Combination Therapy Against Multidrug Resistance

Combination Therapy Against Multidrug Resistance
Author: Mohmmad Younus Wani,Aijaz Ahmad
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 260
Release: 2020-06
ISBN 10: 9780128205761
ISBN 13: 0128205768
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Combination Therapy Against Multidrug Resistance Book Review:

Combination Therapy Against Multidrug Resistance explores the potential of combination therapy as an efficient strategy to combat multi-drug resistance. The book considers how combination therapy can apply in multiple situations, including cancer, HIV, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and more. Sections cover the most relevant information on prospects of combination therapy as a strategy to combat multidrug resistance and help motivate the industrial sector and government agencies to invest more in research and development. This comprehensive resource is useful to academics and researchers involved in the development of new antimicrobial or anti-infective agents and treatment strategies to combat multidrug resistance. Explores strategic methods with investigation of both short- and long-term goals to combat multidrug resistance Presents a broad scope to help users fully understand how to apply combined therapy to multidrug resistance Provides an overview of combination therapy, but also includes specific cases such as cancer, tuberculosis, HIV and malaria

Combination Therapy Against Multidrug Resistance

Combination Therapy Against Multidrug Resistance
Author: Mohmmad Younus Wani,Aijaz Ahmad
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 268
Release: 2020-04-30
ISBN 10: 0128205784
ISBN 13: 9780128205785
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Combination Therapy Against Multidrug Resistance Book Review:

Combination Therapy against Multidrug Resistance explores the potential of combination therapy as an efficient strategy to combat multi-drug resistance. Multidrug resistance (MDR) occurs when microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites are excessively exposed to antimicrobial drugs such as antibiotics, antifungals, or antivirals, and in response the microorganism undergoes mutations or develops different resistance mechanisms to combat the drug for its survival. MDR is becoming an increasingly serious problem in both developed and developing nations. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has developed faster than the production of new antibiotics, making bacterial infections increasingly difficult to treat, and the same is true for a variety of other diseases. Combination therapy proves to be a promising strategy as it offers potential benefits such as a broad spectrum of efficacy, greater potency than the drugs used in monotherapy, improved safety and tolerability, and reduction in the number of resistant organisms. This book considers how combination therapy can be applied in multiple situations, including cancer, HIV, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and more. Combination Therapy Against Multidrug Resistance gathers the most relevant information on the prospects of combination therapy as a strategy to combat multridrug resistance and helping to motivate the industrial sector and government agencies to invest more in research and development of this strategy as a weapon to tackle the multidrug resistance problem. It will be useful to academics and researchers involved in the development of new antimicrobial or antiinfective agents and treatment strtategies to combat multidrug resistance. Clinicians and medical nurses working in the field of infection prevention and control (IPC) will also find the book relevant Explores strategic methods with investigation of both short- and long-term goals to combat multidrug resistance Presents a broad scope to understand fully the ways to apply combined therapy to multidrug resistance Provides an overview of combination therapy, but also includes specific cases such as cancer, tuberculosis, HIV and malaria

Antibiotic Combination Therapy Against Multidrug resistant Staphylococcus Epidermidis Biofilms and Broadening Antibiotic Spectrum Using Polyethylenimine

Antibiotic Combination Therapy Against Multidrug resistant Staphylococcus Epidermidis Biofilms and Broadening Antibiotic Spectrum Using Polyethylenimine
Author: Anh Kim Lam
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 145
Release: 2020
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1176470166
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Antibiotic Combination Therapy Against Multidrug resistant Staphylococcus Epidermidis Biofilms and Broadening Antibiotic Spectrum Using Polyethylenimine Book Review:

Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance

Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance
Author: Wiley
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 146
Release: 2013-01-14
ISBN 10: 1118580915
ISBN 13: 9781118580912
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance Book Review:

The need for novel antibiotics is greater now than perhaps anytime since the pre-antibiotic era. Indeed, the recent collapse ofmany pharmaceutical antibacterial groups, combined with theemergence of hypervirulent and pan-antibiotic-resistant bacteriahas severely compromised infection treatment options and led todramatic increases in the incidence and severity of bacterialinfections. This collection of reviews and laboratory protocols gives thereader an introduction to the causes of antibiotic resistance, thebacterial strains that pose the largest danger to humans (i.e.,streptococci, pneumococci and enterococci) and the antimicrobialagents used to combat infections with these organisms. Some newavenues that are being investigated for antibiotic development arealso discussed. Such developments include the discovery of agentsthat inhibit bacterial RNA degradation, the bacterial ribosome, andstructure-based approaches to antibiotic drug discovery. Two laboratory protocols are provided to illustrate differentstrategies for discovering new antibiotics. One is a bacterialgrowth inhibition assay to identify inhibitors of bacterial growththat specifically target conditionally essential enzymes in thepathway of interest. The other protocol is used to identifyinhibitors of bacterial cell-to-cell signaling. This e-book — a curated collection from eLS, WIREs, andCurrent Protocols — offers a fantastic introduction to thefield of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance for students orinterdisciplinary collaborators. Table of Contents: Introduction Antibiotics and the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance eLS Jose L Martinez, Fernando Baquero Antimicrobials Against Streptococci, Pneumococci andEnterococci eLS Susan Donabedian, Adenike Shoyinka Techniques & Applications RNA decay: a novel therapeutic target in bacteria WIREs RNA Tess M. Eidem, Christelle M. Roux, Paul M. Dunman Antibiotics that target protein synthesis WIREs RNA Lisa S. McCoy, Yun Xie, Yitzhak Tor Methods High-Throughput Assessment of Bacterial Growth Inhibition byOptical Density Measurements Current Protocols Chemical Biology Jennifer Campbell Structure-Based Approaches to Antibiotic Drug Discovery Current Protocols Microbiology George Nicola, Ruben Abagyan Novel Approaches to Bacterial Infection Therapy by Interferingwith Cell-to-Cell Signaling Current Protocols Microbiology David A. Rasko, Vanessa Sperandio

Combating Antimicrobial Resistance A One Health Approach

Combating Antimicrobial Resistance   A One Health Approach
Author: Ghassan M. Matar,Antoine Andremont
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-02-14
ISBN 10: 2889635155
ISBN 13: 9782889635153
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Combating Antimicrobial Resistance A One Health Approach Book Review:

Drug Discovery Targeting Drug Resistant Bacteria

Drug Discovery Targeting Drug Resistant Bacteria
Author: Prashant Kesharwani,Sidharth Chopra,Arunava Dasgupta
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2020-05-15
ISBN 10: 0128184817
ISBN 13: 9780128184813
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Drug Discovery Targeting Drug Resistant Bacteria Book Review:

Drug Discovery Targeting Drug-Resistant Bacteria explores the status and possible future of developments in fighting drug-resistant bacteria. The book covers the majority of microbial diseases and the drugs targeting them. In addition, it discusses the potential targeting strategies and innovative approaches to address drug resistance. It brings together academic and industrial experts working on discovering and developing drugs targeting drug-resistant (DR) bacterial pathogens. New drugs active against drug-resistant pathogens are discussed, along with new strategies being used to discover molecules acting via new modes of action. In addition, alternative therapies such as peptides and phages are included. Pharmaceutical scientists, microbiologists, medical professionals, pathologists, researchers in the field of drug discovery, infectious diseases and microbial drug discovery both in academia and in industrial settings will find this book helpful. Written by scientists with extensive industrial experience in drug discovery Provides a balanced view of the field, including its challenges and future directions Includes a special chapter on the identification and development of drugs against pathogens which exhibit the potential to be used as weapons of war

Nanocarriers for the Delivery of Combination Drugs

Nanocarriers for the Delivery of Combination Drugs
Author: Sanjula Baboota,Javed Ali
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 540
Release: 2021-05-18
ISBN 10: 0128209402
ISBN 13: 9780128209400
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanocarriers for the Delivery of Combination Drugs Book Review:

Nanocarriers for the Delivery of Combination Drugs focuses on the role of nanocarriers in the delivery of combination drugs for the management and treatment of various diseases. Nanocarriers belonging to the category of polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, lipidic nanocarriers (like nanoemulsions), liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers are now being used in the drug delivery of combination drugs. This book helps readers assimilate all the information available surrounding the application of various nanocarrier technologies for the delivery of combination drugs of synthetic and natural origin, including small and large molecules. This is an important reference source for pharmaceutical scientists and biomaterials scientists who are looking to gain an increased understanding on how nanotechnology is improving the efficiency of combination drug delivery. Outlines how nanocarriers are used to enhance combination drug delivery systems Assesses the major challenges of delivering combination drugs successfully, and explains how nanocarriers can help meet these challenges Explores the characteristics of a variety of nanocarrier material types

