Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders

Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders
Author: Tatjana Aue,Hadas Okon-Singer
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 306
Release: 2020-02-23
ISBN 10: 0128166614
ISBN 13: 9780128166611
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders Book Review:

Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders: Neurophysiological Foundations focuses on the neurophysiological basis of biases in attention, interpretation, expectancy and memory. Each chapter includes a review of each specific bias, including both positive and negative information in both healthy individuals and psychiatric populations. This book provides readers with major theories, methods used in investigating biases, brain regions associated with the related bias, and autonomic responses to specific biases. Its end goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the neural, autonomic and cognitive mechanisms related to processing biases. Outlines neurophysiological research on diverse types of information processing bias, including attention bias, expectancy bias, interpretation bias, and memory bias Discusses both normal and pathological forms of each cognitive biases Provides specific examples on how to translate research on cognitive biases to clinical applications

Schizophrenia Treatment

Schizophrenia Treatment
Author: Yu-Chih Shen
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 180
Release: 2016-12-14
ISBN 10: 9535128256
ISBN 13: 9789535128250
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Schizophrenia Treatment Book Review:

Schizophrenia treatment has many facets. This book begins with the glutamatergic and GABAergic hypofunctioning contribute to the schizophrenic symptoms and their current targeted therapeutics. The genetic, epigenetic, and immune etiologies of schizophrenia and their potential targeted therapeutics as approached in this book are interesting. Understanding cognitive biases and delusional circuits in schizophrenia is important; several behavioral cognitive therapies working on the reduction and avoidance of these cognitive biases are demonstrating their effectiveness. Advances in schizophrenia treatment followed, including transcranial magnetic stimulation and special sport program, are presented at the book's end.

Analyzing the Role of Cognitive Biases in the Decision Making Process

Analyzing the Role of Cognitive Biases in the Decision Making Process
Author: Juárez Ramos, Verónica
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 262
Release: 2018-11-16
ISBN 10: 1522529799
ISBN 13: 9781522529798
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Analyzing the Role of Cognitive Biases in the Decision Making Process Book Review:

Decision making or making judgments is an essential function in the ordinary life of any individual. Decisions can often be made easily, but sometimes, it can be difficult due to conflict, uncertainty, or ambiguity of the variables required to make the decision. As human beings, we constantly have to decide between different activities such as occupational, recreational, political, economic, etc. These decisions can be transcendental or inconsequential. Analyzing the Role of Cognitive Biases in the Decision-Making Process presents comprehensive research focusing on cognitive shortcuts in the decision-making process. While highlighting topics including jumping to conclusion bias, personality traits, and theoretical models, this book is ideally designed for mental health professionals, psychologists, sociologists, managers, academicians, researchers, and upper-level students seeking current research on cognitive biases that affect individual decision making in daily life.

Cognitive Vulnerability to Emotional Disorders

Cognitive Vulnerability to Emotional Disorders
Author: Lauren B. Alloy,John H. Riskind
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2006-04-21
ISBN 10: 1135648786
ISBN 13: 9781135648787
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognitive Vulnerability to Emotional Disorders Book Review:

In this book, which advances clinical science and clinical practice, experts present the broad synthesis of what we have learnt about nature, origins, and clinical ramifications of the general and specific cognitive factors that seem to play a crucial role in creating and maintaining vulnerability across the spectrum of emotional disorders.

Biased Cognitions Social Anxiety Building a Global Framework for Integrating Cognitive Behavioral and Neural Processes

Biased Cognitions   Social Anxiety  Building a Global Framework for Integrating Cognitive  Behavioral  and Neural Processes
Author: Alexandre Heeren,Wolf-Gero Lange,Quincy Wong,Pierre Philippot
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2015-03-05
ISBN 10: 288919423X
ISBN 13: 9782889194230
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biased Cognitions Social Anxiety Building a Global Framework for Integrating Cognitive Behavioral and Neural Processes Book Review:

Social anxiety (SA) is a common and incapacitating disorder that has been associated with seriously impaired career, academic, and general social functioning. Regarding epidemiological data, SA has a lifetime prevalence of 12.1% and is the fourth most common psychopathological disorder (Kessler et al., 2005). At a fundamental point of view, the most prominent cognitive models of SA posit that biased cognitions contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). Over the last decades, a large body of research has provided evidence that individuals suffering from SA exhibit such biased cognitions at the level of visual attention, memory of social encounters, interpretation of social events, and in judgment of social cues. Such biased cognitions in SA has been studied in different ways within cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology, clinical psychology, and cognitive neuroscience over the last few decades, yet, integrative approaches for channeling all information into a unified account of biased cognitions in SA has not been presented so far. The present Research Topic aims to bring together theses different ways, and to highlight findings and methods which can unify research across these areas. In particular, this Research Topic aims to advance the current theoretical models of SA and set the stage for future developments of the field by clarifying and linking theoretical concepts across disciplines.

Cognitive Biases in Anxiety and Depression

Cognitive Biases in Anxiety and Depression
Author: Paula T. Hertel
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 128
Release: 2002
ISBN 10: 9781841699257
ISBN 13: 184169925X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognitive Biases in Anxiety and Depression Book Review:

This special issue of Cognition and Emotion is dedicated to the phenomena of emotion-related biases in attention and remembering that are experienced by anxious and depressed people. Andrew Mathews and Colin MacLeod summarize their new research in using experimental methods to train anxiety-like biases in attention and interpretation. Elaine Fox, Riccardo Russo, and Kevin Dutton report new experiments concerning delayed disengagement from threatening events in anxiety. Phil Watkins's article addresses the conditions for obtaining depression-related biases on indirect tests of memory. Depression-consistent biases in false recognition are reported by Rich Wenzlaff, Jo Meier, and Danette Salas; these biases also characterized performance by previously dysphoric students and suggest indirect measures of vulnerability to depression. Prospective evidence that cognitive biases index vulnerability is described by Stephanie Rude and her colleagues. In short, the special issue contains a mixture of new findings with integrative review and suggestions for future directions in investigations of emotionally-disordered cognition.

Major Depressive Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder
Author: Yong-Ku Kim
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 156
Release: 2015-06-11
ISBN 10: 9535121294
ISBN 13: 9789535121299
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Major Depressive Disorder Book Review:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, phenotypically and biologically. MDD may be caused by complex interaction between genes and environment in susceptible individuals. Thus, a combination of certain genetic polymorphism, environmental stress, and personal susceptibility ultimately may induce MDD. Gene-environment interactions in the pathophysiology of MDD lead to advancement in personalized medicine by means of genotyping for inter-individual variability in drug action and metabolism. Gene-environment interactions may explain why some subjects become depressed while others remain unaffected. The aim of this book is to describe current knowledge of MDD from the point of view of neurobiology, molecular genetics and cognition. The authors address a deep understanding of cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms involved in MDD.

The Optimism Bias

The Optimism Bias
Author: Tali Sharot
Publsiher: Vintage
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2011-06-14
ISBN 10: 0307379833
ISBN 13: 9780307379832
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Optimism Bias Book Review:

Psychologists have long been aware that most people maintain an irrationally positive outlook on life—but why? Turns out, we might be hardwired that way. In this absorbing exploration, Tali Sharot—one of the most innovative neuroscientists at work today—demonstrates that optimism may be crucial to human existence. The Optimism Bias explores how the brain generates hope and what happens when it fails; how the brains of optimists and pessimists differ; why we are terrible at predicting what will make us happy; how emotions strengthen our ability to recollect; how anticipation and dread affect us; how our optimistic illusions affect our financial, professional, and emotional decisions; and more. Drawing on cutting-edge science, The Optimism Bias provides us with startling new insight into the workings of the brain and the major role that optimism plays in determining how we live our lives.

Judgment Under Uncertainty

Judgment Under Uncertainty
Author: Daniel Kahneman,Stewart Paul Slovic,Paul Slovic,Amos Tversky,Cambridge University Press
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 555
Release: 1982-04-30
ISBN 10: 9780521284141
ISBN 13: 0521284147
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Judgment Under Uncertainty Book Review:

Thirty-five chapters describe various judgmental heuristics and the biases they produce, not only in laboratory experiments, but in important social, medical, and political situations as well. Most review multiple studies or entire subareas rather than describing single experimental studies.

