Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1
Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 894
Release: 2015-11-12
ISBN 10: 0323312705
ISBN 13: 9780323312707
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1 Book Review:

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects, Second Edition, provides an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation. Each volume in this series contains a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. This volume forms the heart of the series, covering the fundamentals and application aspects, characterization of surface contaminants, and methods for removal of surface contamination. In addition, new cleaning techniques effective at smaller scales are considered and employed for removal where conventional cleaning techniques fail, along with new cleaning techniques for molecular contaminants. The Volume is edited by the leading experts in small particle surface contamination and cleaning, providing an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control, and procurement specification in a multitude of industries such as aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. Provides best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or those who handle the consequences of surface contamination Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries as spearheaded by the semiconductor industry Presents state-of-the-art survey information on precision cleaning and characterization methods as written by a team of world-class experts in the field

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning - Vol 2

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning - Vol 2
Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2009-10-02
ISBN 10: 9781437778311
ISBN 13: 1437778313
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning - Vol 2 Book Review:

Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. Topics covered include: A systems analysis approach to contamination control Physical factors that influence the behavior of particle deposition in enclosures An overview of current yield models and description of advanced models Types of strippable coatings, their properties and applications of these coatings for removal of surface contaminants In-depth coverage of ultrasonic cleaning Contamination and cleaning issues at the nanoscale Experimental results illustrating the impact of model parameters on the removal of particle contamination The expert contributions in this book provide a valuable source of information on the current status and recent developments in surface contamination and cleaning. The book will be of value to industry, government and academic personnel involved in research and development, manufacturing, process and quality control, and procurement specifications across sectors including microelectronics, aerospace, optics, xerography and joining (adhesive bonding). ABOUT THE EDITORS Rajiv Kohli is a leading expert with The Aerospace Corporation in contaminant particle behavior, surface cleaning, and contamination control. At the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, he provides technical support for contamination control related to ground-based and manned spaceflight hardware for the Space Shuttle, the International Space Station, and the new Constellation Program that is designed to meet the United States Vision for Space Exploration. Kashmiri Lal "Kash" Mittal was associated with IBM from 1972 to 1994. Currently, he is teaching and consulting in the areas of surface contamination and cleaning, and in adhesion science and technology. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology and is the editor of 98 published books, many of them dealing with surface contamination and cleaning. Also available Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects (edited by Rajiv Kohli & K.L. Mittal). ISBN: 9780815515555. · Provides guidance on best-practice cleaning techniques and the avoidance of surface contamination · Covers contamination and cleaning issues at the nanoscale · Includes an in-depth look at ultrasonic cleaning

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Applications of Cleaning Techniques

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Applications of Cleaning Techniques
Author: Rajiv Kohli,K.L. Mittal
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 830
Release: 2018-11-27
ISBN 10: 0128155787
ISBN 13: 9780128155783
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Applications of Cleaning Techniques Book Review:

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Applications of Cleaning Techniques, Volume Eleven, part of the Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning series, provides a guide to recent advances in the application of cleaning techniques for the removal of surface contamination in various industries, such as aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. The material in this new edition compiles cleaning applications into one easy reference that has been fully updated to incorporate new applications and techniques. Taken as a whole, the series forms a unique reference for professionals and academics working in the area of surface contamination and cleaning. Presents the latest reviewed technical information on precision cleaning applications as written by established experts in the field Provides a single source on the applications of innovative precision cleaning techniques for a wide variety of industries Serves as a guide to the selection of precision cleaning techniques for specific applications

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 7

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 7
Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 206
Release: 2014-11-18
ISBN 10: 0323311458
ISBN 13: 9780323311458
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 7 Book Review:

