Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine

Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine
Author: Victor R. Preedy,Gerard N. Burrow,Ronald Ross Watson
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 1334
Release: 2009-03-17
ISBN 10: 9780080920863
ISBN 13: 0080920861
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine Book Review:

Over two billion people worldwide are at risk for the spectrum of disorders known as "The Iodine Deficiency Disorders." 1-10% will suffer cretinism; 5-30% will have some sort of brain damage or neurological impairment and 30-70% will be hypothyroid. The causes of iodine deficiencies can be considered from both simplistic and more complex perspectives: From the leaching of iodine from soil resulting in crops with low iodine content to malnutrition resulting in impaired iodine absorption. Poor dietary diversification and impoverished socio-economic development can also lead to iodine deficiencies. Although it is possible to diagnose and treat deficiencies, there is still an ongoing dialogue regarding the detailed molecular pathology of iodine homeostatis, how hypothyroidism impacts the body tissues, and efficient diagnosis and treatment of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders. This Handbook provides a resource of information on the various pathways and processes based on different countries or diseases. Because there is a constant flow of new information on iodine and related disorders, the goal of this Handbook is to provide a base of scientific information upon which additional knowledge can be applied. Provides important information on one of the most common micro-nutrient deficiencies in the world, the most important "single nutrient-multiple consequences" paradigm today Includes information on iodine-related diseases, including those that are common, preventable and treatable Provides insight from a broad perspective of viewpoints -- from subcellular transports to economic impact

Anti Aging Therapeutics Volume XIV

Anti Aging Therapeutics Volume XIV
Author: A4m American Academy
Publsiher: eBookIt.com
Total Pages: 194
Release: 2012-10-15
ISBN 10: 1934715107
ISBN 13: 9781934715109
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Anti Aging Therapeutics Volume XIV Book Review:

Proceedings of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine's (A4M) Nineteenth World Congress on Anti-Aging Medicine & Regenerative Biomedical Technologies, Spring and Winter Sessions (2011 conference year). Also includes Anti-Aging Clinical Protocols, 2012-2013,

Nutrients in Dairy and Their Implications for Health and Disease

Nutrients in Dairy and Their Implications for Health and Disease
Author: Ronald Ross Watson,Robert J Collier,Victor R. Preedy
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 490
Release: 2017-06-19
ISBN 10: 0128097639
ISBN 13: 9780128097632
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nutrients in Dairy and Their Implications for Health and Disease Book Review:

Nutrients in Dairy and Their Implications for Health and Disease addresses various dairy products and their impact on health. This comprehensive book is divided into three sections and presents a balanced overview of the health benefits of milk and milk products. Summaries capture the most salient points of each chapter, and the importance of milk and its products as functional foods is addressed throughout. Presents various dairy products and their impact on health Provides information on dairy milk as an important source of micro-and macronutrients that impact body functions Addresses dietary supplements and their incorporation into dairy products

Iodine Chemistry and Applications

Iodine Chemistry and Applications
Author: Tatsuo Kaiho
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2014-10-09
ISBN 10: 1118878655
ISBN 13: 9781118878651
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Iodine Chemistry and Applications Book Review:

This book comprehensively covers iodine, its chemistry, and itsrole in functional materials, reagents, and compounds. • Provides an up-to-date, detailed overview of iodinechemistry with discussion on elemental aspects: characteristics,properties, iodides, and halogen bonding • Acts as a useful guide for readers to learn how tosynthesize complex compounds using iodine reagents orintermediates • Describes traditional and modern processingtechniques, such as starch, cupper, blowing out, and ion exchangeresin methods • Includes seven detailed sections devoted to theapplications of iodine: Characteristics, Production, Synthesis,Biological Applications, Industrial Applications, BioorganicChemistry and Environmental Chemistry, and Radioisotopes • Features hot topics in the field, such as hypervalentiodine-mediated cross coupling reactions, agrochemicals, dyesensitized solar cells, and therapeutic agents

