Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology
Author: Kingshuk Dutta
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 564
Release: 2020-02-25
ISBN 10: 0128191597
ISBN 13: 9780128191590
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology Book Review:

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology presents the overall progress witnessed in the field of DMFC over the past decade, highlighting the components, materials, functions, properties and features, designs and configurations, operations, modelling, applications, pros and cons, social, political and market penetration, economics and future directions. The book discusses every single aspect of DMFC device technology, the associated advantages and drawbacks of state-of-the-art materials and design, market opportunities and commercialization aspects, and possible future directions of research and development. This book, containing critical analyses and opinions from experts around the world, will garner considerable interest among actual users/scientists/experts. Analyzes developments of membrane electrolytes, electrodes, catalysts, catalyst supports, bipolar plates, gas diffusion layers and flow channels as critical components of direct methanol fuel cells Includes modeling of direct methanol fuel cells to understand their scaling up potentials Discusses commercial aspects of direct methanol fuel cells in terms of market penetration, end application, cost, viability, reliability, social and commercial perception, drawbacks and prospects

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology
Author: Christoph Hartnig,Christina Roth
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 516
Release: 2012-02-20
ISBN 10: 085709548X
ISBN 13: 9780857095480
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology Book Review:

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) technology are promising forms of low-temperature electrochemical power conversion technologies that operate on hydrogen and methanol respectively. Featuring high electrical efficiency and low operational emissions, they have attracted intense worldwide commercialization research and development efforts. These R&D efforts include a major drive towards improving materials performance, fuel cell operation and durability. In situ characterization is essential to improving performance and extending operational lifetime through providing information necessary to understand how fuel cell materials perform under operational loads. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology, Volume 2 details in situ characterization, including experimental and innovative techniques, used to understand fuel cell operational issues and materials performance. Part I reviews enhanced techniques for characterization of catalyst activities and processes, such as X-ray absorption and scattering, advanced microscopy and electrochemical mass spectrometry. Part II reviews characterization techniques for water and fuel management, including neutron radiography and tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Finally, Part III focuses on locally resolved characterization methods, from transient techniques and electrochemical microscopy, to laser-optical methods and synchrotron radiography. With its international team of expert contributors, Polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell technology will be an invaluable reference for low temperature fuel cell designers and manufacturers, as well as materials science and electrochemistry researchers and academics. Polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell technology is an invaluable reference for low temperature fuel cell designers and manufacturers, as well as materials science and electrochemistry researchers and academics. Details in situ characterisation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including the experimental and innovative techniques used to understand fuel cell operational issues and materials performance Examines enhanced techniques for characterisation of catalyst activities and processes, such as X-ray absorption and scattering, advanced microscopy and electrochemical mass spectrometry Reviews characterisation techniques for water and fuel management, including neutron radiography and tomography, and comprehensively covers locally resolved characterisation methods, from transient techniques to laser-optical methods

Electrocatalysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

Electrocatalysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Author: Jiujun Zhang,Hansan Liu
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 582
Release: 2009-10-26
ISBN 10: 3527323775
ISBN 13: 9783527323777
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electrocatalysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Book Review:

This first book to focus on a comprehensive description on DMFC electrocatalysis draws a clear picture oft he current status of DMFC technology, especially the advances, challenges and perspectives in the field. Leading researchers from universities, government laboratories and fuel cell industries in North America, Europe and Asia share their knowledge and information on recent advances in the fundamental theories, experimental methodologies and research achievements. In order to help readers better understand the science and technology of the subject, some important and representative figures, tables, photos, and comprehensive lists of reference papers are also included, such that all the information needed on this topic may be easily located. An indispensable source for physical, catalytic, electro- and solid state chemists, as well as materials scientists and chemists in industry.