As device sizes in the semiconductor industries are shrinking, they become more vulnerable to smaller contaminant particles, and most conventional cleaning techniques employed in the industry are not as effective at smaller scales. The book series Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning as a whole provides an excellent source of information on these alternative cleaning techniques as well as methods for characterization and validation of surface contamination. Each volume has a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. The chapters in this Volume address the sources of surface contaminants and various methods for their collection and characterization, as well as methods for cleanliness validation. Regulatory aspects of cleaning are also covered. The collection of topics in this book is unique and complements other volumes in this series. Edited by the leading experts in small-scale particle surface contamination, cleaning and cleaning control, these books will be an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification situated in a multitude of industries such as: aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. Provides a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries, spearheaded by the semiconductor industry and others Includes new regulatory aspects

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning - Vol 6

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning - Vol 6
Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 208
Release: 2013-05-27
ISBN 10: 1437778801
ISBN 13: 9781437778809
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning - Vol 6 Book Review:

In this series Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. The expert contributions in this volume cover important fundamental aspects of surface contamination that are key to understanding the behavior of specific types of contaminants. This understanding is essential to develop preventative and mitigation methods for contamination control. The coverage complements the treatment of surface contamination in vol.1, Fundamental and Applied Aspects. This volume covers: Sources and Generation of Particles; Manipulation Techniques for Particles on Surfaces; Particle Deposition and Rebound; Particle Behavior in Liquid Systems; Biological and Metallic Contamination; and includes a comprehensive list of current standards and resources. Comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface contamination and cleaning Written by established experts in the contamination and cleaning field Each chapter is a comprehensive review of the state of the art Case studies included

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 12

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 12
Author: Rajiv Kohli,K.L. Mittal
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 276
Release: 2019-06-08
ISBN 10: 0128162953
ISBN 13: 9780128162958
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 12 Book Review:

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Methods for Assessment and Verification of Cleanliness of Surfaces and Characterization of Surface Contaminants, Volume Twelve, the latest release in the Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning series, provides best practices on determining surface cleanliness. Chapters include an introduction to the nature and size of particles, a discussion of cleanliness levels, detailed coverage of measurement methods, characterization methods and analytical methods for evaluating surfaces, and an overview of analysis methods for various contaminants. As a whole, the series creates a unique and comprehensive knowledge base for those in research and development in a variety of industries. Manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification professionals in the aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography industries will find this book to be very helpful. In addition, researchers in an academic setting will also find these volumes excellent source books. Includes an extensive listing, with a description of available methods for the assessment of surface cleanliness Provides a single source of information on methods for verification of surface cleanliness Serves as a guide to the selection, assessment and verification of methods for specific applications

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning
Author: Rajiv Kohli
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2012-11-05
ISBN 10: 143777881X
ISBN 13: 9781437778816
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Book Review:

In this series Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. The expert contributions in this volume cover important fundamental aspects of surface contamination that are key to understanding the behavior of specific types of contaminants. This understanding is essential to develop preventative and mitigation methods for contamination control. The coverage complements the treatment of surface contamination in vol.1, Fundamental and Applied Aspects. This volume covers: Sources and Generation of Particles; Manipulation Techniques for Particles on Surfaces; Particle Deposition and Rebound; Particle Behavior in Liquid Systems; Biological and Metallic Contamination; and includes a comprehensive list of current standards and resources. Feature: Comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface contamination and cleaning Benefit: One-stop series where a wide range of readers will be sure to find a solution to their cleaning problem, saving the time involved in consulting a range of disparate sources. Feature: Written by established experts in the contamination and cleaning field Benefit: Provides an authoritative resource Feature: Each chapter is a comprehensive review of the state of the art. Benefit: Can be relied on to provide insight, clarity and real expertise on up-to-the-minute innovations. Feature: Case studies included Benefit: Case studies help the reader see theory applied to the solution of real-world practical cleaning and contamination problems.

