Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology
Author: Kingshuk Dutta
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 564
Release: 2020-02-25
ISBN 10: 0128191597
ISBN 13: 9780128191590
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology Book Review:

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology presents the overall progress witnessed in the field of DMFC over the past decade, highlighting the components, materials, functions, properties and features, designs and configurations, operations, modelling, applications, pros and cons, social, political and market penetration, economics and future directions. The book discusses every single aspect of DMFC device technology, the associated advantages and drawbacks of state-of-the-art materials and design, market opportunities and commercialization aspects, and possible future directions of research and development. This book, containing critical analyses and opinions from experts around the world, will garner considerable interest among actual users/scientists/experts. Analyzes developments of membrane electrolytes, electrodes, catalysts, catalyst supports, bipolar plates, gas diffusion layers and flow channels as critical components of direct methanol fuel cells Includes modeling of direct methanol fuel cells to understand their scaling up potentials Discusses commercial aspects of direct methanol fuel cells in terms of market penetration, end application, cost, viability, reliability, social and commercial perception, drawbacks and prospects

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology
Author: Christoph Hartnig,Christina Roth
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2012-03-19
ISBN 10: 0857095471
ISBN 13: 9780857095473
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology Book Review:

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) technology are promising forms of low-temperature electrochemical power conversion technologies that operate on hydrogen and methanol respectively. Featuring high electrical efficiency and low operational emissions, they have attracted intense worldwide commercialization research and development efforts. These R&D efforts include a major drive towards improving materials performance, fuel cell operation and durability. In situ characterization is essential to improving performance and extending operational lifetime through providing information necessary to understand how fuel cell materials perform under operational loads. This two volume set reviews the fundamentals, performance, and in situ characterization of PEMFCs and DMFCs. Volume 1 covers the fundamental science and engineering of these low temperature fuel cells, focusing on understanding and improving performance and operation. Part one reviews systems fundamentals, ranging from fuels and fuel processing, to the development of membrane and catalyst materials and technology, and gas diffusion media and flowfields, as well as life cycle aspects and modelling approaches. Part two details performance issues relevant to fuel cell operation and durability, such as catalyst ageing, materials degradation and durability testing, and goes on to review advanced transport simulation approaches, degradation modelling and experimental monitoring techniques. With its international team of expert contributors, Polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell technology Volumes 1 & 2 is an invaluable reference for low temperature fuel cell designers and manufacturers, as well as materials science and electrochemistry researchers and academics. Covers the fundamental science and engineering of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), focusing on understanding and improving performance and operation Reviews systems fundamentals, ranging from fuels and fuel processing, to the development of membrane and catalyst materials and technology, and gas diffusion media and flowfields, as well as life cycle aspects and modelling approaches Details performance issues relevant to fuel cell operation and durability, such as catalyst ageing, materials degradation and durability testing, and reviews advanced transport simulation approaches, degradation modelling and experimental monitoring techniques

Electrocatalysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

Electrocatalysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Author: Jiujun Zhang,Hansan Liu
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 582
Release: 2009-10-26
ISBN 10: 3527323775
ISBN 13: 9783527323777
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electrocatalysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Book Review:

This first book to focus on a comprehensive description on DMFC electrocatalysis draws a clear picture oft he current status of DMFC technology, especially the advances, challenges and perspectives in the field. Leading researchers from universities, government laboratories and fuel cell industries in North America, Europe and Asia share their knowledge and information on recent advances in the fundamental theories, experimental methodologies and research achievements. In order to help readers better understand the science and technology of the subject, some important and representative figures, tables, photos, and comprehensive lists of reference papers are also included, such that all the information needed on this topic may be easily located. An indispensable source for physical, catalytic, electro- and solid state chemists, as well as materials scientists and chemists in industry.

