Emerging Carbon Materials for Catalysis

Emerging Carbon Materials for Catalysis
Author: Samahe Sadjadi
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 446
Release: 2020-10-15
ISBN 10: 0128175613
ISBN 13: 9780128175613
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emerging Carbon Materials for Catalysis Book Review:

Emerging Carbon Materials for Catalysis covers various carbon-based materials with a focus on their utility for catalysis. Each chapter examines the photo and electrocatalytic applications of a material, including hybrid systems composed of carbon materials. The range of chemical reactions that can be catalyzed with each material-as well as the potential drawbacks of each-are discussed. Covering nanostructured systems, as well as other microstructured materials, the book reviews emerging carbon-based structures, including carbon organic frameworks. Written by a global team of experts, this volume is ideal for graduate students and researchers working in organic chemistry, catalysis, nanochemistry, and nanomaterials. Introduces novel and emerging carbon materials with utility for photocatalysis and electrocatalysis Covers a wide range of photochemical and electrochemical processes that can be catalyzed by carbon-based catalysts Addresses the hybrid systems composed of carbon materials for catalysis Serves as an ideal reference for graduate students and researchers working in organic chemistry, catalysis, nanochemistry, and nanomaterials.

Emerging Carbon Materials for Catalysis

Emerging Carbon Materials for Catalysis
Author: Samahe Sadjadi
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 446
Release: 2020-09-24
ISBN 10: 0128176040
ISBN 13: 9780128176047
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emerging Carbon Materials for Catalysis Book Review:

Emerging Carbon Materials for Catalysis covers various carbon-based materials with a focus on their utility for catalysis. Each chapter examines the photo and electrocatalytic applications of a material, including hybrid systems composed of carbon materials. The range of chemical reactions that can be catalyzed with each material—as well as the potential drawbacks of each—are discussed. Covering nanostructured systems, as well as other microstructured materials, the book reviews emerging carbon-based structures, including carbon organic frameworks. Written by a global team of experts, this volume is ideal for graduate students and researchers working in organic chemistry, catalysis, nanochemistry, and nanomaterials. Introduces novel and emerging carbon materials with utility for photocatalysis and electrocatalysis Covers a wide range of photochemical and electrochemical processes that can be catalyzed by carbon-based catalysts Addresses the hybrid systems composed of carbon materials for catalysis Serves as an ideal reference for graduate students and researchers working in organic chemistry, catalysis, nanochemistry, and nanomaterials.

Carbon Materials for Catalysis

Carbon Materials for Catalysis
Author: Philippe Serp,José Luis Figueiredo
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2009-02-04
ISBN 10: 9780470403693
ISBN 13: 0470403691
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Carbon Materials for Catalysis Book Review:

This is the first comprehensive book covering all aspects of the use of carbonaceous materials in heterogeneous catalysis. It covers the preparation and characterization of carbon supports and carbon-supported catalysts; carbon surface chemistry in catalysis; the description of catalytic, photo-catalytic, or electro-catalytic reactions, including the development of new carbon materials such as carbon xerogels, aerogels, or carbon nanotubes; and new carbon-based materials in catalytic or adsorption processes. This is a premier reference for carbon, inorganic, and physical chemists, materials scientists and engineers, chemical engineers, and others.

Porous Carbon Materials from Sustainable Precursors

Porous Carbon Materials from Sustainable Precursors
Author: Robin J White
Publsiher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Total Pages: 433
Release: 2015-02-11
ISBN 10: 1782624430
ISBN 13: 9781782624431
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Porous Carbon Materials from Sustainable Precursors Book Review:

Porous carbon materials are at the heart of many applications, including renewable energy storage and generation, due to their superior physical properties and availability. The environmentally-friendly production of these materials is crucial for a sustainable future. This book focuses on the transformation of sustainable precursors into functional, porous carbonaceous materials via the two most significant approaches: Starbon® and Hydrothermal Carbonisation. Covering cutting-edge research and emerging areas, chapters cover applications of porous carbon materials in catalysis and separation science as well as in energy science. Moreover, the challenges of characterization of these materials and their commercialization are explained by worldwide experts. The content will be accessible and valuable to post-graduate students and senior researchers alike and it will serve as a significant reference for academics and industrialists working in the areas of materials science, catalysis and separation science.