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults Third Edition

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults  Third Edition
Author: American Psychiatric Association
Publsiher: American Psychiatric Pub
Total Pages: 170
Release: 2015-07-29
ISBN 10: 0890424659
ISBN 13: 9780890424650
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults Third Edition Book Review:

Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust in 2011, there has been an increasing emphasis on assuring that clinical practice guidelines are trustworthy, developed in a transparent fashion, and based on a systematic review of the available research evidence. To align with the IOM recommendations and to meet the new requirements for inclusion of a guideline in the National Guidelines Clearinghouse of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), American Psychiatric Association (APA) has adopted a new process for practice guideline development. Under this new process APA's practice guidelines also seek to provide better clinical utility and usability. Rather than a broad overview of treatment for a disorder, new practice guidelines focus on a set of discrete clinical questions of relevance to an overarching subject area. A systematic review of evidence is conducted to address these clinical questions and involves a detailed assessment of individual studies. The quality of the overall body of evidence is also rated and is summarized in the practice guideline. With the new process, recommendations are determined by weighing potential benefits and harms of an intervention in a specific clinical context. Clear, concise, and actionable recommendation statements help clinicians to incorporate recommendations into clinical practice, with the goal of improving quality of care. The new practice guideline format is also designed to be more user friendly by dividing information into modules on specific clinical questions. Each module has a consistent organization, which will assist users in finding clinically useful and relevant information quickly and easily. This new edition of the practice guidelines on psychiatric evaluation for adults is the first set of the APA's guidelines developed under the new guideline development process. These guidelines address the following nine topics, in the context of an initial psychiatric evaluation: review of psychiatric symptoms, trauma history, and treatment history; substance use assessment; assessment of suicide risk; assessment for risk of aggressive behaviors; assessment of cultural factors; assessment of medical health; quantitative assessment; involvement of the patient in treatment decision making; and documentation of the psychiatric evaluation. Each guideline recommends or suggests topics to include during an initial psychiatric evaluation. Findings from an expert opinion survey have also been taken into consideration in making recommendations or suggestions. In addition to reviewing the available evidence on psychiatry evaluation, each guideline also provides guidance to clinicians on implementing these recommendations to enhance patient care.

Heuristics and Biases

Heuristics and Biases
Author: Thomas Gilovich,Dale Griffin,Daniel Kahneman,Cambridge University Press
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 857
Release: 2002-07-08
ISBN 10: 9780521796798
ISBN 13: 0521796792
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Heuristics and Biases Book Review:

This book, first published in 2002, compiles psychologists' best attempts to answer important questions about intuitive judgment.

Nunn s Applied Respiratory Physiology

Nunn s Applied Respiratory Physiology
Author: John Francis Nunn
Publsiher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Total Pages: 608
Release: 1993-10-04
ISBN 10: 1483292053
ISBN 13: 9781483292052
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nunn s Applied Respiratory Physiology Book Review:

Nunn's Applied Respiratory Physiology.

Thinking Fast and Slow

Thinking  Fast and Slow
Author: Daniel Kahneman
Publsiher: Doubleday Canada
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2011-11-01
ISBN 10: 0385676522
ISBN 13: 9780385676526
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Thinking Fast and Slow Book Review:

The guru to the gurus at last shares his knowledge with the rest of us. Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman's seminal studies in behavioral psychology, behavioral economics, and happiness studies have influenced numerous other authors, including Steven Pinker and Malcolm Gladwell. In Thinking, Fast and Slow, Kahneman at last offers his own, first book for the general public. It is a lucid and enlightening summary of his life's work. It will change the way you think about thinking. Two systems drive the way we think and make choices, Kahneman explains: System One is fast, intuitive, and emotional; System Two is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. Examining how both systems function within the mind, Kahneman exposes the extraordinary capabilities as well as the biases of fast thinking and the pervasive influence of intuitive impressions on our thoughts and our choices. Engaging the reader in a lively conversation about how we think, he shows where we can trust our intuitions and how we can tap into the benefits of slow thinking, contrasting the two-system view of the mind with the standard model of the rational economic agent. Kahneman's singularly influential work has transformed cognitive psychology and launched the new fields of behavioral economics and happiness studies. In this path-breaking book, Kahneman shows how the mind works, and offers practical and enlightening insights into how choices are made in both our business and personal lives--and how we can guard against the mental glitches that often get us into trouble.