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology
Author: Christoph Hartnig,Christina Roth
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2012-03-19
ISBN 10: 0857095471
ISBN 13: 9780857095473
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology Book Review:

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) technology are promising forms of low-temperature electrochemical power conversion technologies that operate on hydrogen and methanol respectively. Featuring high electrical efficiency and low operational emissions, they have attracted intense worldwide commercialization research and development efforts. These R&D efforts include a major drive towards improving materials performance, fuel cell operation and durability. In situ characterization is essential to improving performance and extending operational lifetime through providing information necessary to understand how fuel cell materials perform under operational loads. This two volume set reviews the fundamentals, performance, and in situ characterization of PEMFCs and DMFCs. Volume 1 covers the fundamental science and engineering of these low temperature fuel cells, focusing on understanding and improving performance and operation. Part one reviews systems fundamentals, ranging from fuels and fuel processing, to the development of membrane and catalyst materials and technology, and gas diffusion media and flowfields, as well as life cycle aspects and modelling approaches. Part two details performance issues relevant to fuel cell operation and durability, such as catalyst ageing, materials degradation and durability testing, and goes on to review advanced transport simulation approaches, degradation modelling and experimental monitoring techniques. With its international team of expert contributors, Polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell technology Volumes 1 & 2 is an invaluable reference for low temperature fuel cell designers and manufacturers, as well as materials science and electrochemistry researchers and academics. Covers the fundamental science and engineering of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), focusing on understanding and improving performance and operation Reviews systems fundamentals, ranging from fuels and fuel processing, to the development of membrane and catalyst materials and technology, and gas diffusion media and flowfields, as well as life cycle aspects and modelling approaches Details performance issues relevant to fuel cell operation and durability, such as catalyst ageing, materials degradation and durability testing, and reviews advanced transport simulation approaches, degradation modelling and experimental monitoring techniques

Direct Liquid Fuel Cells

Direct Liquid Fuel Cells
Author: Ramiz Gültekin Akay,Ayşe Bayrakçeken Yurtcan
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2020-09-10
ISBN 10: 0128187360
ISBN 13: 9780128187364
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Direct Liquid Fuel Cells Book Review:

Direct Liquid Fuel Cells is a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and specificities of the use of methanol, ethanol, glycerol, formic acid and formate, dimethyl ether, borohydride, hydrazine and other promising liquid fuels in fuel cells. Each chapter covers a different liquid fuel-based fuel cell such as: Anode catalysts of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), future system designs and future trends for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs), development of catalysts for direct glycerol fuel cells (DGFCs), the mechanisms of the reactions taking place at the anode and cathode electrodes, and the reported anode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) and direct formate fuel cell (DFFC), characteristics of direct dimethyl ether fuel cell (DDMEFC), including its electrochemical and operating systems and design, the developments in direct borohydride fuel cells, the development of catalysts for direct hydrazine fuel cells (DHFCs), and also the uncommonly used liquids that have a potential for fuel cell applications including 2-propanol, ethylene glycol, ascorbic acid and ascorbate studied in the literature as well as utilization of some blended fuels. In each part, the most recent literature is reviewed and the state of the art is presented. It also includes examples of practical problems with solutions and a summarized comparison of performance, advantages, and limitations of each type of fuel cell discussed. Direct Liquid Fuel Cells is not a typical textbook but rather designed as a reference book of which any level of students (undergraduate or graduate), instructors, field specialists, industry and general audience, who benefit from current and complete understanding of the many aspects involved in the development and operation of these types of fuel cells, could make use of any chapter when necessary. Presents information on different types of direct liquid fuel cells. Explores information under each section, for specific fuel-based fuel cells in more detail in terms of the materials used. Covers three main sections: direct alcohol, organic fuel-based and inorganic fuel-based fuel cells

Fuel Cells

Fuel Cells
Author: Noriko Hikosaka Behling
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 685
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 0444563253
ISBN 13: 9780444563255
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fuel Cells Book Review:

"This book is a one of a kind, definitive reference source for technical students and researchers, government policymakers, and business leaders. It provides an overview of past and present initiatives to improve and commercialize fuel cell technologies. It provides context and analysis to help potential investors assess current fuel cell commercialization activities and future prospects. Most importantly, it gives top executive policymakers and company presidents with detailed policy recommendations as to what should be done to successfully commercialize fuel cell technologies."--pub. desc.

Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Author: Antonio Salvatore Aricò,Vincenzo Baglio,Vincenzo Antonucci
Publsiher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Total Pages: 179
Release: 2010
ISBN 10: 9781608768653
ISBN 13: 1608768651
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Book Review:

This book deals with an analysis of materials issues, status of technologies and potential applications of direct methanol fuel cells. The principle of operation of direct methanol fuel cells and the status of knowledge in the basic research areas are presented. The technology of direct methanol fuel cells is discussed in this book with particular regard to fabrication methodologies for the manufacturing of catalysts, electrolytes membrane-electrode assemblies, stack hardware and system design.