Encapsulated Catalysts

Encapsulated Catalysts
Author: Samahe Sadjadi
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 554
Release: 2017-06-08
ISBN 10: 0128039051
ISBN 13: 9780128039052
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encapsulated Catalysts Book Review:

Encapsulated Catalysts provides valuable information for chemists, chemical engineers, and materials scientists in this promising area. The book describes many kinds of encapsulated catalysts and their applications in chemistry, including organic, inorganic, hybrid, and biological systems. Unlike other works, which discuss traditional supports, this useful resource uniquely focuses on extremely important topics, such as the encapsulation effects on reactivity and selectivity, the difficulty of their separation from reaction mixture, and/or their sensitivity to reaction conditions, and the limit of their industrial applications. In addition, the book covers the immobilization of homogenous catalysts on inorganic or organic supports and how it enables the separation of homogenous catalysts, as well as the protection or reuse of catalysts. Discusses one of the most promising advances in catalysis and recent developments in the area, including enzyme mimic catalysts and new nano-materials for catalyst encapsulation Provides interdisciplinary coverage of organic, inorganic, and biological materials for encapsulation of catalysts Describes various types of reactions which can be catalyzed in presence of encapsulated catalysts

Heterogeneous Catalysts

Heterogeneous Catalysts
Author: Wey Yang Teoh,Atsushi Urakawa,Yun Hau Ng,Patrick Sit
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 768
Release: 2021-06-08
ISBN 10: 3527344152
ISBN 13: 9783527344154
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Heterogeneous Catalysts Book Review:

Presents state-of-the-art knowledge of heterogeneous catalysts including new applications in energy and environmental fields This book focuses on emerging techniques in heterogeneous catalysis, from new methodology for catalysts design and synthesis, surface studies and operando spectroscopies, ab initio techniques, to critical catalytic systems as relevant to energy and the environment. It provides the vision of addressing the foreseeable knowledge gap unfilled by classical knowledge in the field. Heterogeneous Catalysts: Advanced Design, Characterization and Applications begins with an overview on the evolution in catalysts synthesis and introduces readers to facets engineering on catalysts; electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured catalytic thin films; and bandgap engineering of semiconductor photocatalysts. Next, it examines how we are gaining a more precise understanding of catalytic events and materials under working conditions. It covers bridging pressure gap in surface catalytic studies; tomography in catalysts design; and resolving catalyst performance at nanoscale via fluorescence microscopy. Quantum approaches to predicting molecular reactions on catalytic surfaces follows that, along with chapters on Density Functional Theory in heterogeneous catalysis; first principles simulation of electrified interfaces in electrochemistry; and high-throughput computational design of novel catalytic materials. The book also discusses embracing the energy and environmental challenges of the 21st century through heterogeneous catalysis and much more. Presents recent developments in heterogeneous catalysis with emphasis on new fundamentals and emerging techniques Offers a comprehensive look at the important aspects of heterogeneous catalysis Provides an applications-oriented, bottoms-up approach to a high-interest subject that plays a vital role in industry and is widely applied in areas related to energy and environment Heterogeneous Catalysts: Advanced Design, Characterization and Applications is an important book for catalytic chemists, materials scientists, surface chemists, physical chemists, inorganic chemists, chemical engineers, and other professionals working in the chemical industry.

Emerging Carbon Based Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications

Emerging Carbon Based Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications
Author: Ajay Kumar Mishra,Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain,Shivani Bhardwaj Mishra
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2020-10-28
ISBN 10: 1119554861
ISBN 13: 9781119554868
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emerging Carbon Based Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications Book Review:

The 12 chapters comprehensively cover the development and advances on emerging carbon-based nanocomposites for wastewater applications and discuss the following topics: The emerging carbon-based nanocomposites for remediation of heavy metals and organic pollutants from wastewater; Functional green carbon nanocomposites for heavy-metal treatment in water; Green nanocomposites and their applications in environmentally-friendly carbon nanomaterials; Carbon-based nanocomposites as heterogeneous catalysts for organic reactions in environment-friendly solvents; Carbonaceous nanomaterials for arsenic and chromium removal from waste water; Biochar-based adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous systems; Describes carbon nanomaterials based green nanocomposites; The removal of trihalomethanes from water using nanofiltration membranes and The transformation of wide bandgap semiconductors for visible-light photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes; Nanocomposite materials as electrode materials in microbial fuel cells for the removal of water pollutants; Plasmonic smart nanosensors for the determination of environmental pollutants.