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Methods for Surface Cleaning

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Methods for Surface Cleaning
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 329
Release:
ISBN 10: 9780323431576
ISBN 13: 0323431577
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Methods for Surface Cleaning Book Review:

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning
Author: Rajiv Kohli
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 340
Release: 2011
ISBN 10: 1437778836
ISBN 13: 9781437778830
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Book Review:

In this series Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. The expert contributions in this volume cover important fundamental aspects of surface contamination that are key to understanding the behavior of specific types of contaminants. This understanding is essential to develop preventative and mitigation methods for contamination control. The coverage complements the treatment of surface contamination in vol.1, Fundamental and Applied Aspects. This volume covers: Sources and Generation of Particles; Manipulation Techniques for Particles on Surfaces; Particle Deposition and Rebound; Particle Behavior in Liquid Systems; Biological and Metallic Contamination; and includes a comprehensive list of current standards and resources. Feature: Comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface contamination and cleaning Benefit: One-stop series where a wide range of readers will be sure to find a solution to their cleaning problem, saving the time involved in consulting a range of disparate sources. Feature: Written by established experts in the contamination and cleaning field Benefit: Provides an authoritative resource Feature: Each chapter is a comprehensive review of the state of the art. Benefit: Can be relied on to provide insight, clarity and real expertise on up-to-the-minute innovations. Feature: Case studies included Benefit: Case studies help the reader see theory applied to the solution of real-world practical cleaning and contamination problems.

Surface Contamination and Cleaning

Surface Contamination and Cleaning
Author: Kash L. Mittal
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 364
Release: 2003-03-01
ISBN 10: 9047403282
ISBN 13: 9789047403289
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Surface Contamination and Cleaning Book Review:

This volume documents the proceedings of the International Symposium on Surface Contamination and Cleaning, held in Newark, New Jersey, May 23-25, 2001. Because of the importance of this topic in many technological areas, tremendous efforts have been devoted to devise novel and more efficient ways to monitor, analyse and characterize contamination

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 3

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 3
Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 258
Release: 2011-03-25
ISBN 10: 9781437778861
ISBN 13: 1437778860
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 3 Book Review:

The contributions in this volume cover methods for removal of particle contaminants on surfaces. Several of these methods are well established and have been employed in industrial applications for a long time. However, the ever- higher demand for removal of smaller particles on newer substrate materials is driving continuous development of the established cleaning methods and alternative innovative methods for particle removal. This book provides information on the latest developments in this topic area. Comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface contamination and cleaning Written by established experts in the contamination and cleaning field Each chapter is a comprehensive review of the state of the art Case studies included

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 4

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 4
Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2011-09-26
ISBN 10: 1437778844
ISBN 13: 9781437778847
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 4 Book Review:

In this series Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. The expert contributions in this volume cover important fundamental aspects of surface contamination that are key to understanding the behavior of specific types of contaminants. This understanding is essential to develop preventative and mitigation methods for contamination control. The coverage complements the treatment of surface contamination in vol.1, Fundamental and Applied Aspects. This volume covers: Sources and Generation of Particles; Manipulation Techniques for Particles on Surfaces; Particle Deposition and Rebound; Particle Behavior in Liquid Systems; Biological and Metallic Contamination; and includes a comprehensive list of current standards and resources. Comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface contamination and cleaning Written by established experts in the contamination and cleaning field Each chapter is a comprehensive review of the state of the art Case studies included

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 8

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 8
Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 234
Release: 2015-06-03
ISBN 10: 0323312713
ISBN 13: 9780323312714
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 8 Book Review:

As device sizes in the semiconductor industries shrink, devices become more vulnerable to smaller contaminant particles, and most conventional cleaning techniques employed in the industry are not effective at smaller scales. The book series Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning as a whole provides an excellent source of information on these alternative cleaning techniques as well as methods for characterization and validation of surface contamination. Each volume has a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. Several novel wet and dry surface cleaning methods are addressed in this Volume. Many of these methods have not been reviewed previously, or the previous reviews are dated. These methods are finding increasing commercial application and the information in this book will be of high value to the reader. Edited by the leading experts in small-scale particle surface contamination, cleaning and cleaning control these books will be an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification situated in a multitude of industries such as: aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. Provides a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries, spearheaded by the semiconductor industry and others Covers novel wet and dry surface cleaning methods of increasing commercial importance