The Cognitive Autopsy

The Cognitive Autopsy
Author: Pat Croskerry
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2020-05-22
ISBN 10: 0190088761
ISBN 13: 9780190088767
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Cognitive Autopsy Book Review:

Behind heart disease and cancer, medical error is now listed as one of the leading causes of death. Of the many medical errors that may lead to injury and death, diagnostic failure is regarded as the most significant. Generally, the majority of diagnostic failures are attributed to the clinicians directly involved with the patient, and to a lesser extent, the system in which they work. In turn, the majority of errors made by clinicians are due to decision making failures manifested by various departures from rationality. Of all the medical environments in which patients are seen and diagnosed, the emergency department is the most challenging. It has been described as a "wicked" environment where illness and disease may range from minor ailments and complaints to severe, life-threatening disorders. The Cognitive Autopsy is a novel strategy towards understanding medical error and diagnostic failure in 42 clinical cases with which the author was directly involved or became aware of at the time. Essentially, it describes a cognitive approach towards root cause analysis of medical adverse events or near misses. Whereas root cause analysis typically focuses on the observable and measurable aspects of adverse events, the cognitive autopsy attempts to identify covert cognitive processes that may have contributed to outcomes. In this clinical setting, no cognitive process is directly observable but must be inferred from the behavior of the individual clinician. The book illustrates unequivocally that chief among these cognitive processes are cognitive biases and other flaws in decision making, rather than knowledge deficits.

13 Things Mentally Strong People Don t Do

13 Things Mentally Strong People Don t Do
Author: Amy Morin
Publsiher: Harper Collins
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2014-12-23
ISBN 10: 0062358316
ISBN 13: 9780062358318
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

13 Things Mentally Strong People Don t Do Book Review:

"Kick bad mental habits and toughen yourself up."—Inc. Master your mental strength—revolutionary new strategies that work for everyone from homemakers to soldiers and teachers to CEOs. Don’t waste time feeling sorry for yourself Don’t give away your power Don’t shy away from change Don’t focus on things you can’t control Don’t worry about pleasing everyone Don’t fear taking calculated risks Don’t dwell on the past Don’t make the same mistakes over and over Don’t resent other people’s success Don’t give up after the first failure Don’t fear alone time Don’t feel the world owes you anything Don’t expect immediate results

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Author: Vladimir Kalinin
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 202
Release: 2014-04-03
ISBN 10: 9535112384
ISBN 13: 9789535112389
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Book Review:

Although Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) has been known since the ancient times, the exact etiology and pathogenesis of OCD unfortunately still remain unknown. In addition, the therapeutic approaches elaborated for the treatment of OCD as a whole are not perfect, and this disorder as a rule is characterized by unfavorable course and lack of full therapeutic response. In the current book some modern data on pathogenesis, phenomenology and treatment of OCD are presented. Besides, the data on co-morbidity of OCD with other neurological and psychiatric disorders are also included. This book is intended for broad circle of readers, but mostly for psychiatrists, psychologists and neurologists.