New Carbon Based Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems Batteries Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells

New Carbon Based Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems  Batteries  Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells
Author: Igor V. Barsukov,Christopher S. Johnson,Joseph E. Doninger,Vyacheslav Z. Barsukov
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 523
Release: 2006-07-07
ISBN 10: 1402048122
ISBN 13: 9781402048128
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Carbon Based Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems Batteries Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells Book Review:

This book reviews research work on electrochemical power sources in the former Warsaw Pact countries. It explores the role carbon plays in the cathodes and anodes of power sources and reveals the latest research into the development of metal air batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells and lithium-ion and lithium-ion polymer batteries. For the first time, a full chapter was devoted to metal-carbon composites as electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries

Petrochemical Catalyst Materials Processes and Emerging Technologies

Petrochemical Catalyst Materials  Processes  and Emerging Technologies
Author: Al-Megren, Hamid
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 539
Release: 2016-02-17
ISBN 10: 1466699760
ISBN 13: 9781466699762
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Petrochemical Catalyst Materials Processes and Emerging Technologies Book Review:

###############################################################################################################################################################################################################################################################

Nanostructured Carbon Materials for Catalysis

Nanostructured Carbon Materials for Catalysis
Author: Philippe Serp,Bruno Machado
Publsiher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Total Pages: 570
Release: 2015-03-02
ISBN 10: 1849739099
ISBN 13: 9781849739092
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanostructured Carbon Materials for Catalysis Book Review:

There is great interest in using nanostructured carbon materials in catalysis, either as supports for immobilizing active species or as metal-free catalysts due to their unique structural, thermal, chemical, electronic and mechanical properties, and tailorable surface chemistry. Nanostructured Carbon Materials for Catalysis looks at the structure and properties of different doped and undoped nanocarbons including graphene; fullerenes; nanodiamonds; carbon nanotubes and nanofibers; their synthesis and modification to produce catalysts. Special attention is paid to adsorption, as it impacts the application of these materials in various industrially relevant catalytic reactions discussed herein, in addition to photocatalysis and electrocatalysis. Written by leading experts in the area, this is the first book to provide a comprehensive view of the subject for the catalysis community.

Emerging Carbon Based Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications

Emerging Carbon Based Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications
Author: Ajay Kumar Mishra,Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain,Shivani Bhardwaj Mishra
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2020-09-29
ISBN 10: 1119554853
ISBN 13: 9781119554851
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emerging Carbon Based Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications Book Review:

The 12 chapters comprehensively cover the development and advances on emerging carbon-based nanocomposites for wastewater applications and discuss the following topics: The emerging carbon-based nanocomposites for remediation of heavy metals and organic pollutants from wastewater; Functional green carbon nanocomposites for heavy-metal treatment in water; Green nanocomposites and their applications in environmentally-friendly carbon nanomaterials; Carbon-based nanocomposites as heterogeneous catalysts for organic reactions in environment-friendly solvents; Carbonaceous nanomaterials for arsenic and chromium removal from waste water; Biochar-based adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous systems; Describes carbon nanomaterials based green nanocomposites; The removal of trihalomethanes from water using nanofiltration membranes and The transformation of wide bandgap semiconductors for visible-light photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes; Nanocomposite materials as electrode materials in microbial fuel cells for the removal of water pollutants; Plasmonic smart nanosensors for the determination of environmental pollutants.

Petrochemical Catalyst Materials Processes and Emerging Technologies

Petrochemical Catalyst Materials  Processes  and Emerging Technologies
Author: Hamid Al-Megren,Tiancun Xiao
Publsiher: Engineering Science Reference
Total Pages: 558
Release: 2016-02-05
ISBN 10: 9781466699755
ISBN 13: 1466699752
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Petrochemical Catalyst Materials Processes and Emerging Technologies Book Review:

"This book addresses the latest research on emerging technological applications, catalyst materials for fuel upgrading, in addition to safety concerns and considerations within the petrochemical industry"--

Emerging Carbon Based Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications

Emerging Carbon Based Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications
Author: Ajay Kumar Mishra,Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain,Shivani Bhardwaj Mishra
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2020-09-10
ISBN 10: 1119554896
ISBN 13: 9781119554899
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emerging Carbon Based Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications Book Review:

The 12 chapters comprehensively cover the development and advances on emerging carbon-based nanocomposites for wastewater applications and discuss the following topics: The emerging carbon-based nanocomposites for remediation of heavy metals and organic pollutants from wastewater; Functional green carbon nanocomposites for heavy-metal treatment in water; Green nanocomposites and their applications in environmentally-friendly carbon nanomaterials; Carbon-based nanocomposites as heterogeneous catalysts for organic reactions in environment-friendly solvents; Carbonaceous nanomaterials for arsenic and chromium removal from waste water; Biochar-based adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous systems; Describes carbon nanomaterials based green nanocomposites; The removal of trihalomethanes from water using nanofiltration membranes and The transformation of wide bandgap semiconductors for visible-light photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes; Nanocomposite materials as electrode materials in microbial fuel cells for the removal of water pollutants; Plasmonic smart nanosensors for the determination of environmental pollutants.

