Energy System Design
Author: Ziyad Salameh
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 404
Release: 2014-05-12
ISBN 10: 0080961673
ISBN 13: 9780080961675
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Renewable Energy System Design Book Review:

The limitation of fossil fuels has challenged scientists and engineers to search for alternative energy resources that can meet future energy demand. Renewable Energy System Design is a valuable reference focusing on engineering, design, and operating principles that engineers can follow in order to successfully design more robust and efficient renewable energy systems. Written by Dr. Ziyad Salameh, an expert with over thirty years of teaching, research, and design experience, Renewable Energy System Design provides readers with the "nuts and bolts" of photovoltaic, wind energy, and hybrid wind/PV systems. It explores renewable energy storage devices with an emphasis on batteries and fuel cells and emerging sustainable technologies like biomass, geothermal power, ocean thermal energy conversion, solar thermal, and satellite power. Renewable Energy System Design is a must-have resource that provides engineers and students with a comprehensive yet practical guide to the characteristics, principles of operation, and power potential of the most prevalent renewable energy systems. Explains and demonstrates design and operating principles for solar, wind, hybrid and emerging systems with diagrams and examples Utilizes case studies to help engineers anticipate and overcome common design challenges Explores renewable energy storage methods particularly batteries and fuel cells and emerging renewable technologies

Advancements in Energy Storage Technologies

Advancements in Energy Storage Technologies
Author: Xiangping Chen,Wenping Cao
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 202
Release: 2018-05-02
ISBN 10: 1789230543
ISBN 13: 9781789230543
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advancements in Energy Storage Technologies Book Review:

Energy storage technologies play an important role in terms of high-efficient energy utilisation and stable energy flow in the system. This book provides a glimpse of some latest advancements in energy storage technologies, management and control, innovative energy conversion, energy efficiency and system integration. It is aimed at providing a guideline for developing similar storage systems and for the readers who are interested in energy storage-related technologies, wind energy, solar energy, smart grid and smart buildings.

Energy Storage Devices

Energy Storage Devices
Author: M. Taha Demirkan,Adel Attia
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 182
Release: 2019-12-18
ISBN 10: 1789856930
ISBN 13: 9781789856934
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Storage Devices Book Review:

Energy storage will be a very important part of the near future, and its effectiveness will be crucial for most future technologies. Energy can be stored in several different ways and these differ in terms of the type and the conversion method of the energy. Among those methods; chemical, mechanical, and thermal energy storage are some of the most favorable methods for containing energy. Current energy storage devices are still far from meeting the demands of new technological developments. Therefore, much effort has been put to improving the performance of different types of energy storage technologies in the last few decades.

Transition to Renewable Energy Systems

Transition to Renewable Energy Systems
Author: Detlef Stolten,Viktor Scherer
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 1008
Release: 2013-05-13
ISBN 10: 352767389X
ISBN 13: 9783527673896
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transition to Renewable Energy Systems Book Review:

In this ready reference, top academic researchers, industry players and government officers join forces to develop commercial concepts for the transition from current nuclear or fossil fuel-based energy to renewable energy systems within a limited time span. They take into account the latest science and technology, including an analysis of the feasibility and impact on the environment, economy and society. In so doing, they discuss such complex topics as electrical and gas grids, fossil power plants and energy storage technologies. The contributions also include robust, conceivable and breakthrough technologies that will be viable and implementable by 2020.