A Systematic Survey of Computer Aided Diagnosis in Medicine Past and Present Developments

A Systematic Survey of Computer Aided Diagnosis in Medicine  Past and Present Developments
Author: Juri Yanase,Evangelos Triantaphyllou
Publsiher: Infinite Study
Total Pages: 51
Release: 2021
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: 9182736450XXX
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Systematic Survey of Computer Aided Diagnosis in Medicine Past and Present Developments Book Review:

Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in medicine is the result of a large amount of effort expended in the interface of medicine and computer science. As some CAD systems in medicine try to emulate the diagnostic decision-making process of medical experts, they can be considered as expert systems in medicine.

Diabetes and Fundus OCT

Diabetes and Fundus OCT
Author: Ayman S. El-Baz,Jasjit S. Suri
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 434
Release: 2020-04-02
ISBN 10: 0128174412
ISBN 13: 9780128174418
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Diabetes and Fundus OCT Book Review:

Diabetes and Fundus OCT brings together a stellar cast of authors who review the computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems developed to diagnose non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in an automated fashion using Fundus and OCTA images. Academic researchers, bioengineers, new investigators and students interested in diabetes and retinopathy need an authoritative reference to bring this multidisciplinary field together to help reduce the amount of time spent on source-searching and instead focus on actual research and the clinical application. This reference depicts the current clinical understanding of diabetic retinopathy, along with the many scientific advances in understanding this condition. As the role of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the assessment and management of diabetic retinopathy has become significant in understanding the vireo retinal relationships and the internal architecture of the retina, this information is more critical than ever. Includes unique information for academic clinicians, researchers and bioengineers Provides insights needed to understand the imaging modalities involved, the unmet clinical need that is being addressed, and the engineering and technical approaches applied Brings together details on the retinal vasculature in diabetics as imaged by optical coherence tomography angiography and automated detection of retinal disease

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
Author: Ayman S. El-Baz,Jasjit S. Suri
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 372
Release: 2021-03-26
ISBN 10: 0128174293
ISBN 13: 9780128174296
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Book Review:

Computer-Assisted Diagnosis: Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease brings together multifaceted information on research and clinical applications from an academic, clinical, bioengineering and bioinformatics perspective. The editors provide a stellar, diverse list of authors to explore this interesting field. Academic researchers, bioengineers, new investigators and students interested in diabetes and heart disease need an authoritative reference to reduce the amount of time spent on source-searching so they can spend more time on actual research and clinical application. This reference accomplishes this with contributions by authors from around the world. Provides valuable information for academic clinicians, researchers, bioengineers and industry on diabetes and cardiovascular disease Discusses the impact of diabetes on cardiovascular disease Covers statistical classification techniques and risk stratification

Breast Imaging

Breast Imaging
Author: Cherie M. Kuzmiak
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 142
Release: 2018-01-17
ISBN 10: 9535137328
ISBN 13: 9789535137320
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Breast Imaging Book Review:

Early detection of breast cancer with screening mammography is still the best method we have in saving countless women's lives and decreasing the harms of overtreatment. This textbook encompasses relevant topics in daily patient care with breast imaging to technical innovations for improving breast cancer detection and treatment.

The Ethics of Diagnosis

The Ethics of Diagnosis
Author: José Luis Peset,Diego Gracia Guillén
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 315
Release: 2007-07-23
ISBN 10: 0585283338
ISBN 13: 9780585283333
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Ethics of Diagnosis Book Review:

A major focus of the philosophy of medicine and, in general, of the philosophy of science has been the interplay of facts and values. Nowhere is an evaluation of this interplay more important than in the ethics of diagnosis. Traditionally, diagnosis has been understood as an epistemological activity which is concerned with facts and excludes the intrusion of values. The essays in this volume challenge this assumption. Questions of knowledge in diagnosis are intimately related to the concerns with intervention that characterize the applied science of medicine. Broad social and individual goals, as well as diverse ethical frameworks, are shown to condition both the processes and results of diagnosis. This has significant implications for bioethics, implications that have not previously been developed. With this volume, `the ethics of diagnosis' is established as an important branch of bioethics.