Molecular Genetic and Nutritional Aspects of Major and Trace Minerals

Molecular  Genetic  and Nutritional Aspects of Major and Trace Minerals
Author: James F Collins
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2016-09-14
ISBN 10: 0128023767
ISBN 13: 9780128023761
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Molecular Genetic and Nutritional Aspects of Major and Trace Minerals Book Review:

Molecular, Genetic, and Nutritional Aspects of Major and Trace Minerals is a unique reference that provides a complete overview of the non-vitamin micronutrients, including calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, and zinc. In addition, the book covers the nutritional and toxicological properties of nonessential minerals chromium, fluoride and boron, and silicon and vanadium, as well as ultra-trace minerals and those with no established dietary requirement for humans. Users will find in-depth chapters on each essential mineral and mineral metabolism, along with discussions of dietary recommendations in the United States and around the world. Presents the only scientific reference to cover all of the nutritionally relevant essential major and trace minerals Provides a broad introductory chapter on each mineral to give readers valuable background and context Clarifies the cellular and molecular aspects of each mineral and its genetic and genomic aspects Includes coverage of all nutritionally relevant minerals—essential major trace minerals and ultra-trace minerals Underscores the important interactions between minerals so readers learn how metabolism of one mineral influences another

Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging

Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging
Author: Marco Malavolta,Eugenio Mocchegiani
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 784
Release: 2016-04-15
ISBN 10: 0128018275
ISBN 13: 9780128018279
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging Book Review:

Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging: A Volume in the Molecular Nutrition Series focuses on the nutritional issues associated with aging and the important metabolic consequences of diet, nutrition, and health. The book is subdivided into four parts that reflect the impact of nutrition from a biomolecular level to individual health. In Part One, chapters explore the general aspects of aging, aging phenotypes, and relevant aspects of nutrition related to the elderly and healthy aging. Part Two includes molecular and cellular targets of nutrition in aging, with chapters exploring lipid peroxidation, inflammaging, anabolic and catabolic signaling, epigenetics, DNA damage and repair, redox homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity, among others. Part Three looks at system-level and organ targets of nutrition in aging, including a variety of tissues, systems, and diseases, such as immune function, the cardiovascular system, the brain and dementia, muscle, bone, lung, and many others. Finally, Part Four focuses on the health effects of specific dietary compounds and dietary interventions in aging, including vitamin D, retinol, curcumin, folate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, vitamin B, fish oil, vitamin E, resveratrol, polyphenols, vegetables, and fruit, as well as the current nutritional recommendations. Offers updated information and a perspectives on important future developments to different professionals involved in the basic and clinical research on all major nutritional aspects of aging Explores how nutritional factors are involved in the pathogenesis of aging across body systems Investigates the molecular and genetic basis of aging and cellular senescence through the lens of the rapidly evolving field of molecular nutrition

Comprehensive Handbook on Hydrosilylation

Comprehensive Handbook on Hydrosilylation
Author: B. Marciniec
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 767
Release: 2013-10-22
ISBN 10: 0080912435
ISBN 13: 9780080912431
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Comprehensive Handbook on Hydrosilylation Book Review:

This handbook provides an up-to-date account of hydrosilylation reactions and the directions in which synthetic and mechanistic studies as well as practical applications of these processes are proceeding. The book consists of two parts: the first is descriptive, presenting the catalytic, mechanistic, structural and synthetic aspects of hydrosilylation, as well as its application in organic and organosilicon chemistry. The second part, presented in tabular form sets out encyclopedic information concerning reaction conditions taken from more than 2000 papers and patents in the period 1965 - 1990.