Advanced Carbon Materials and Technology

Advanced Carbon Materials and Technology
Author: Ashutosh Tiwari,S. K. Shukla
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2014-01-28
ISBN 10: 1118686233
ISBN 13: 9781118686232
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Carbon Materials and Technology Book Review:

The expansion of carbon materials is multidisciplinary and is related to physics, chemistry, biology, applied sciences and engineering. The research on carbon materials has mostly focused on aspects of fundamental physics as they unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties applicable for the range of applications. The electrons in graphene and other derived carbon materials behave as dirac fermions due to their interaction with the ions of the lattice. This direction has led to the discovery of new phenomena such as Klein tunneling in carbon based solid state systems and the so-called half-integer quantum Hall effect. Advanced Carbon Materials and Technology presents cutting-edge chapters on the processing, properties and technological developments of graphene, carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers, carbon particles and other carbon based structures including multifunctional graphene sheets, graphene quantum dots, bulky balls, carbon balls, and their polymer composites. This book brings together respected international scholars writing on the innovative methodologies and strategies adopted in carbon materials research area including Synthesis, characterization and functionalization of carbon nanotubes and graphene Surface modification of graphene Carbon based nanostructured materials Graphene and carbon nanotube based electrochemical (bio)sensors for environmental monitoring Carbon catalysts for hydrogen storage materials Optical carbon nanoobjects Graphene and carbon nanotube based biosensors Carbon doped cryogel films Bioimpact of carbon nanomaterials Photocatalytic nature of carbon nanotube based composites Engineering behavior of ash fills Fly ash syntactic foams microstructure

Iron Catalysis Design And Applications

Iron Catalysis  Design And Applications
Author: Jose M Palomo
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2021-03-15
ISBN 10: 1786349639
ISBN 13: 9781786349637
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Iron Catalysis Design And Applications Book Review:

Iron Catalysis: Design and Applications is an exciting new book that takes readers inside the world of iron catalysis guided by international catalysis expert, Dr Jose M Palomo. Iron is the most abundant metal in the planet, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, with an easily manipulated remediation process. In the last few years the use of this nonprecious metal has gained extraordinary attention particularly for its potential as a catalyst in different areas. This book compiles a series of chapters describing the most significant advances in the last few years since the design of different iron catalysts and nanocatalysts and iron-containing artificial and natural enzymes. The chapters also cover its application in different areas of interest such as organic synthesis, environmental remediation, enzyme-like activities or the creation of novel types of electrodes for battery design.

Heterogeneous Catalysts

Heterogeneous Catalysts
Author: Wey Yang Teoh,Atsushi Urakawa,Yun Hau Ng,Patrick Sit
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 768
Release: 2021-02-23
ISBN 10: 352781356X
ISBN 13: 9783527813568
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Heterogeneous Catalysts Book Review:

Presents state-of-the-art knowledge of heterogeneous catalysts including new applications in energy and environmental fields This book focuses on emerging techniques in heterogeneous catalysis, from new methodology for catalysts design and synthesis, surface studies and operando spectroscopies, ab initio techniques, to critical catalytic systems as relevant to energy and the environment. It provides the vision of addressing the foreseeable knowledge gap unfilled by classical knowledge in the field. Heterogeneous Catalysts: Advanced Design, Characterization and Applications begins with an overview on the evolution in catalysts synthesis and introduces readers to facets engineering on catalysts; electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured catalytic thin films; and bandgap engineering of semiconductor photocatalysts. Next, it examines how we are gaining a more precise understanding of catalytic events and materials under working conditions. It covers bridging pressure gap in surface catalytic studies; tomography in catalysts design; and resolving catalyst performance at nanoscale via fluorescence microscopy. Quantum approaches to predicting molecular reactions on catalytic surfaces follows that, along with chapters on Density Functional Theory in heterogeneous catalysis; first principles simulation of electrified interfaces in electrochemistry; and high-throughput computational design of novel catalytic materials. The book also discusses embracing the energy and environmental challenges of the 21st century through heterogeneous catalysis and much more. Presents recent developments in heterogeneous catalysis with emphasis on new fundamentals and emerging techniques Offers a comprehensive look at the important aspects of heterogeneous catalysis Provides an applications-oriented, bottoms-up approach to a high-interest subject that plays a vital role in industry and is widely applied in areas related to energy and environment Heterogeneous Catalysts: Advanced Design, Characterization and Applications is an important book for catalytic chemists, materials scientists, surface chemists, physical chemists, inorganic chemists, chemical engineers, and other professionals working in the chemical industry.