Infection Control

Infection Control
Author: Silpi Basak
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 102
Release: 2013-05-29
ISBN 10: 9535111450
ISBN 13: 9789535111450
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Infection Control Book Review:

Health Care associated infection (HAI) is an emerging problem worldwide. HAI causes increased morbidity, mortality and average length of stay of the patient in the hospital. HAI also imposes economic burden on the patient, health care set up and also State and National Health care system. It has been estimated that 5 10 % of all hospital admission suffers from HAI even in developed countries. But 30% of HAI are preventable, if we follow the infection control practices properly especially hand hygiene while giving patient care. Hence, in this book importance has been given to Infection Control practices along with emerging trends of HAI due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species etc.

Facing the Upcoming of Multidrug Resistant and Extensively Drug Resistant Bacteria Novel Antimicrobial Therapies NATs

Facing the Upcoming of Multidrug Resistant and Extensively Drug Resistant Bacteria  Novel Antimicrobial Therapies  NATs
Author: Angel León-Buitimea,Jose Ruben Morones-Ramirez,Jason H. Yang,Rafael Peña-Miller
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021-04-01
ISBN 10: 2889666530
ISBN 13: 9782889666539
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Facing the Upcoming of Multidrug Resistant and Extensively Drug Resistant Bacteria Novel Antimicrobial Therapies NATs Book Review:

Antibiotic Materials in Healthcare

Antibiotic Materials in Healthcare
Author: Varaprasad Kokkarachedu,Vimala Kanikireddy,Rotimi Sadiku
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 346
Release: 2020-05-22
ISBN 10: 012822536X
ISBN 13: 9780128225363
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Antibiotic Materials in Healthcare Book Review:

Antibiotic Materials in Healthcare provides significant information on antibiotic related issues, accurate solutions, and recent investigative information for health-related applications. In addition, the book addresses the design and development of antibiotics with advanced (physical, chemical and biological) properties, an analysis of materials, in vivo and in vitro applications, and their biomedical applications for healthcare. Provides information on all aspects of antibiotic related issues Offers a balanced synthesis of basic and clinical science for each individual case, presenting clinical courses and detailed microbiological information for each infection Describes the prevalence and incidence of global issues and current therapeutic approaches

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components
Author: Mahendra Rai,Kateryna Kon
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2013-05-24
ISBN 10: 0124017088
ISBN 13: 9780124017085
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components Book Review:

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts, Essential Oils and their Components offers scientists a single source aimed at fighting specific multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoans, viruses and fungi using natural products. This essential reference discusses herbal extracts and essential oils used or under investigation to treat MDR infections, as well as those containing antimicrobial activity that could be of potential interest in future studies against MDR microorganisms. The need to combat multidrug-resistant microorganisms is an urgent one and this book provides important coverage of mechanism of action, the advantages and disadvantages of using herbal extracts, essential oils and their components and more to aid researchers in effective antimicrobial drug discovery Addresses the need to develop safe and effective approaches to coping with resistance to all classes of antimicrobial drugs Provides readers with current evidence-based content aimed at using herbal extracts and essential oils in antimicrobial drug development Includes chapters devoted to the activity of herbal products against herpes, AIDS, tuberculosis, drug-resistant cancer cells and more

Contemporary Topics of Pneumonia

Contemporary Topics of Pneumonia
Author: Zissis Chroneos
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2017-12-20
ISBN 10: 9535137077
ISBN 13: 9789535137078
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Contemporary Topics of Pneumonia Book Review:

Pneumonia is an inflammatory disease of the air sacs and surrounding interstitium caused by infectious agents or by endogenous inflammatory tissue disorder termed interstitial pneumonia. The present book covers contemporary topics of community, hospital, and health care-related bacterial and viral pneumonia in the setting of drug resistance, environmental exposures, climate change, hormonal influences, and gender. The topic of interstitial pneumonia is brought under the lens of an immune-related connective tissue disease.