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 7

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 7
Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 206
Release: 2018-11-13
ISBN 10: 9780128103302
ISBN 13: 0128103302
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 7 Book Review:

As device sizes in the semiconductor industries are shrinking, they become more vulnerable to smaller contaminant particles, and most conventional cleaning techniques employed in the industry are not as effective at smaller scales. The book series Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning as a whole provides an excellent source of information on these alternative cleaning techniques as well as methods for characterization and validation of surface contamination. Each volume has a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. The chapters in this Volume address the sources of surface contaminants and various methods for their collection and characterization, as well as methods for cleanliness validation. Regulatory aspects of cleaning are also covered. The collection of topics in this book is unique and complements other volumes in this series. Edited by the leading experts in small-scale particle surface contamination, cleaning and cleaning control, these books will be an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification situated in a multitude of industries such as: aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. Provides a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries, spearheaded by the semiconductor industry and others Includes new regulatory aspects

Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, 2nd Edition

Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, 2nd Edition
Author: Karen Reinhardt,Werner Kern
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 660
Release: 2008-12-10
ISBN 10: 0815517734
ISBN 13: 9780815517733
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, 2nd Edition Book Review:

The second Edition of the Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology is intended to provide knowledge of wet, plasma, and other surface conditioning techniques used to manufacture integrated circuits. The integration of the clean processes into the device manufacturing flow will be presented with respect to other manufacturing steps such as thermal, implant, etching, and photolithography processes. The Handbook discusses both wet and plasma-based cleaning technologies that are used for removing contamination, particles, residue, and photoresist from wafer surfaces. Both the process and the equipment are covered. A review of the current cleaning technologies is included. Also, advanced cleaning technologies that are under investigation for next generation processing are covered; including supercritical fluid, laser, and cryoaerosol cleaning techniques. Additionally theoretical aspects of the cleaning technologies and how these processes affect the wafer is discussed such as device damage and surface roughening will be discussed. The analysis of the wafers surface is outlined. A discussion of the new materials and the changes required for the surface conditioning process used for manufacturing is also included. Focused on silicon wafer cleaning techniques including wet, plasma, and other surface conditioning techniques used to manufacture integrated circuits As this book covers the major technologies for removing contaminants, it is a reliable reference for anyone that manufactures integrated circuits, or supplies the semiconductor and microelectronics industries Covers processes and equipment, as well as new materials and changes required for the surface conditioning process Editors are two of the top names in the field and are both extensively published Discusses next generation processing techniques including supercritical fluid, laser, and cryoaerosol

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Types of Contamination and Contamination Resources

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Types of Contamination and Contamination Resources
Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 194
Release: 2016-12-01
ISBN 10: 9780323431583
ISBN 13: 0323431585
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Types of Contamination and Contamination Resources Book Review:

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume Ten, provides a state-of-the-art guide to the current knowledge on the behavior of film-type and particulate surface contaminants and their cleaning methods. This newest volume in the series discusses mechanisms of particle adhesion, particle behavior in liquid systems, and metallic contamination and its impact. In addition, the book includes a discussion of the types of contaminants, with resources to deal with them and information on environmental issues related to surface contamination and cleaning. Taken as a whole, the series forms a unique reference for professionals and academics working in the area of surface contamination and cleaning that also includes information on cleaning at the micro and nano scales. Written by established experts in the contamination field that provide an authoritative resource Presents a comprehensive review of new trends in contaminants and resources for dealing with those contaminants Contains detailed case studies to illustrate various scenarios

Surface Contamination

Surface Contamination
Author: K. L. Mittal
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 556
Release: 1979
ISBN 10: 9781468435078
ISBN 13: 1468435078
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Surface Contamination Book Review:

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning - Fundamentals and Applied Aspects