Digital Mammography

Digital Mammography
Author: Nico Karssemeijer,Martin Thijssen,Jan Hendriks,Leon van Erning
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 519
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 9401153183
ISBN 13: 9789401153188
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Digital Mammography Book Review:

In June 1998 the Fourth International Workshop on Digital Mammography was held in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, where it was hosted by the department of Radiology of the University Hospital Nijmegen. This series of meetings was initiated at the 1993 SPIE Biomedical Image Processing Conference in San Jose, USA, where a number of sessions were entirely devoted to mammographic image analysis. At very successful subsequent workshops held in York, UK (1994) and Chicago, USA (1996), the scope of the conference was broadened, establishing a platform for presentation and discussion of new developments in digital mammog raphy. Topics that are addressed at these meetings are computer-aided diagnosis, image processing, detector development, system design, observer performance and clinical evaluation. The goal is to bring researchers from universities, breast cancer experts, and engineers together, to exchange information and present new scientific developments in this rapidly evolving field. This book contains all the scientific papers and posters presented at the work shop in Nijmegen. Contributions came from as many as 20 different countries and 190 participants attended the meeting. At a technical exhibit companies demon strated new products and work in progress. Abstracts of all papers were reviewed by members of the scientific committee. Many of the accepted papers had excellent quality, but due to limited space not all of them could be included as full papers in these proceedings. Papers that were rated high by the reviewers are included as long or short papers, others appear as extended abstracts in the last chapter.

Computer Assisted Radiology Computergest tzte Radiologie

Computer Assisted Radiology   Computergest  tzte Radiologie
Author: Heinz U. Lemke,Kiyonari Inamura,C.Carl Jaffe,Roland Felix
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 836
Release: 2013-06-29
ISBN 10: 3642493513
ISBN 13: 9783642493515
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computer Assisted Radiology Computergest tzte Radiologie Book Review:

CAR is a symposium and exhibition covering the impact of computer and communication systems applied to radiology and other medical disciplines, which use digital imaging for diagnosis and therapy planning. CAR '93 also provides tutorials, but more emphasis is given to a broad variety of specific problems related to medical/technical issues in digital imaging. This is achieved through in-depth presentations of results of current medical imaging projects on a worldwide basis.

Diagnosis Philosophical and Medical Perspectives

Diagnosis  Philosophical and Medical Perspectives
Author: N. Laor,J. Agassi
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 263
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 9400920857
ISBN 13: 9789400920859
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Diagnosis Philosophical and Medical Perspectives Book Review:

1. GENERAL The term "diagnostics" refers to the general theory of diagnosis, not to the study of specific diagnoses but to their general framework. It borrows from different sciences and from different philosophies. Traditionally, the general framework of diagnostics was not distinguished from the framework of medicine. It was not taught in special courses in any systematic way; it was not accorded special attention: students absorbed it intuitively. There is almost no comprehensive study of diagnostics. The instruction in diagnosis provided in medical schools is exclusively specific. Clinical instruction includes (in addition to vital background information, such as anatomy and physiology) specific instruction in nosology, the theory and classification of diseases, and this includes information on diagnoses and prognoses of diverse diseases. What is the cause of the neglect of diagnostics, and of its integrated teaching? The main cause may be the prevalence of the view of diagnostics as part-and parcel of nosology. In this book nosology is taken as a given, autonomous field of study, which invites almost no comments; we shall freely borrow from it a few important general theses and a few examples. We attempt to integrate here three studies: ll of the way nosology is used in the diagnostic process; of the diagnostic process as a branch of applied ethics; ~ of the diagnostic process as a branch of social science and social technology.