Risk and Reasoning in Clinical Diagnosis

Risk and Reasoning in Clinical Diagnosis
Author: Cym Anthony Ryle
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 208
Release: 2019-07-12
ISBN 10: 0190944005
ISBN 13: 9780190944001
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Risk and Reasoning in Clinical Diagnosis Book Review:

Accurate diagnosis is the foundation of medical practice, but at the start of the diagnostic process, uncertainty is inevitable. The clinician's skills and cognitive attributes determine the quality of the initial differential diagnosis and thus the crucial first phases of investigation and treatment; mistakes are often self-propagating. Diagnostic error is a major cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality, and is the commonest reason for successful litigation. Risk and Reasoning in Clinical Diagnosis is an accessible and readable look at the diagnostic process. Dr. Cym Ryle presents the insights and concepts developed in cognitive psychology which have led to the consensus that in all domains human reasoning is primarily driven by unconscious, intuitive mechanisms; the contribution of structured, analytical thinking is variable and inconsistent. He notes that the risk of error is inseparable from these mechanisms. Dr. Ryle then develops a description of the diagnostic process which encompasses its form, strengths and fallibility, and illustrates this description with examples from his work as a general practitioner. He argues that improving diagnostic accuracy should be a priority, and that there is sufficient evidence to guide changes in medical training, in clinical practice, and in the culture and organisation of our institutions. He identifies specific, practical steps that can be taken by individual clinicians and by clinical teams, suggests priorities for action in our institutions, and considers the obstacles to progress.

Mental Health

Mental Health
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 203
Release: 2001
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UOM:39015042256555
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mental Health Book Review:

These reports summarize the current state of what is known about various health and healthcare issues that affect the United States. An introductory chapter gives an overview of the report as a whole, along with a look at the science and preparation of the report. Along with the findings, reports may present directories of related resources.

Cognition and Addiction

Cognition and Addiction
Author: Antonio Verdejo García
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 442
Release: 2019-09-29
ISBN 10: 0128152990
ISBN 13: 9780128152997
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognition and Addiction Book Review:

Cognition and Addiction: A Researcher’s Guide from Mechanisms Towards Interventions provides researchers with a guide to recent cognitive neuroscience advances in addiction theory, phenotyping, treatments and new vistas, including both substance and behavioral addictions. This book focuses on “what to know and “how to apply information, prioritizing novel principles and delineating cutting-edge assessment, phenotyping and treatment tools. Written by world renowned researcher Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, this resource will become a go-to guide for researchers in the field of cognitive neuroscience and addiction. Examines cognitive neuroscience advances in addiction theory, including both substance and behavioral addictions Discusses primary principles of cutting-edge assessment, phenotyping and treatment tools Includes detailed chapters on neuro-epidemiology and genetic imaging

Mind Fixers Psychiatry s Troubled Search for the Biology of Mental Illness

Mind Fixers  Psychiatry s Troubled Search for the Biology of Mental Illness
Author: Anne Harrington
Publsiher: W. W. Norton & Company
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2019-04-16
ISBN 10: 1324001976
ISBN 13: 9781324001973
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mind Fixers Psychiatry s Troubled Search for the Biology of Mental Illness Book Review:

Mind Fixers tells the history of psychiatry’s quest to understand the biological basis of mental illness and asks where we need to go from here. In Mind Fixers, Anne Harrington, author of The Cure Within, explores psychiatry’s repeatedly frustrated struggle to understand mental disorder in biomedical terms. She shows how the stalling of early twentieth century efforts in this direction allowed Freudians and social scientists to insist, with some justification, that they had better ways of analyzing and fixing minds. But when the Freudians overreached, they drove psychiatry into a state of crisis that a new “biological revolution” was meant to alleviate. Harrington shows how little that biological revolution had to do with breakthroughs in science, and why the field has fallen into a state of crisis in our own time. Mind Fixers makes clear that psychiatry’s waxing and waning biological enthusiasms have been shaped not just by developments in the clinic and lab, but also by a surprising range of social factors, including immigration, warfare, grassroots activism, and assumptions about race and gender. Government programs designed to empty the state mental hospitals, acrid rivalries between different factions in the field, industry profit mongering, consumerism, and an uncritical media have all contributed to the story as well. In focusing particularly on the search for the biological roots of schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder, Harrington underscores the high human stakes for the millions of people who have sought medical answers for their mental suffering. This is not just a story about doctors and scientists, but about countless ordinary people and their loved ones. A clear-eyed, evenhanded, and yet passionate tour de force, Mind Fixers recounts the past and present struggle to make mental illness a biological problem in order to lay the groundwork for creating a better future, both for those who suffer and for those whose job it is to care for them.