Environmental Analysis Laboratory Handbook

Environmental Analysis Laboratory Handbook
Author: Anshul Nigam,Rupal Gupta
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2020-09-23
ISBN 10: 1119724805
ISBN 13: 9781119724803
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Analysis Laboratory Handbook Book Review:

Today, environmental issues are a great cause of concern at the global level, and universities and other institutions around the world are involved in research on climate change, deforestation, pollution control, and many other issues. Moreover, environmental science and environmental biotechnology are inherent parts of various courses while some universities provide degrees in these fields. Although the environment perspective of water is discussed time and again in research, academic, and non-academic discussions, there is no book summarizing protocols involved in water quality analysis. The information seems to be sporadically distributed on the internet. Even if available at all, the information does not discuss limits of the protocols or caveats involved. For example, essays on chemical oxygen demand (COD) on the internet mostly do not discuss differences between organic compounds of biological origin and aliphatic/aromatic. The authors have performed nearly all the protocols mentioned in this new volume, and their protocols are discussed in a simplified, easy-to-understand manner. The book has been written after elaborative discussions with and input from faculty and research students to ensure the clarity of the material for use on many levels. Further, the authors have emphasized low-cost methods which involve minimal use of high-end instrumentation keeping in mind limitations faced in developing countries. A valuable reference for engineers, scientists, chemists, and students, this volume is applicable to many different fields, across many different industries, at all levels. It is a must-have for any library.

Meeting Micronutrient Requirements for Health and Development

Meeting Micronutrient Requirements for Health and Development
Author: Z.A. Bhutta,R.F. Hurrell,I.H. Rosenberg
Publsiher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Total Pages: 212
Release: 2012-09-24
ISBN 10: 3318021121
ISBN 13: 9783318021127
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Meeting Micronutrient Requirements for Health and Development Book Review:

Meeting macro- and micronutrient requirements during pregnancy and early childhood is crucial for short- and long-term health and cognitive function. Meta-analyses confirm that supplementation or fortification of food with the 'big four' (vitamin A, iron, zinc, and iodine) is efficacious to reduce the risk of infectious disease and improves growth and cognitive outcome. More recently, folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies during pregnancy have been shown to be associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome and childhood obesity. The papers collected in the book at hand address the fact that maternal and fetal deficiencies can induce inadequate metabolic programming in the offspring, with increased risk for non-communicable diseases later in life. World-renowned experts in the fields of epidemiology and nutritional intervention met with those in genetics, epigenetics, and metabolic outcome to clarify the pathogenesis of micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy and childhood, preventive methods and strategies, and opportunities for treatment.

Hypervalent Iodine Chemistry

Hypervalent Iodine Chemistry
Author: Viktor V. Zhdankin
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2013-10-01
ISBN 10: 1118341309
ISBN 13: 9781118341308
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hypervalent Iodine Chemistry Book Review:

Hypervalent Iodine Chemistry is the first comprehensivetext covering all of the main aspects of the chemistry of organicand inorganic polyvalent iodine compounds, including applicationsin chemical research, medicine, and industry. Providing a comprehensive overview of the preparation,properties, and synthetic applications of this important class ofreagents, the text is presented in the following way: The introductory chapter provides a historicalbackground and describes the general classification ofiodine compounds, nomenclature, hypervalent bonding, structuralfeatures, and the principles of reactivity of polyvalent iodinecompounds. Chapter 2 gives a detailed description of thepreparative methods and structural features of all knownclasses of organic and inorganic derivatives of polyvalentiodine. Chapter 3, the key chapter of the book, deals with themany applications of hypervalent iodine reagents in organicsynthesis. Chapter 4 describes the most recent achievementsin hypervalent iodine catalysis. Chapter 5 deals with recyclable polymer-supportedand nonpolymeric hypervalent iodine reagents. Chapter 6 covers the "green" reactions ofhypervalent iodine reagents under solvent-free conditions or inaqueous solutions. The final chapter provides an overview of the importantpractical applications of polyvalent iodine compounds inmedicine and industry. This book is aimed at all chemists interested in iodinecompounds, including academic and industrial researchers ininorganic, organic, physical, medicinal, and biological chemistry.It will be particularly useful to synthetic organic and inorganicchemists, including graduate and advanced undergraduate students.It comprehensively covers the green chemistry aspects ofhypervalent iodine chemistry, making it especially useful forindustrial chemists.