Nanostructures for Antimicrobial Therapy

Nanostructures for Antimicrobial Therapy
Author: Anton Ficai,Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 722
Release: 2017-05-29
ISBN 10: 0323461514
ISBN 13: 9780323461511
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanostructures for Antimicrobial Therapy Book Review:

Nanostructures for Antimicrobial Therapy discusses the pros and cons of the use of nanostructured materials in the prevention and eradication of infections, highlighting the efficient microbicidal effect of nanoparticles against antibiotic-resistant pathogens and biofilms. Conventional antibiotics are becoming ineffective towards microorganisms due to their widespread and often inappropriate use. As a result, the development of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms is increasingly being reported. New approaches are needed to confront the rising issues related to infectious diseases. The merging of biomaterials, such as chitosan, carrageenan, gelatin, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) with nanotechnology provides a promising platform for antimicrobial therapy as it provides a controlled way to target cells and induce the desired response without the adverse effects common to many traditional treatments. Nanoparticles represent one of the most promising therapeutic treatments to the problem caused by infectious micro-organisms resistant to traditional therapies. This volume discusses this promise in detail, and also discusses what challenges the greater use of nanoparticles might pose to medical professionals. The unique physiochemical properties of nanoparticles, combined with their growth inhibitory capacity against microbes has led to the upsurge in the research on nanoparticles as antimicrobials. The importance of bactericidal nanobiomaterials study will likely increase as development of resistant strains of bacteria against most potent antibiotics continues. Shows how nanoantibiotics can be used to more effectively treat disease Discusses the advantages and issues of a variety of different nanoantibiotics, enabling medics to select which best meets their needs Provides a cogent summary of recent developments in this field, allowing readers to quickly familiarize themselves with this topic area

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components
Author: Kalpna D. Rakholiya,Mital J. Kaneria,Sumitra V. Chanda
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2013-05-24
ISBN 10: 0128066822
ISBN 13: 9780128066829
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components Book Review:

Antibiotics are antimicrobial agents that are used to treat infectious diseases. The outbreak of pathogenic antibiotic-resistant strains illustrates our urgent need to search for new alternative sources of treatment. Hence, an attempt has been made in this review to list some plant extracts, essential/volatile oils, and their antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms using different methods, as well as synergistic effects (plant extract-plant extract, plant extract-essential oils, plant extract-conventional antibiotics, phytochemical-antibiotics, and essential oil-essential oil). Plant products and their active constituents are useful in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant microbes, food borne diseases caused by food spoiling microbes, and oral pathogens. Products derived from plants have the potential to control microbial growth in diverse situations, and specifically in the treatment of disease. The various aspects of this review may be helpful for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli
Author: Amidou Samie
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 434
Release: 2017-07-12
ISBN 10: 9535133292
ISBN 13: 9789535133292
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Escherichia coli Book Review:

Escherichia coli is a versatile organism and very diverse. Members of this species vary from very pathogenic agents causing different types of diseases including meningitis, gastroenteritis, and septicemia, just to cite a few, to harmless organisms living in the intestines of both humans and animals. E. coli has also been used as a model organism for most bacteria except a few. For this reason, its study provides a huge advantage and can help understand the mechanisms involved in different processes such as pathogenesis, environmental disinfection, nutrient utilization, antibiotic resistance, and diagnostic/detection methods, and these are indeed the topics discussed in this book. The book has been divided into four main sections representing the different facets of E. coli applications, which include disease, biotechnology, environmental engineering and innovative approaches to detection, and lastly its physiology and cell biology. Such processes can be applied to the study of other organisms as well considering the development of diversity; for example, many organisms are capable of horizontal gene transfer, which is capable of increasing the fitness of the bacterial organisms involved and has a great impact on the control of such bacterial organism.

Antimicrobial Resistance

Antimicrobial Resistance
Author: Yashwant Kumar
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 142
Release: 2019-05-02
ISBN 10: 178985783X
ISBN 13: 9781789857832
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Antimicrobial Resistance Book Review:

The discovery of antibiotics was considered a milestone in health sciences and became the mainstay of antimicrobial therapy to treat and control bacterial infections. However, its utility has subsequently become limited, due to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance among different bacterial species, which has emerged as a global threat. The development and spread of antimicrobial resistance have been attributed to many factors, including indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the healthcare and livestock industries. The present scenario of antibiotic resistance urgently requires interventions in terms of development of newer antimicrobials, evaluation of alternative therapies, and formulation of stringent policies to curb indiscriminate use of antimicrobials. This book highlights the importance and development of antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic, environmental and food bacteria, including the significance of candidate alternative therapies.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts  Essential Oils and Their Components
Author: Kateryna Volodymyrivna Kon,Mahendra Kumar Rai
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2013-05-24
ISBN 10: 0128066814
ISBN 13: 9780128066812
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components Book Review:

High prevalence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms in the etiologic structure of different infectious processes significantly decreases the effectiveness of the treatment and enhances the probability of an unfavorable outcome from the infection. Combinations between antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents represent one of the most promising approaches for combating multidrug-resistant bacteria. A high therapeutic potential exists for combinations of antibiotics and natural antimicrobial substances with complex mechanisms of action and multiple healing properties, such as plant essential oils. The purpose of the present chapter is to review published studies on antibiotic-essential oil combinations and discuss the prospects for future studies. In general, many studies have shown the potential for essential oils to act synergistically with antibiotics in vitro. The main proposed mechanism of this beneficial effect is through inhibition of efflux pumps by some essential oils, which restores the activity of the antibiotic. Future efforts should be directed into further studies of antibiotic-essential oil combinations against multidrug-resistant bacteria, with an emphasis on understanding the mechanisms of the produced effect. Combinations of essential oils with different types of antimicrobial agents, such as bacteriophages, nanoparticles, and quorum-sensing inhibitors, require greater attention and are worthy of future investigations.

Drug Efflux Pumps in Cancer Resistance Pathways From Molecular Recognition and Characterization to Possible Inhibition Strategies in Chemotherapy

Drug Efflux Pumps in Cancer Resistance Pathways  From Molecular Recognition and Characterization to Possible Inhibition Strategies in Chemotherapy
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 394
Release: 2019-11-07
ISBN 10: 0128141417
ISBN 13: 9780128141410
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Drug Efflux Pumps in Cancer Resistance Pathways From Molecular Recognition and Characterization to Possible Inhibition Strategies in Chemotherapy Book Review:

Drug Efflux Pumps in Cancer Resistance Pathways: From Molecular Recognition and Characterization to Possible Inhibition Strategies in Chemotherapy, Volume Seven, describes the fundamental aspects of efflux pumps of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily in cancer resistance pathways, along with strategies to target and improve chemotherapy efficacy. Pumps of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily (ABCs) regulate the access of drugs to the intracellular space. In this context, the overexpression of ABCs is a well-known mechanism of multidrug resistance in cancer and is associated with therapeutic failure. Cancer types discussed include breast, endocrine, hematologic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, lung, skin and central nervous system cancers. The book is a valuable source for researchers and advanced students in cancer, biology, pharmacology, pharmaceutical sciences, biomaterials and medical/clinical sciences that are interested in accessing a comprehensive compendium on efflux pumps in mechanisms of cancer resistance. Offers comprehensive and detailed descriptions of the basic aspects of efflux pumps in a very schematic and didactic manner Describes the involvement of efflux pumps in cancer resistance in different cancer types Encompasses an updated overview on state-of-the-art approaches that capitalize on their inhibition to improve chemotherapy and overcome resistance

Cancer Drug Resistance

Cancer Drug Resistance
Author: Beverly A. Teicher
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 617
Release: 2007-11-09
ISBN 10: 1597450359
ISBN 13: 9781597450355
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cancer Drug Resistance Book Review:

Leading experts summarize and synthesize the latest discoveries concerning the changes that occur in tumor cells as they develop resistance to anticancer drugs, and suggest new approaches to preventing and overcoming it. The authors review physiological resistance based upon tumor architecture, cellular resistance based on drug transport, epigenetic changes that neutralize or bypass drug cytotoxicity, and genetic changes that alter drug target molecules by decreasing or eliminating drug binding and efficacy. Highlights include new insights into resistance to antiangiogenic therapies, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in therapeutic resistance, cancer stem cells, and the development of more effective therapies. There are also new findings on tumor immune escape mechanisms, gene amplification in drug resistance, the molecular determinants of multidrug resistance, and resistance to taxanes and Herceptin.

Antibiotic Policies Fighting Resistance

Antibiotic Policies  Fighting Resistance
Author: Ian M. Gould,Jos W.M. van der Meer
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 285
Release: 2007-09-12
ISBN 10: 0387708405
ISBN 13: 9780387708409
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Antibiotic Policies Fighting Resistance Book Review:

This volume examines many of the crucial issues of resistance in a clinical context, with an emphasis on MRSA; surely the greatest challenge to our antibiotic and infection control policies that modern health care systems have ever seen. Other chapters explore the psychology of prescribing, modern management techniques as an adjunct to antibiotic policies, and the less obvious downsides of antibiotic use.