Fuel Cells

Fuel Cells
Author: Paul Breeze
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 100
Release: 2017-02-09
ISBN 10: 0128095156
ISBN 13: 9780128095157
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fuel Cells Book Review:

Fuel Cells is a concise, up-to-date and accessible guide to the evolution of the use of electrochemistry to generate power. The author provides a comprehensive exploration of the history of fuel cells, the environmental concerns which came into prominence in the 1980s and the economic factors associated with this method of power generation. Examples discussed include Alkaline Fuel Cells, Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells, Molton Carbonate Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, making this a valuable and insightful read for those in the power generation market and those in electrochemistry, such as engineers, managers and academics. Explores multiple variations of fuel cell technology and evaluates their cost and application Provides detailed historical context, beginning in 1839 with the development of electrolysis Discusses the most up-to-date advancements and methods of fuel cell technology today

Fuel Cell Electronics Packaging

Fuel Cell Electronics Packaging
Author: Ken Kuang,Keith Easler
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 254
Release: 2007-08-26
ISBN 10: 0387473246
ISBN 13: 9780387473246
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fuel Cell Electronics Packaging Book Review:

Today's commercial, medical and military electronics are becoming smaller and smaller. At the same time these devices demand more power and currently this power requirement is met almost exclusively by battery power. This book includes coverage of ceramic hybrid separators for micro fuel cells and miniature fuel cells built with LTCC technology. It also covers novel fuel cells and discusses the application of fuel cell in microelectronics.

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology
Author: Christoph Hartnig,Christina Roth
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:874754222
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology Book Review:

Electrocatalysts for Low Temperature Fuel Cells

Electrocatalysts for Low Temperature Fuel Cells
Author: Thandavarayan Maiyalagan,Viswanathan S. Saji
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 420
Release: 2017-05-04
ISBN 10: 3527803866
ISBN 13: 9783527803866
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electrocatalysts for Low Temperature Fuel Cells Book Review:

Meeting the need for a text on solutions to conditions which have so far been a drawback for this important and trend-setting technology, this monograph places special emphasis on novel, alternative catalysts of low temperature fuel cells. Comprehensive in its coverage, the text discusses not only the electrochemical, mechanistic, and material scientific background, but also provides extensive chapters on the design and fabrication of electrocatalysts. A valuable resource aimed at multidisciplinary audiences in the fields of academia and industry.

Mini Micro Fuel Cells

Mini Micro Fuel Cells
Author: S. Kakaç,A. Pramuanjaroenkij,L. Vasiliev
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 422
Release: 2008-04-10
ISBN 10: 1402082959
ISBN 13: 9781402082955
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mini Micro Fuel Cells Book Review:

This volume contains an archival record of the NATO Advanced Institute on Mini – Micro Fuel Cells – Fundamental and Applications held in Çesme – Izmir, Turkey, July 22–August 3, 2007. The ASIs are intended to be a high-level teaching activity in scientific and technical areas of current concern. In this volume, the reader may find interesting chapters on Mini- Micro Fuel Cells with fundamentals and applications. In recent years, fu- cell development, modeling and performance analysis has received much attention due to their potential for distributed power which is a critical issue for energy security and the environmental protection. Small fuel cells for portable applications are important for the security. The portable devices (many electronic and wireless) operated by fuel cells for providing all-day power, are very valuable for the security, for defense and in the war against terrorism. Many companies in NATO and non-NATO countries have concentrated to promote the fuel cell industry. Many universities with industrial partners committed to the idea of working together to develop fuel cells. As tech- logy advanced in the 1980s and beyond, many government organizations joined in spending money on fuel-cell research. In recent years, interest in using fuel cells to power portable electronic devices and other small equipment (cell phones, mobile phones, lab-tops, they are used as micro power source in biological applications) has increased partly due to the promise of fuel cells having higher energy density.