Practical Applications of Medical Geology

Practical Applications of Medical Geology
Author: Malcolm Siegel,Olle Selinus,Robert Finkelman
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 932
Release: 2021-08-01
ISBN 10: 3030538931
ISBN 13: 9783030538934
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Practical Applications of Medical Geology Book Review:

This edited volume provides a framework for integrating methods and information drawn from geological and medical sciences and provides case studies in medical geology to illustrate the usefulness of this framework for crafting environmental and public health policies related to natural materials. The relevance of medical geology research to policy decisions is a topic rarely discussed, and this volume attempts to be a unique source for researchers and policy makers in the field of medical geology in addressing this gap in practical medical geology applications. The book's four sections establish this framework in detail using risk assessment, case studies, data analyses and specific medical geology techniques. Following an introduction to medical geology in the context of risk assessment and risk management, the second section discusses specific methods used in medical geology in the categories of geoscience, biomedicine, and data sources. The third section discusses the medical geology of natural materials, energy use, and environmental and workplace impacts. This section includes specific case studies in medical geology, and describes how the methods and data from the previous section are used in a medical geology analysis. The fourth section includes a guide to the medical geology literature and provides some examples of medical geology programs in Asia and Africa.

Handbook of Ion Chromatography

Handbook of Ion Chromatography
Author: Joachim Weiss
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 1576
Release: 2016-06-24
ISBN 10: 3527651640
ISBN 13: 9783527651641
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Ion Chromatography Book Review:

This three-volume handbook is the standard reference in the field, unparalleled in its comprehensiveness. It covers every conceivable topic related to the expanding and increasingly important field of ion chromatography. The fourth edition is completely updated and revised to include the latest developments in the instrumentation, now stretching to three volumes to reflect the current state of applications. Ion chromatography is one of the most widely used separation techniques of analytical chemistry with applications in fields such as medicinal chemistry, water chemistry and materials science. Consequently, the number of users of this method is continuously growing, underlining the need for an up-to-date reference. A true pioneer of this method, Joachim Weiss studied chemistry at the Technical University of Berlin (Germany), where he also received his PhD degree in Analytical Chemistry. In 2002, he did his habilitation in Analytical Chemistry at the Leopold-Franzens University in Innsbruck (Austria), where he is also teaching liquid chromatography. Since 1982, Dr. Weiss has worked at Dionex (now being part of Thermo Fisher Scientific), where he currently holds the position of Technical Director for Dionex Products within the Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Division (CMD) of Thermo Fisher Scientific, located in Dreieich (Germany).

10 Years Solved Papers for ICSE Class 10 2022 Exam Comprehensive Handbook of 17 Subjects Yearwise Board Solutions

10 Years Solved Papers for ICSE Class 10  2022 Exam    Comprehensive Handbook of 17 Subjects   Yearwise Board Solutions
Author: Gurukul
Publsiher: Gurukul Books & Packaging
Total Pages: 896
Release: 2021-06-15
ISBN 10: 9391184421
ISBN 13: 9789391184421
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

10 Years Solved Papers for ICSE Class 10 2022 Exam Comprehensive Handbook of 17 Subjects Yearwise Board Solutions Book Review:

Benefit from easy, quick, and concise revisions for your Class 10 ICSE Board Examinations (2022) with the help of our 10 Years Solved Papers guidebook. Our booklet consists of solved papers for total 17 subjects including Hindi, English I, English II, History & Civics(Paper I), Geography(Paper II), Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Computer Application, Physical Education, Economics, Economic Applications, Commercial Studies, Commercial Applications, Home Science , and Environmental Science. Content is based on the latest syllabus prescribed by council of ICSEE which will help you to succeed in the competitive 10th standard exams right from your home. How can you benefit from Gurukul ICSE 10 Years Solved Papers for 10th Class? Our handbook is a one-stop solution for 10th Grade ICSE examination. With all subjects in one book, including solved question papers from the last 10 years (2011-2020), our modern guide is the best book as it develops deep insight into the subject and students also get aquainted with the marks distribution and gain advance knowledge of the type and style of questions asked in boards. With study material for entire syllabus and previous papers of 17 subjects, our preparation manual also consists of numerous tips and tools to improve study techniques for any school test. Students can create vision boards to establish practice schedules, and maintain study logs to measure their progress. With the help of our foundation hand book, students can also identify basic patterns in question types and structures, allowing them to cultivate more efficient methods to answer. Our exemplar book also provides a comprehensive overview of important topics in each subject, making it easier for students to score higher marks in the exams. Why should you trust Gurukul Books? Gurukul Books is a unit of Oswal Publishers has been in operation since 1985. Over the past 30 years, our publication has developed reliable content that aids students and teachers in achieving excellence. We create reference material that is extensively researched, meticulously articulated, and comprehensively edited ? catering to the various National and Regional Academic Boards in India.

Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Their Elimination

Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Their Elimination
Author: Elizabeth N. Pearce
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 158
Release: 2017-01-20
ISBN 10: 3319495054
ISBN 13: 9783319495057
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Their Elimination Book Review:

Iodine is an essential micronutrient and an integral component of the thyroid hormones, which are required for normal growth and development. The iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) encompass a spectrum of adverse health effects including goiter, cretinism, hypothyroidism, growth retardation, and increased pregnancy loss and infant mortality. This volume summarizes the current understanding of the effects of iodine deficiency as well as iodine excess. It also discusses best practices for salt iodization, the mainstay of global IDD prevention efforts, and other forms of food fortification. The effectiveness of iodine supplementation for vulnerable populations, an evolving strategy in many regions, is also described. Low level environmental exposure to chemicals such as perchlorate and thiocyanate, which competitively block thyroidal iodine uptake, appears to be ubiquitous worldwide. There has been recent concern that such environmental exposures might pose a health hazard by inducing or aggravating underlying thyroid dysfunction. This up-to-date volume explores both the effects of iodine deficiency as well as the best strategies for IDD prevention.

Development and evaluation of iodine biofortification strategies for vegetables

Development and evaluation of iodine biofortification strategies for vegetables
Author: Patrick Lawson
Publsiher: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH
Total Pages: 211
Release: 2014-10-27
ISBN 10: 3832537791
ISBN 13: 9783832537791
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Development and evaluation of iodine biofortification strategies for vegetables Book Review:

Iodine is an essential trace element for humans which is not ingested in sufficient quantities in many regions of the world. In spite of the wide use of iodized table salt, large portions of the German population are still inadequately supplied with the trace element. Therefore, further efforts are needed to improve the alimentary intake of iodine. The aim of this dissertation was to develop an agronomical biofortification strategy for enriching vegetables with iodine by means of fertilization with iodine salts. Hence, foliar and soil application approaches were implemented and compared using a selection of different vegetable species in order to detect the influence of various environmental, application and soil factors affecting the iodine uptake by plants.

The Chemistry of Hypervalent Halogen Compounds

The Chemistry of Hypervalent Halogen Compounds
Author: Berit Olofsson,Ilan Marek,Zvi Rappoport
Publsiher: Wiley
Total Pages: 1032
Release: 2019-04-22
ISBN 10: 1119352304
ISBN 13: 9781119352303
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Chemistry of Hypervalent Halogen Compounds Book Review:

The understanding of functional groups is the key to understanding organic chemistry. In the tradition of Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups each volume treats all aspects of functional groups, touching on theoretical, analytical, synthetic, biological, and industrial aspects. Hypervalent halogen compounds, in particular iodine compounds, are very efficient and selective oxidants which tolerate a wide range of functional groups. The electrophilic properties of these reagents can also be used to introduce other functionalizations. The present volume is the first in the series to survey the properties and chemical behaviour of hypervalent iodine and bromine, their use in organic synthesis, as well as their industrial application. As with all new volumes, the chapters are first published online in Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups. Once a volume is completed online, it is then published in print format. The printed book offers the traditional quality of the Patai Book Series, complete with an extensive index.