Direct Liquid Fuel Cells

Direct Liquid Fuel Cells
Author: Ramiz Gültekin Akay,Ayşe Bayrakçeken Yurtcan
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2020-09-10
ISBN 10: 0128187360
ISBN 13: 9780128187364
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Direct Liquid Fuel Cells Book Review:

Direct Liquid Fuel Cells is a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and specificities of the use of methanol, ethanol, glycerol, formic acid and formate, dimethyl ether, borohydride, hydrazine and other promising liquid fuels in fuel cells. Each chapter covers a different liquid fuel-based fuel cell such as: Anode catalysts of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), future system designs and future trends for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs), development of catalysts for direct glycerol fuel cells (DGFCs), the mechanisms of the reactions taking place at the anode and cathode electrodes, and the reported anode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) and direct formate fuel cell (DFFC), characteristics of direct dimethyl ether fuel cell (DDMEFC), including its electrochemical and operating systems and design, the developments in direct borohydride fuel cells, the development of catalysts for direct hydrazine fuel cells (DHFCs), and also the uncommonly used liquids that have a potential for fuel cell applications including 2-propanol, ethylene glycol, ascorbic acid and ascorbate studied in the literature as well as utilization of some blended fuels. In each part, the most recent literature is reviewed and the state of the art is presented. It also includes examples of practical problems with solutions and a summarized comparison of performance, advantages, and limitations of each type of fuel cell discussed. Direct Liquid Fuel Cells is not a typical textbook but rather designed as a reference book of which any level of students (undergraduate or graduate), instructors, field specialists, industry and general audience, who benefit from current and complete understanding of the many aspects involved in the development and operation of these types of fuel cells, could make use of any chapter when necessary. Presents information on different types of direct liquid fuel cells. Explores information under each section, for specific fuel-based fuel cells in more detail in terms of the materials used. Covers three main sections: direct alcohol, organic fuel-based and inorganic fuel-based fuel cells

Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Author: Antonio Salvatore Aricò,Vincenzo Baglio,Vincenzo Antonucci
Publsiher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Total Pages: 179
Release: 2010
ISBN 10: 9781608768653
ISBN 13: 1608768651
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Book Review:

This book deals with an analysis of materials issues, status of technologies and potential applications of direct methanol fuel cells. The principle of operation of direct methanol fuel cells and the status of knowledge in the basic research areas are presented. The technology of direct methanol fuel cells is discussed in this book with particular regard to fabrication methodologies for the manufacturing of catalysts, electrolytes membrane-electrode assemblies, stack hardware and system design.

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology
Author: Christoph Hartnig,Christina Roth
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 516
Release: 2012-02-20
ISBN 10: 085709548X
ISBN 13: 9780857095480
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology Book Review:

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) technology are promising forms of low-temperature electrochemical power conversion technologies that operate on hydrogen and methanol respectively. Featuring high electrical efficiency and low operational emissions, they have attracted intense worldwide commercialization research and development efforts. These R&D efforts include a major drive towards improving materials performance, fuel cell operation and durability. In situ characterization is essential to improving performance and extending operational lifetime through providing information necessary to understand how fuel cell materials perform under operational loads. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology, Volume 2 details in situ characterization, including experimental and innovative techniques, used to understand fuel cell operational issues and materials performance. Part I reviews enhanced techniques for characterization of catalyst activities and processes, such as X-ray absorption and scattering, advanced microscopy and electrochemical mass spectrometry. Part II reviews characterization techniques for water and fuel management, including neutron radiography and tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Finally, Part III focuses on locally resolved characterization methods, from transient techniques and electrochemical microscopy, to laser-optical methods and synchrotron radiography. With its international team of expert contributors, Polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell technology will be an invaluable reference for low temperature fuel cell designers and manufacturers, as well as materials science and electrochemistry researchers and academics. Polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell technology is an invaluable reference for low temperature fuel cell designers and manufacturers, as well as materials science and electrochemistry researchers and academics. Details in situ characterisation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including the experimental and innovative techniques used to understand fuel cell operational issues and materials performance Examines enhanced techniques for characterisation of catalyst activities and processes, such as X-ray absorption and scattering, advanced microscopy and electrochemical mass spectrometry Reviews characterisation techniques for water and fuel management, including neutron radiography and tomography, and comprehensively covers locally resolved characterisation methods, from transient techniques to laser-optical methods

Fuel Cells

Fuel Cells
Author: Noriko Hikosaka Behling
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 685
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 0444563253
ISBN 13: 9780444563255
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fuel Cells Book Review:

"This book is a one of a kind, definitive reference source for technical students and researchers, government policymakers, and business leaders. It provides an overview of past and present initiatives to improve and commercialize fuel cell technologies. It provides context and analysis to help potential investors assess current fuel cell commercialization activities and future prospects. Most importantly, it gives top executive policymakers and company presidents with detailed policy recommendations as to what should be done to successfully commercialize fuel cell technologies."--pub. desc.