Materials for Fuel Cells

Materials for Fuel Cells
Author: M Gasik
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2008-10-27
ISBN 10: 184569483X
ISBN 13: 9781845694838
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Materials for Fuel Cells Book Review:

A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of a reaction (between fuel and oxidant) directly into electricity. Given their efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells provide an important alternative to power produced from fossil fuels. A major challenge in their use is the need for better materials to make fuel cells cost-effective and more durable. This important book reviews developments in materials to fulfil the potential of fuel cells as a major power source. After introductory chapters on the key issues in fuel cell materials research, the book reviews the major types of fuel cell. These include alkaline fuel cells, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells and regenerative fuel cells. The book concludes with reviews of novel fuel cell materials, ways of analysing performance and issues affecting recyclability and life cycle assessment. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Materials for fuel cells is a valuable reference for all those researching, manufacturing and using fuel cells in such areas as automotive engineering. Examines the key issues in fuel cell materials research Reviews the major types of fuel cells such as direct methanol and regenerative fuel cells Further chapters explore ways of analysing performance and issues affecting recyclability and life cycle assessment

Micro Fuel Cells

Micro Fuel Cells
Author: Tim Zhao
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2009-07-07
ISBN 10: 9780080878874
ISBN 13: 0080878873
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Micro Fuel Cells Book Review:

Today's consumers of portable electronics consumers are demanding devices not only deliver more power but also work healthy for the environment. This fact alone has lead major corporations like Intel, BIC, Duracell and Microsoft to believe that Microfuel Cells could be the next-generation power source for electronic products. Compact and readable, Microfuels Principles and Applications, offers engineers and product designers a reference unsurpassed by any other in the market. The book starts with a clear and rigorous exposition of the fundamentals engineering principles governing energy conversion for small electronic devices, followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications. The authors provide original points of view on all types of commercially available micro fuel cells types, including micro proton exchange membrane fuel cells, micro direct methanol fuel cells, micro solid oxide fuel cells and micro bio-fuel cells. The book also contains a detailed introduction to the fabrication of the components and the assembly of the system, making it a valuable reference both in terms of its application to product design and understanding micro engineering principles. *An overview of the micro fuel cell systems and applications. *A detailed introduction to the fabrication of the components and the assembly of the system. *Original points of view on prospects of micro fuel cells.

Fuel Cell Engineering

Fuel Cell Engineering
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2012-08-14
ISBN 10: 0123868750
ISBN 13: 9780123868756
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fuel Cell Engineering Book Review:

Fuel cells are attractive electrochemical energy converters featuring potentially very high thermodynamic efficiency factors. The focus of this volume of Advances in Chemical Engineering is on quantitative approaches, particularly based on chemical engineering principles, to analyze, control and optimize the steady state and dynamic behavior of low and high temperature fuel cells (PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC) to be applied in mobile and stationary systems. Updates and informs the reader on the latest research findings using original reviews Written by leading industry experts and scholars Reviews and analyzes developments in the field

Recent Trends in Fuel Cell Science and Technology

Recent Trends in Fuel Cell Science and Technology
Author: S. Basu
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 375
Release: 2007-10-20
ISBN 10: 0387688153
ISBN 13: 9780387688152
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Recent Trends in Fuel Cell Science and Technology Book Review:

This book covers all the proposed fuel cell systems including PEMFC, SOFC, PAFC, MCFC, regenerative fuel cells, direct alcohol fuel cells, and small fuel cells to replace batteries.

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells for Portable Applications

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells for Portable Applications
Author: Alexandra M. F. R. Pinto,Vania Sofia Oliveira,Daniela Sofia Castro Falcao
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 353
Release: 2018-09-08
ISBN 10: 0128118989
ISBN 13: 9780128118986
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells for Portable Applications Book Review:

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells for Portable Applications: Fundamentals, Engineering and Advances presents the fundamental concepts, technological advances and challenges in developing, modeling and deploying fuel cells and fuel cell systems for portable devices, including micro and mini fuel cells. The authors review the fundamental science of direct alcohol fuel cells, covering, in detail, thermodynamics, electrode kinetics and electrocatalysis of charge-transfer reactions, mass and heat transfer phenomena, and basic modeling aspects. In addition, the book examines other fuels in DAFCs, such as formic acid, ethylene glycol and glycerol, along with technological aspects and applications, including case studies and cost analysis. Researchers, engineering professionals, fuel cell developers, policymakers and senior graduate students will find this a valuable resource. The book’s comprehensive coverage of fundamentals is especially useful for graduate students, advanced undergraduate students and those new to the field. Provides a comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of DAFCs and their basic components, design and performance Presents current and complete information on the state-of-the-art of DAFC technology and its most relevant challenges for commercial deployment Includes practical application examples, problems and case studies Covers the use of other fuels, such as formic acid, ethylene glycol and glycerol