New Dimensions in Production and Utilization of Hydrogen

New Dimensions in Production and Utilization of Hydrogen
Author: Sonil Nanda,Dai-Viet N. Vo,Phuong Nguyen Tri
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 444
Release: 2020-08-11
ISBN 10: 0128231572
ISBN 13: 9780128231579
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Dimensions in Production and Utilization of Hydrogen Book Review:

The gradual increase of population and the consequential rise in the energy demands in the recent years have led to the overwhelming use of fossil fuels. Hydrogen has recently gained substantial interest because of its outstanding features to be used as clean energy carrier and energy vector. Moreover, hydrogen appears to be an effective alternative to tackle the issues of energy security and greenhouse gas emissions given that it is widely recognized as a clean fuel with high energy capacity. Hydrogen can be produced by various techniques such as thermochemical, hydrothermal, electrochemical, electrolytic, biological and photocatalytic methods as well as hybrid systems. New Dimensions in Production and Utilization of Hydrogen emphasizes on the research, development and innovations in the production and utilization of hydrogen in the industrial biorefining, hydrotreating and hydrogenation technologies, fuel cells, aerospace sector, pharmaceuticals, metallurgy, as well as bio-oil upgrading. Moreover, the supply chain analysis, lifecycle assessment, techno-economic analysis, as well as strengths and threats of global hydrogen market are covered in the book. This book provides many significant insights and scientific findings of key technologies for hydrogen production, storage and emerging applications. The book serves as a reference material for chemical and biochemical engineers, mechanical engineers, physicists, chemists, biologists, biomedical scientists and scholars working in the field of sustainable energy and materials. Discusses the efficient usage of hydrogen as standalone fuel or feedstock in downstream processing Outlines key technologies for hydrogen production and their emerging applications Includes innovative approaches to the research and applications of hydrogen, including hydrotreating technologies, fuel cell vehicles and green fuel synthesis, the aerospace sector, pharmaceuticals, carbon dioxide hydrogenation, and bio-oils upgrading Serves as a reference for chemical, biochemical, and mechanical engineers, physicists, chemists, biologists, and biomedical scientists working in sustainable energy and materials

Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles

Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles
Author: Goutam Brahmachari
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 822
Release: 2021-02-26
ISBN 10: 0323851339
ISBN 13: 9780323851336
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles Book Review:

Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles, Second Edition, Volume Two: Green Catalytic Systems and Solvents reviews this significant group of organic compounds within the context of sustainable methods and processes, expanding on the first edition with fully updated coverage and a whole range of new chapters. Volume Two explores green catalytic systems and solvents and the techniques surrounding this approach, including metal and magnetic catalysis to organocatalysis and solid acid catalysis, cycloaddition reactions, and varied approaches using ionic liquids. This updated edition is an essential resource on sustainable approaches for academic researchers, R&D professionals, and students working across medicinal, organic, natural product and green chemistry. Provides fully updated coverage of the field with an emphasis on sustainability Highlights a range of different eco-friendly solvents and environmentally-friendly catalysts Collates the experience of a global team of expert contributors

Carbon Fibers

Carbon Fibers
Author: Soo-Jin Park
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 358
Release: 2018-05-30
ISBN 10: 9811305382
ISBN 13: 9789811305382
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Carbon Fibers Book Review:

The updated and expanded second edition of this book explores the physical and mechanical properties of carbon fibers and their composites, their manufacture and processing, and their current and emerging applications. Over 10 chapters, the book describes manufacturing methods, surface treatment, composite interfaces, and microstructure-property relationships with underlying fundamental physical and mechanical principles. It discusses the application of carbon materials in delivering improved performance across a diverse range of fields including sports, wind energy, oil and gas, infrastructure, defence, and the aerospace, automotive and semiconductor industries. This new edition introduces chapters related to the manufacturing of carbon/carbon composites (C/C composites), antioxidation characteristics of C/C composites, and their applications. Furthermore, it addresses the effect of graphene and carbon nanotubes on the physical and chemical properties of carbon fibers. A final chapter looks at the emerging and future prospects for carbon fiber technology.