Fuel Cell Technology Handbook

Fuel Cell Technology Handbook
Author: Gregor Hoogers
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2002-09-27
ISBN 10: 142004155X
ISBN 13: 9781420041552
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fuel Cell Technology Handbook Book Review:

Fuel cell systems have now reached a degree of technological maturity and appear destined to form the cornerstone of future energy technologies. But the rapid advances in fuel cell system development have left current information available only in scattered journals and Internet sites. The even faster race toward fuel cell commercialization further

Mini Micro Fuel Cells

Mini Micro Fuel Cells
Author: S. Kakaç,A. Pramuanjaroenkij,L. Vasiliev
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 422
Release: 2008-04-10
ISBN 10: 1402082959
ISBN 13: 9781402082955
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mini Micro Fuel Cells Book Review:

This volume contains an archival record of the NATO Advanced Institute on Mini – Micro Fuel Cells – Fundamental and Applications held in Çesme – Izmir, Turkey, July 22–August 3, 2007. The ASIs are intended to be a high-level teaching activity in scientific and technical areas of current concern. In this volume, the reader may find interesting chapters on Mini- Micro Fuel Cells with fundamentals and applications. In recent years, fu- cell development, modeling and performance analysis has received much attention due to their potential for distributed power which is a critical issue for energy security and the environmental protection. Small fuel cells for portable applications are important for the security. The portable devices (many electronic and wireless) operated by fuel cells for providing all-day power, are very valuable for the security, for defense and in the war against terrorism. Many companies in NATO and non-NATO countries have concentrated to promote the fuel cell industry. Many universities with industrial partners committed to the idea of working together to develop fuel cells. As tech- logy advanced in the 1980s and beyond, many government organizations joined in spending money on fuel-cell research. In recent years, interest in using fuel cells to power portable electronic devices and other small equipment (cell phones, mobile phones, lab-tops, they are used as micro power source in biological applications) has increased partly due to the promise of fuel cells having higher energy density.

Fuel Cells

Fuel Cells
Author: Paul Breeze
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 100
Release: 2017-02-09
ISBN 10: 0128095156
ISBN 13: 9780128095157
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fuel Cells Book Review:

Fuel Cells is a concise, up-to-date and accessible guide to the evolution of the use of electrochemistry to generate power. The author provides a comprehensive exploration of the history of fuel cells, the environmental concerns which came into prominence in the 1980s and the economic factors associated with this method of power generation. Examples discussed include Alkaline Fuel Cells, Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells, Molton Carbonate Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, making this a valuable and insightful read for those in the power generation market and those in electrochemistry, such as engineers, managers and academics. Explores multiple variations of fuel cell technology and evaluates their cost and application Provides detailed historical context, beginning in 1839 with the development of electrolysis Discusses the most up-to-date advancements and methods of fuel cell technology today

Fuel Cell Electronics Packaging

Fuel Cell Electronics Packaging
Author: Ken Kuang,Keith Easler
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 254
Release: 2007-08-26
ISBN 10: 0387473246
ISBN 13: 9780387473246
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fuel Cell Electronics Packaging Book Review:

Today's commercial, medical and military electronics are becoming smaller and smaller. At the same time these devices demand more power and currently this power requirement is met almost exclusively by battery power. This book includes coverage of ceramic hybrid separators for micro fuel cells and miniature fuel cells built with LTCC technology. It also covers novel fuel cells and discusses the application of fuel cell in microelectronics.

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells for Portable Applications

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells for Portable Applications
Author: Alexandra M. F. R. Pinto,Vania Sofia Oliveira,Daniela Sofia Castro Falcao
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 353
Release: 2018-09-08
ISBN 10: 0128118989
ISBN 13: 9780128118986
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells for Portable Applications Book Review:

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells for Portable Applications: Fundamentals, Engineering and Advances presents the fundamental concepts, technological advances and challenges in developing, modeling and deploying fuel cells and fuel cell systems for portable devices, including micro and mini fuel cells. The authors review the fundamental science of direct alcohol fuel cells, covering, in detail, thermodynamics, electrode kinetics and electrocatalysis of charge-transfer reactions, mass and heat transfer phenomena, and basic modeling aspects. In addition, the book examines other fuels in DAFCs, such as formic acid, ethylene glycol and glycerol, along with technological aspects and applications, including case studies and cost analysis. Researchers, engineering professionals, fuel cell developers, policymakers and senior graduate students will find this a valuable resource. The book’s comprehensive coverage of fundamentals is especially useful for graduate students, advanced undergraduate students and those new to the field. Provides a comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of DAFCs and their basic components, design and performance Presents current and complete information on the state-of-the-art of DAFC technology and its most relevant challenges for commercial deployment Includes practical application examples, problems and case studies Covers the use of other fuels, such as formic acid, ethylene glycol and glycerol

Fuel Cells and Their Applications

Fuel Cells and Their Applications
Author: Karl Kordesch,Günter R. Simader
Publsiher: Wiley-VCH
Total Pages: 375
Release: 1996-03-25
ISBN 10: 9783527285792
ISBN 13: 3527285792
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fuel Cells and Their Applications Book Review:

This unique book concerning fuel cells and their applications fills the gap which currently exists between the theoretical aspects and the detailed practical data available. It describes a technology that dates from the early classical discoveries of the 1850s which predicted that direct energy conversion of chemical energy into electricity with fuel cells would be far more efficient at lower temperatures than with combustion processes. The importance of fuel cells for energy saving purposes is emphasised. Their applications are wide-ranging with use found in local stations and power plants, in industry for the highly efficient conversion of waste and biomass materials and in carbon dioxide reduction in all fossil-fuel-burning processes. Unique features highlighted include their importance in spacecrafts and their development for affordable implementation in electric cars. The most recent scientific publications and manufacturer's brochures have been screened in order to bring together the state- of-the-art technology of fuel cells. Readers at all levels including chemists, physicists, chemical engineers ry technologists and students will appreciate this comprehensive overvie ind the clarity of numerous graphs and tables highly valuable.

Progress and Recent Trends in Microbial Fuel Cells

Progress and Recent Trends in Microbial Fuel Cells
Author: Patit Paban Kundu,Kingshuk Dutta
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2018-06-07
ISBN 10: 0444640185
ISBN 13: 9780444640185
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Progress and Recent Trends in Microbial Fuel Cells Book Review:

Progress and Recent Trends in Microbial Fuel Cells provides an in-depth analysis of the fundamentals, working principles, applications and advancements (including commercialization aspects) made in the field of Microbial Fuel Cells research, with critical analyses and opinions from experts around the world. Microbial Fuel cell, as a potential alternative energy harnessing device, has been progressing steadily towards fruitful commercialization. Involvements of electrolyte membranes and catalysts have been two of the most critical factors toward achieving this progress. Added applications of MFCs in areas of bio-hydrogen production and wastewater treatment have made this technology extremely attractive and important. . Reviews and compares MFCs with other alternative energy harnessing devices, particularly in comparison to other fuel cells. Analyses developments of electrolyte membranes, electrodes, catalysts and biocatalysts as critical components of MFCs, responsible for their present and future progress. Includes commercial aspects of MFCs in terms of (i) generation of electricity, (ii) microbial electrolysis cell, (iii) microbial desalination cell, and (iv) wastewater and sludge treatment.

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells
Author: Horacio R. Corti,Ernesto R. Gonzalez
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 370
Release: 2013-12-02
ISBN 10: 9400777086
ISBN 13: 9789400777088
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells Book Review:

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells: Materials, Performance, Durability and Applications begins with an introductory overview of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC); it focuses on the main goals and challenges in the areas of materials development, performance, and commercialization. The preparation and the properties of the anodic catalysts used for the oxidation of methanol, higher alcohols, and alcohol tolerant cathodes are then described. The membranes used as proton conductors in DAFC are examined, as well as alkaline membranes, focusing on the electrical conductivity and alcohol permeability. The use of different kinds of carbon materials as catalyst supports, gas diffusion layers, and current collectors in DAFC is also discussed. State of the art of the modeling is used to estimate performance and durability. The closing chapter reviews the use of DAFC in portable equipment and mobile devices and features a detailed discussion on the mechanisms of component degradation which limits their durability. This book is written to facilitate the understanding of DAFC technology, applications, and future challenges. It is an excellent introduction for electrochemical and material engineers interested in small fuel cells as portable energy sources, scientists focused on materials science for energy production and storage, as well as policy-makers in the area of renewable energies.