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Author: David P. Wilkinson,Jiujun Zhang,Rob Hui,Jeffrey Fergus,Xianguo Li
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 460
Release: 2009-11-24
ISBN 10: 9781439806661
ISBN 13: 1439806667
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Book Review:

A Detailed, Up-to-Date Treatment of Key Developments in PEMFC Materials The potential to revolutionize the way we power our world Because of its lower temperature and special polymer electrolyte membrane, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is well-suited for transportation, portable, and micro fuel cell applications. But the performance of these fuel cells critically depends on the materials used for the various cell components. Durability, water management, and reducing catalyst poisoning are important factors when selecting PEMFC materials. Written by international PEMFC scientists and engineers from top-level organizations, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Materials Properties and Performance provides a single resource of information for understanding how to select and develop materials for improved PEMFC performance. The book focuses on the major components of the fuel cell unit, along with design and modeling aspects. It covers catalysts and catalyst layers, before discussing the key components of membranes, diffusion layers, and bipolar plates. The book also explores materials modeling for the PEMFC. This volume assesses the current status of PEMFC fuel cell technology, research and development directions, and the scientific and engineering challenges facing the fuel cell community. It demonstrates how the production of a commercially viable PEMFC requires a compromise of materials with adequate properties, design interaction, and manufacturability.

Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Author: Rose Hernandez,Caryl Dunning
Publsiher: Nova Science Publishers
Total Pages: 171
Release: 2017
ISBN 10: 9781536126037
ISBN 13: 1536126039
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Book Review:

In Chapter One, L. Khotseng and G. Vaivars provide an overview of the recent advances in electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells for both anode and cathode catalysts in order to present direct methanol fuel cells as an alternative power source for portable devices. In Chapter Two, Nobuyoshi Nakagawa, Mohammad Ali Abdelkareem, Takuya Tsujiguchi, and Mohd Shahbudin Masdar propose a fuel supply layer using a porous carbon plate (PCP) for DMFCs allowing for the use of high methanol concentrations. The proposed layer is comprised of a thin PCP layer, as well as a gap layer that has a mechanism to supply the methanol as a vapor. Next, Chapter Three by D.S. Falc�o, J. P. Pereira, and A.M.F.R. Pinto review the multiphase flow in fuel cells modelling approaches while also reviewing the flow visualisation techniques for flow analysis in fuel cells. Chapter Four by B.A. Braz, V.B. Oliveira, and A.M.F.R. Pinto closes the book by discussing the key work that has been done to improve the passive DMFC performance and providing a review on the most recent developments in passive DMFCs.

Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cells

Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cells
Author: Javaid Zaidi,Takeshi Matsuura
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 550
Release: 2010-07-15
ISBN 10: 0387735321
ISBN 13: 9780387735320
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cells Book Review:

From the late-1960’s, perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSAs) ionomers have dominated the PEM fuel cell industry as the membrane material of choice. The “gold standard’ amongst the many variations that exist today has been, and to a great extent still is, DuPont’s Nafion® family of materials. However, there is significant concern in the industry that these materials will not meet the cost, performance, and durability requirementsnecessary to drive commercialization in key market segments – es- cially automotive. Indeed, Honda has already put fuel cell vehicles in the hands of real end users that have home-grown fuel cell stack technology incorporating hydrocarbon-based ionomers. “Polymer Membranes in Fuel Cells” takes an in-depth look at the new chem- tries and membrane technologies that have been developed over the years to address the concerns associated with the materials currently in use. Unlike the PFSAs, which were originally developed for the chlor-alkali industry, the more recent hydrocarbon and composite materials have been developed to meet the specific requirements of PEM Fuel Cells. Having said this, most of the work has been based on derivatives of known polymers, such as poly(ether-ether ketones), to ensure that the critical requirement of low cost is met. More aggressive operational requi- ments have also spurred the development on new materials; for example, the need for operation at higher temperature under low relative humidity has spawned the creation of a plethora of new polymers with potential application in PEM Fuel Cells.