Machine Learning in Computer Aided Diagnosis Medical Imaging Intelligence and Analysis

Machine Learning in Computer Aided Diagnosis  Medical Imaging Intelligence and Analysis
Author: Suzuki, Kenji
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 524
Release: 2012-01-31
ISBN 10: 1466600608
ISBN 13: 9781466600607
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Machine Learning in Computer Aided Diagnosis Medical Imaging Intelligence and Analysis Book Review:

"This book provides a comprehensive overview of machine learning research and technology in medical decision-making based on medical images"--Provided by publisher.

Computer Aided Detection and Diagnosis in Medical Imaging

Computer Aided Detection and Diagnosis in Medical Imaging
Author: Qiang Li,Robert M. Nishikawa
Publsiher: Taylor & Francis
Total Pages: 454
Release: 2015-03-17
ISBN 10: 1439871779
ISBN 13: 9781439871775
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computer Aided Detection and Diagnosis in Medical Imaging Book Review:

Improve the Accurate Detection and Diagnosis of Cancer and Other Diseases Despite the expansion of the CAD field in recent decades, there is currently no single book dedicated to the development and use of CAD systems. Filling this need, Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis in Medical Imaging covers the major technical advances and methodologies shaping the development and clinical utility of CAD systems in breast imaging, chest imaging, abdominal imaging, and other emerging applications. After a historical overview of CAD, the book is divided into four sections. The first section presents CAD technologies in breast imaging, which is the most advanced area of CAD application. The second section discusses CAD technologies in chest and abdominal imaging. The third section explores emerging CAD technologies in a wide range of imaging modalities designed to address a variety of diseases. The final section describes the current use of CAD systems in clinical practice as well as how CAD will play an important role in quantitative image biomarkers and imaging genomics research. This book brings together existing and emerging CAD approaches at a level understandable to students, CAD system developers, basic scientists, and physician scientists. Newcomers to CAD research will learn about fundamental aspects in the process of CAD system development. Developers of CAD systems will gain insight on designing new or improved CAD systems. Experienced researchers will get up-to-date information on the latest CAD technologies.

Diabetes and Retinopathy

Diabetes and Retinopathy
Author: Ayman S. El-Baz,Jasjit S. Suri
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 246
Release: 2020-05-12
ISBN 10: 0128174390
ISBN 13: 9780128174395
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Diabetes and Retinopathy Book Review:

Diabetes and Retinopathy brings together the multifaceted information about the research and clinical application from academic, clinical, bioengineering and bioinformatics perspectives. The editors bring together a stellar cast of authors to pull together this diverse and interesting field. Academic researchers, bioengineers, new investigators and students interested in diabetes and retinopathy need an authoritative reference to bring this multidisciplinary field together to reduce the amount of time spent on source-searching and more time on actual research and the clinical application. This reference depicts the current clinical understanding of DR as well as the many scientific advances in understanding this condition. Provides valuable information for academic clinicians, researchers, bioengineers and industry on diabetes and retinopathy Discusses the impact of diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of new-onset visual loss in all the industrialized nations Covers statistical classification techniques and risk stratification

Pattern Recognition and Signal Analysis in Medical Imaging

Pattern Recognition and Signal Analysis in Medical Imaging
Author: Anke Meyer-Baese,Volker J. Schmid
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 466
Release: 2014-03-21
ISBN 10: 0124166156
ISBN 13: 9780124166158
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pattern Recognition and Signal Analysis in Medical Imaging Book Review:

Medical imaging is one of the heaviest funded biomedical engineering research areas. The second edition of Pattern Recognition and Signal Analysis in Medical Imaging brings sharp focus to the development of integrated systems for use in the clinical sector, enabling both imaging and the automatic assessment of the resultant data. Since the first edition, there has been tremendous development of new, powerful technologies for detecting, storing, transmitting, analyzing, and displaying medical images. Computer-aided analytical techniques, coupled with a continuing need to derive more information from medical images, has led to a growing application of digital processing techniques in cancer detection as well as elsewhere in medicine. This book is an essential tool for students and professionals, compiling and explaining proven and cutting-edge methods in pattern recognition for medical imaging. New edition has been expanded to cover signal analysis, which was only superficially covered in the first edition New chapters cover Cluster Validity Techniques, Computer-Aided Diagnosis Systems in Breast MRI, Spatio-Temporal Models in Functional, Contrast-Enhanced and Perfusion Cardiovascular MRI Gives readers an unparalleled insight into the latest pattern recognition and signal analysis technologies, modeling, and applications

Proceedings of 2021 International Conference on Medical Imaging and Computer Aided Diagnosis MICAD 2021

Proceedings of 2021 International Conference on Medical Imaging and Computer Aided Diagnosis  MICAD 2021
Author: Ruidan Su,Yu-Dong Zhang,Han Liu
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 439
Release: 2021-08-14
ISBN 10: 9811638802
ISBN 13: 9789811638800
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proceedings of 2021 International Conference on Medical Imaging and Computer Aided Diagnosis MICAD 2021 Book Review:

This book covers virtually all aspects of image formation in medical imaging, including systems based on ionizing radiation (x-rays, gamma rays) and non-ionizing techniques (ultrasound, optical, thermal, magnetic resonance, and magnetic particle imaging) alike. In addition, it discusses the development and application of computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) systems in medical imaging. Also there will be a special track on computer-aided diagnosis on COVID-19 by CT and X-rays images. Given its coverage, the book provides both a forum and valuable resource for researchers involved in image formation, experimental methods, image performance, segmentation, pattern recognition, feature extraction, classifier design, machine learning / deep learning, radiomics, CAD workstation design, human–computer interaction, databases, and performance evaluation.

Computer Assisted Medical Decision Making

Computer Assisted Medical Decision Making
Author: J.A. Reggia,S. Tuhrim
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 1461251087
ISBN 13: 9781461251088
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computer Assisted Medical Decision Making Book Review:

Computer technology has impacted the practice of medicine in dramatic ways. Imaging techniques provide noninvasive tools which alter the diag nostic process. Sophisticated monitoring equipment presents new levels of detail for both patient management and research. In most of these high technology applications, the computer is embedded in the device; its presence is transparent to the user. There is also a growing number of applications in which the health care provider directly interacts with a computer. In many cases, these appli cations are limited to administrative functions, e.g., office practice man agement, location of hospital patients, appointments, and scheduling. Nevertheless, there also are instances of patient care functions such as results reporting, decision support, surveillance, and reminders. This series, Computers and Medicine, will focus upon the direct use of information systems as it relates to the medical community. After twenty-five years of experimentation and experience, there are many tested applications which can be implemented economically using the current generation of computers. Moreover, the falling cost of computers suggests that there will be even more extensive use in the near future. Yet there is a gap between current practice and the state-of-the-art.

Investigation of Image Processing and Computer Assisted Diagnosis System for Automatic Video Vision Development Assessment

Investigation of Image Processing and Computer Assisted Diagnosis System for Automatic Video Vision Development Assessment
Author: Tsaipei Wang
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 143
Release: 2005
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:672010374
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Investigation of Image Processing and Computer Assisted Diagnosis System for Automatic Video Vision Development Assessment Book Review:

Amblyopia (lazy eye) affects about 2-5% of general population. It is a leading cause of single-eye blindness in adults. Video-based photoscreenirig, pioneered by Dr. Gerhard W. Cibis, is a technique effective for screening very young children for amblyopia-causing factors, which is essential to the prevention. This dissertation presents the first ever work to automate this screening technique. The main challenge in algorithm development in this study arises from many dynamic factors that can not be controlled, including the patient's direction of sight, focusing, and physical motion. These factors make the observed imagery highly variable even for the same patient. This dissertation provides detailed descriptions of the various algorithms that combine to reach screening decisions from the video data. The algorithms are divided into two main groups, image processing and computer-assisted diagnosis. Combining new image features and sequence processing, we have developed robust algorithms for locating irises, pupils, and Hirschberg points, which are useful for diagnosing misalignment between eyes. The new technical contributions include the use of sclera in iris boundary location and the use of possibilistic shell clustering with additional constraints to simultaneously locating a pair of pupils. We also investigated computer-assisted diagnosis of various amblyogenic vision disorders, including high refractive errors (hyperopia and myopia), refractive error difference between the two eyes (anisometropia), astigmatism, and misalignment between the two eyes, (strabismus). Diagnoses of these factors are then combined to yield the final screening decision. We evaluate the performance of our algorithm by comparing our screening decisions to those given by Dr. Cibis (the ground truth) over the same data set, which include video data of 182 different children. Our results indicate that the screening decisions made by the algorithms are 89% correct when compared with those made by Dr. Cibis. Further investigation points to several areas for future improvement, including better analysis of cases with misalignment and myopia.

Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention MICCAI 98

Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention   MICCAI 98
Author: William M. Wells,Alan Colchester,Scott Delp
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 1258
Release: 2006-08-18
ISBN 10: 3540495630
ISBN 13: 9783540495635
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention MICCAI 98 Book Review:

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, MICCAI'98, held in Cambridge, MA, USA, in October 1998. The 134 revised papers presented were carefully selected from a total of 243 submissions. The book is divided into topical sections on surgical planning, surgical navigation and measurements, cardiac image analysis, medical robotic systems, surgical systems and simulators, segmentation, computational neuroanatomy, biomechanics, detection in medical images, data acquisition and processing, neurosurgery and neuroscience, shape analysis, feature extraction, registration, and ultrasound.

The Development of a Computer assisted Program for Diagnosis and Treatment Planning of Extensively Restorative Patients

The Development of a Computer assisted Program for Diagnosis and Treatment Planning of Extensively Restorative Patients
Author: Ernest C. Wong
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 116
Release: 1988
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UOM:39015009902530
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Development of a Computer assisted Program for Diagnosis and Treatment Planning of Extensively Restorative Patients Book Review:

Intelligence Based Medicine

Intelligence Based Medicine
Author: Anthony C. Chang
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 534
Release: 2020-06-27
ISBN 10: 0128233389
ISBN 13: 9780128233382
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Intelligence Based Medicine Book Review:

Intelligence-Based Medicine: Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Human Cognition in Clinical Medicine and Healthcare provides a multidisciplinary and comprehensive survey of artificial intelligence concepts and methodologies with real life applications in healthcare and medicine. Authored by a senior physician-data scientist, the book presents an intellectual and academic interface between the medical and the data science domains that is symmetric and balanced. The content consists of basic concepts of artificial intelligence and its real-life applications in a myriad of medical areas as well as medical and surgical subspecialties. It brings section summaries to emphasize key concepts delineated in each section; mini-topics authored by world-renowned experts in the respective key areas for their personal perspective; and a compendium of practical resources, such as glossary, references, best articles, and top companies. The goal of the book is to inspire clinicians to embrace the artificial intelligence methodologies as well as to educate data scientists about the medical ecosystem, in order to create a transformational paradigm for healthcare and medicine by using this emerging new technology. Covers a wide range of relevant topics from cloud computing, intelligent agents, to deep reinforcement learning and internet of everything Presents the concepts of artificial intelligence and its applications in an easy-to-understand format accessible to clinicians and data scientists Discusses how artificial intelligence can be utilized in a myriad of subspecialties and imagined of the future Delineates the necessary elements for successful implementation of artificial intelligence in medicine and healthcare

Computational Retinal Image Analysis

Computational Retinal Image Analysis
Author: Emanuele Trucco,Tom MacGillivray,Yanwu Xu
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 445
Release: 2019-06-29
ISBN 10: 0081028164
ISBN 13: 9780081028162
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computational Retinal Image Analysis Book Review:

Computational Retinal Image Analysis: Tools, Applications and Perspectives gives an overview of contemporary retinal image analysis (RIA) in the context of healthcare informatics and artificial intelligence. Specifically, it provides a history of the field, the clinical motivation for RIA, technical foundations (image acquisition modalities, instruments), computational techniques for essential operations, lesion detection (e.g. optic disc in glaucoma, microaneurysms in diabetes) and validation, as well as insights into current investigations drawing from artificial intelligence and big data. This comprehensive reference is ideal for researchers and graduate students in retinal image analysis, computational ophthalmology, artificial intelligence, biomedical engineering, health informatics, and more. Provides a unique, well-structured and integrated overview of retinal image analysis Gives insights into future areas, such as large-scale screening programs, precision medicine, and computer-assisted eye care Includes plans and aspirations of companies and professional bodies

Signal Detection Theory and ROC Analysis in Psychology and Diagnostics

Signal Detection Theory and ROC Analysis in Psychology and Diagnostics
Author: John A. Swets
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 324
Release: 2014-02-25
ISBN 10: 1317779711
ISBN 13: 9781317779711
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Signal Detection Theory and ROC Analysis in Psychology and Diagnostics Book Review:

Signal detection theory--as developed in electrical engineering and based on statistical decision theory--was first applied to human sensory discrimination 40 years ago. The theoretical intent was to provide a valid model of the discrimination process; the methodological intent was to provide reliable measures of discrimination acuity in specific sensory tasks. An analytic method of detection theory, called the relative operating characteristic (ROC), can isolate the effect of the placement of the decision criterion, which may be variable and idiosyncratic, so that a pure measure of intrinsic discrimination acuity is obtained. For the past 20 years, ROC analysis has also been used to measure the discrimination acuity or inherent accuracy of a broad range of practical diagnostic systems. It was widely adopted by methodologists in the field of information retrieval, is increasingly used in weather forecasting, and is the generally preferred method in clinical medicine, primarily in radiology. This book attends to both themes, ROC analysis in the psychology laboratory and in practical diagnostic settings, and to their essential unity. The focus of this book is on detection and recognition as fundamental tasks that underlie most complex behaviors. As defined here, they serve to distinguish between two alternative, confusable stimulus categories, which may be perceptual or cognitive categories in the psychology laboratory, or different states of the world in practical diagnostic tasks. This book on signal detection theory in psychology was written by one of the developers of the theory, who co-authored with D.M. Green the classic work published in this area in 1966 (reprinted in 1974 and 1988). This volume reviews the history of the theory in engineering, statistics, and psychology, leading to the separate measurement of the two independent factors in all discrimination tasks, discrimination acuity and decision criterion. It extends the previous book to show how in several areas of psychology--in vigilance and memory--what had been thought to be discrimination effects were, in reality, effects of a changing criterion. The book shows that data plotted in terms of the relative operating characteristic have essentially the same form across the wide range of discrimination tasks in psychology. It develops the implications of this ROC form for measures of discrimination acuity, pointing up the valid ones and identifying several common, but invalid, ones. The area under the binormal ROC is seen to be supported by the data; the popular measures d' and percent correct are not. An appendix describes the best, current programs for fitting ROCs and estimating their parameters, indices, and standard errors. The application of ROC analysis to diagnostic tasks is also described. Diagnostic accuracy in a wide range of tasks can be expressed in terms of the ROC area index. Choosing the appropriate decision criterion for a given diagnostic setting--rather than considering some single criterion to be natural and fixed--has a major impact on the efficacy of a diagnostic process or system. Illustrated here by separate chapters are diagnostic systems in radiology, information retrieval, aptitude testing, survey research, and environments in which imminent dangerous conditions must be detected. Data from weather forecasting, blood testing, and polygraph lie detection are also reported. One of these chapters describes a general approach to enhancing the accuracy of diagnostic systems.