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning - Fundamentals and Applied Aspects
Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 1200
Release: 2013-01-15
ISBN 10: 9780080947471
ISBN 13: 0080947476
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning - Fundamentals and Applied Aspects Book Review:

Surface contamination is of cardinal importance in a host of technologies and industries, ranging from microelectronics to optics to automotive to biomedical. Thus, the need to understand the causes of surface contamination and their removal is very patent. Generally speaking, there are two broad categories of surface contaminants: film-type and particulates. In the world of shrinking dimensions, such as the ever-decreasing size of microelectronic devices, there is an intensified need to understand the behavior of nanoscale particles and to devise ways to remove them to an acceptable level. Particles which were functionally innocuous a few years ago are ôkiller defectsö today, with serious implications for yield and reliability of the components. This book addresses the sources, detection, characterization and removal of both kinds of contaminants, as well as ways to prevent surfaces from being contaminated. A number of techniques to monitor the level of cleanliness are also discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the behaviour of nanoscale particles. The book is amply referenced and profusely illustrated. • Excellent reference for a host of technologies and industries ranging from microelectronics to optics to automotive to biomedical. • A single source document addressing everything from the sources of contamination to their removal and prevention. • Amply referenced and profusely illustrated.

Self-Cleaning Materials and Surfaces

Self-Cleaning Materials and Surfaces
Author: Walid A. Daoud
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 368
Release: 2013-07-12
ISBN 10: 1118652363
ISBN 13: 9781118652367
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Self-Cleaning Materials and Surfaces Book Review:

With increasing demand for hygienic, self-disinfecting and contamination free surfaces, interest in developing self-cleaning protective materials and surfaces has grown rapidly in recent times. This new title comprises of invited chapters from renowned researchers in the area of self-cleaning nano-coatings and the result is a comprehensive review of current research on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic (photocatalytic effect) self-cleaning materials.

Cleaning Pakistan’s Air

Cleaning Pakistan’s Air
Author: Ernesto Sánchez-Triana,Santiago Enriquez,Javaid Afzal,Akiko Nakagawa,Asif Shuja Khan
Publsiher: World Bank Publications
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2014-06-26
ISBN 10: 146480236X
ISBN 13: 9781464802362
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cleaning Pakistan’s Air Book Review:

The extent of urban air pollution in Pakistan—South Asia's most urbanized country—is among the world’s most severe, significantly damaging human health, quality of life, and the economy and environment of Pakistan. The harm from Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the highest in South Asia, exceeding several high-profile causes of mortality and morbidity in Pakistan. Improved air quality management (AQM) in Pakistan can have notable economic and health benefits. For example, the estimated health benefits per dollar spent on cleaner diesel are approximately US $1–1.5 for light-duty diesel vehicles and US $1.5–2.4 for large buses and trucks. This report advocates that Pakistan allocate resources to AQM, because its air quality is severely affecting millions of Pakistanis, and because experiences around the world indicate that interventions can significantly improve air quality. This report details a broad spectrum of research on Pakistan’s AQM challenges, and identifies a comprehensive set of steps to improve air quality. The research presented here underpins the conclusions that addressing Pakistan's urban air pollution requires coordinated interventions to strengthen AQM, build agencies' institutional capacity, bolster AQM's legal and regulatory framework, implement policy reforms and investments, and fill knowledge gaps. However, Pakistan's policy makers face major obstacles, including limited financial, human, and technical resources, and can pursue only a few AQM interventions at the same time. In the short term, Pakistan's AQM should give highest priority to reducing pollutants linked to high morbidity and mortality: PM2.5 (and precursors like SOx and NOx) from mobile sources. A second-level short-term priority could be PM2.5, SOx, and emissions of toxic metals from stationary sources. An important medium-term priority should be mass transportation in major cities, controlling traffic, and restricting private cars during high-pollution episodes. A long-term priority could be taxing hydrocarbons, based on their contribution to greenhouse gases.