Advances in Fuel Cells

Advances in Fuel Cells
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 499
Release: 2007-04-23
ISBN 10: 9780080471006
ISBN 13: 0080471005
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Fuel Cells Book Review:

Fuel cells have been recognized to be destined to form the cornerstone of energy technologies in the twenty-first century. The rapid advances in fuel cell system development have left current information available only in scattered journals and Internet sites. Advances in Fuel Cells fills the information gap between regularly scheduled journals and university level textbooks by providing in-depth coverage over a broad scope. The present volume provides informative chapters on thermodynamic performance of fuel cells, macroscopic modeling of polymer-electrolyte membranes, the prospects for phosphonated polymers as proton-exchange fuel cell membranes, polymer electrolyte membranes for direct methanol fuel cells, materials for state of the art PEM fuel cells, and their suitability for operation above 100°C, analytical modelling of direct methanol fuel cells, and methanol reforming processes. Includes contributions by leading experts working in both academic and industrial R&D Disseminates the latest research discoveries A valuable resource for senior undergraduates and graduate students, it provides in-depth coverage over a broad scope

Fuel Cell Engineering

Fuel Cell Engineering
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2012-08-14
ISBN 10: 0123868750
ISBN 13: 9780123868756
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fuel Cell Engineering Book Review:

Fuel cells are attractive electrochemical energy converters featuring potentially very high thermodynamic efficiency factors. The focus of this volume of Advances in Chemical Engineering is on quantitative approaches, particularly based on chemical engineering principles, to analyze, control and optimize the steady state and dynamic behavior of low and high temperature fuel cells (PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC) to be applied in mobile and stationary systems. Updates and informs the reader on the latest research findings using original reviews Written by leading industry experts and scholars Reviews and analyzes developments in the field

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
Author: Tolga Taner
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 212
Release: 2018-05-09
ISBN 10: 1789230667
ISBN 13: 9781789230666
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Book Review:

The main idea of this study is to scrutinize the performance efficiency and enhancement of modelling and simulations of PEM fuel cell. Besides, the research of PEM fuel cell performance can figure out many critical issues for an alternative resource energy. The chapters collected in the book are contributions by invited researchers with a long-standing experience in different research areas. I hope that the material presented here is understandable to a wide audience, not only energy engineers but also scientists from various disciplines. The book contains nine chapters in three sections: (1) "General Information About PEM Fuel Cell", (2) "PEM Fuel Cell Technology" and (3) "Many Different Applications of PEM Fuel Cell". This book presents detailed and up-to-date evaluations in different areas and was written by academics with experience in their field. It is anticipated that this book will make a scientific contribution to PEM fuel cell and other alternative energy resource workers, researchers, academics, PhD students and other scientists both in the present and in the future.

Fuel Cell Handbook

Fuel Cell Handbook
Author: A. J. Appleby,F. R. Foulkes
Publsiher: Krieger Publishing Company
Total Pages: 762
Release: 1993
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OSU:32435062567961
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fuel Cell Handbook Book Review:

Materials for Fuel Cells

Materials for Fuel Cells
Author: M Gasik
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2008-10-27
ISBN 10: 184569483X
ISBN 13: 9781845694838
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Materials for Fuel Cells Book Review:

A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of a reaction (between fuel and oxidant) directly into electricity. Given their efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells provide an important alternative to power produced from fossil fuels. A major challenge in their use is the need for better materials to make fuel cells cost-effective and more durable. This important book reviews developments in materials to fulfil the potential of fuel cells as a major power source. After introductory chapters on the key issues in fuel cell materials research, the book reviews the major types of fuel cell. These include alkaline fuel cells, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells and regenerative fuel cells. The book concludes with reviews of novel fuel cell materials, ways of analysing performance and issues affecting recyclability and life cycle assessment. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Materials for fuel cells is a valuable reference for all those researching, manufacturing and using fuel cells in such areas as automotive engineering. Examines the key issues in fuel cell materials research Reviews the major types of fuel cells such as direct methanol and regenerative fuel cells Further chapters explore ways of analysing performance and issues affecting recyclability and life cycle assessment