Chemical Elements

Chemical Elements
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: PediaPress
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: 9182736450XXX
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chemical Elements Book Review:

Mammals and Birds as Bioindicators of Trace Element Contaminations in Terrestrial Environments

Mammals and Birds as Bioindicators of Trace Element Contaminations in Terrestrial Environments
Author: Elżbieta Kalisińska
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 708
Release: 2019-03-01
ISBN 10: 3030001210
ISBN 13: 9783030001216
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mammals and Birds as Bioindicators of Trace Element Contaminations in Terrestrial Environments Book Review:

The population explosion that began in the 1960s has been accompanied by a decrease in the quality of the natural environment, e.g. pollution of the air, water and soil with essential and toxic trace elements. Numerous poisonings of people and animals with highly toxic anthropogenic Hg and Cd in the 20th century prompted the creation of the abiotic environment, mainly in developed countries. However, the system is insufficient for long-term exposure to low concentrations of various substances that are mainly ingested through food and water. This problem could be addressed by the monitoring of sentinels – organisms that accumulate trace elements and as such reflect the rate and degree of environmental pollution. Usually these are long-lived vertebrates – herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous birds and mammals, especially game species. This book describes the responses of the sentinels most commonly used in ecotoxicological studies to 17 trace elements.

Egg Innovations and Strategies for Improvements

Egg Innovations and Strategies for Improvements
Author: Patricia Hester
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 646
Release: 2016-12-19
ISBN 10: 0128011513
ISBN 13: 9780128011515
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Egg Innovations and Strategies for Improvements Book Review:

Egg Innovations and Strategies for Improvements examines the production of eggs from their development to human consumption. Chapters also address consumer acceptance, quality control, regulatory aspects, cost and risk analyses, and research trends. Eggs are a rich source of macro- and micronutrients which are consumed not only by themselves, but also within the matrix of food products, such as pastas, cakes, and pastries. A wholesome, versatile food with a balanced array of essential nutrients, eggs are a stable of the human diet. Emerging strategies entail improvements to the composition of eggs via fortification or biological enrichment of hen's feed with polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, vitamins, or minerals. Conversely, eggs can be a source of food-borne disease or pollutants that can have effects on not only human health, but also egg production and commercial viability. Written by an international team of experts, the book presents a unique overview of the biology and science of egg production, nutrient profiling, disease, and modes for increasing their production and quality. Designed for poultry and food scientists, technologists, microbiologists, and workers in public health and the food and egg industries, the book is valuable as an industrial reference and as a resource in academic libraries. Focuses on the production and food science aspects of eggs Includes a broad range of microbial contaminants, their risks, and prevention, as well as non-microbial contaminant risks Presents analytical techniques for practical application

Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012 Part 5

Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012  Part 5
Author: Nordic Council of Ministers
Publsiher: Nordic Council of Ministers
Total Pages: 169
Release: 2014-03-06
ISBN 10: 9289326840
ISBN 13: 9789289326841
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012 Part 5 Book Review:

NNR2012 Part 5: Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium as salt, potassium, iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, chromium, manganese, molybdenum and fluoride The Nordic countries have collaborated in setting guidelines for dietary composition and recommended intakes of nutrients for several decades through the joint publication of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). This 5th edition, the NNR 2012, gives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for nutrients, and compared with earlier editions more emphasis has been put on evaluating the scientific evidence for the role of food and food patterns contributing to the prevention of the major diet-related chronic diseases. Recommendations on physical activity are included and interaction with physical activity has been taken into account for the individual nutrient recommendations wherever appropriate. A chapter on sustainable food consumption has been added. A Nordic perspective has been accounted for in setting the reference values.The NNR 2012 has used an evidence-based and transparent approach in assessing associations between nutrients and foods and certain health outcomes. Systematic reviews form the basis for the recommendations of several nutrients and topics, while a less stringent update has been done for others. The systematic reviews and individual chapters have been peer reviewed and the systematic reviews are published in the Food & Nutrition Research journal. The draft chapters were subject to an open public consultation. Recommendations have been changed only when sufficient scientific evidence has evolved since the 4th edition. The primary aim of the NNR 2012 is to present the scientific background of the recommendations and their application. A secondary aim is for the NNR 2012 to function as a basis for the national recommendations that are adopted by the individual Nordic countries.