Nitrogen doped Carbon Materials as Oxygen Reduction Reaction Catalysts for Metal air Fuel Cells and Batteries

Nitrogen doped Carbon Materials as Oxygen Reduction Reaction Catalysts for Metal air Fuel Cells and Batteries
Author: Zhu Chen
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 121
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1087331962
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nitrogen doped Carbon Materials as Oxygen Reduction Reaction Catalysts for Metal air Fuel Cells and Batteries Book Review:

Metal air battery has captured the spotlight recently as a promising class of sustainable energy storage for the future energy systems. Metal air batteries offer many attractive features such as high energy density, environmental benignity, as well as ease of fuel storage and handling. In addition, wide range of selection towards different metals exists where different energy capacity can be achieved via careful selection of different metals. The most energy dense systems of metal-air battery include lithium-air, aluminum-air and zinc-air. Despite the choice of metal electrode, oxygen reduction (ORR) occurs on the air electrode and oxidation occurs on the metal electrode. The oxidation of metal electrode is a relatively facile reaction compared to the ORR on the air electrode, making latter the limiting factor of the battery system. The sluggish ORR kinetics greatly affects the power output, efficiency, and lifetime of the metal air battery. One solution to this problem is the use of active, affordable and stable catalyst to promote the rate of ORR. Currently, platinum nanoparticles supported on conductive carbon (Pt/C) are the best catalyst for ORR. However, the prohibitively high cost and scarcity of platinum raise critical issues regarding the economic feasibility and sustainability of platinum-based catalysts. Cost reduction via the use of novel technologies can be achieved by two approaches. The first approach is to reduce platinum loading in the catalyst formulation. Alternatively platinum can be completely eliminated from the catalyst composition. The aim of this work is to identify and synthesize alternative catalysts for ORR toward metal air battery applications without the use of platinum or other precious metals (i.e., palladium, silver and gold). Non-precious metal catalysts (NPMC) have received immense international attentions owing to the enormous efforts in pursuit of novel battery and fuel cell technologies. Different types of NPMC such as transition metal alloys, transition metal or mixed metal oxides, chalcogenides have been investigated as potential contenders to precious metal catalysts. However, the performance and stability of these catalysts are still inferior in comparison. Nitrogen-doped carbon materials (NCM) are an emerging class of catalyst exhibiting great potential towards ORR catalysis. In comparison to the metal oxides, MCM show improved electrical conductivity. Furthermore, NCM exhibit higher activity compared to chalcogenides and transition metal alloys. Additional benefits of NCM include the abundance of carbon source and environmental benignity. Typical NCM catalyst is composed of pyrolyzed transition metal macrocycles supported by high surface area carbon. These materials have demonstrated excellent activity and stability. However, the degradation of these catalysts often involves the destruction of active sites containing the transition metal centre. To further improve the durability and mass transport of NCM catalyst, a novel class of ORR catalyst based on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) is investigated in a series of studies. The initial investigation focuses on the synthesis of highly active NCNT using different carbon-nitrogen precursors. This study investigated the effect of using cyclic hydrocarbon (pyridine) and aliphatic hydrocarbon (ethylenediamine) towards the formation and activity of NCNT. The innate structure of the cyclic hydrocarbon promotes the formation of NCNT to provide higher product yield; however, the aliphatic hydrocarbon promotes the formation of surface defects where the nitrogen atoms can be incorporated to form active sites for ORR. As a result, a significant increase in the ORR activity of 180 mV in half-wave potential is achieved when EDA was used as carbon-nitrogen precursor. In addition, three times higher limiting current density was observed for the NCNT synthesized from ethylenediamine. Based on the conclusion where highly active NCNT was produced from aliphatic hydrocarbon, similar carbon-nitrogen precursors with varying carbon to nitrogen ratio in the molecular structure (ethylenediamine, 1, 3-diaminopropane, 1, 4-diaminobutane) were adapted for the synthesis of NCNT. The investigation led to the conclusion that higher nitrogen to carbon ratio in the molecular structure of the precursors benefits the formation of active NCNT for ORR catalysis. The origin of such phenomena can be correlated with the higher relative nitrogen content of the resultant NCNT synthesized from aliphatic carbon precursor that provided greater nitrogen to carbon ratio. As the final nitrogen content increased in the molecular structure, the half-wave potential of the resultant NCNT towards ORR catalysis was increased by 120 mV. The significant improvement hints the critical role of nitrogen content towards ORR catalysis.