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Many emerging technologies such as video conferencing, video-on-demand, and digital libraries require the efficient delivery of compressed video streams. For applications that require the delivery of compressed stored multimedia streams, the a priori knowledge available about these compressed streams can aid in the allocation of server and network resources. By using a client-side buffer, the resource requirements from the server and network can be minimized. Buffering Techniques for Delivery of Compressed Video in Video-on-Demand Systems presents a comprehensive description of buffering techniques for the delivery of compressed, prerecorded multimedia data. While these techniques can be applied to any compressed data streams, this book focusses primarily on the delivery of video streams because of the large resource requirements that they can consume. The book first describes buffering techniques for the continuous playback of stored video sources. In particular, several bandwidth smoothing (or buffering) algorithms that are provably optimal under certain conditions are presented. To provide a well-rounded discussion, the book then describes extensions that aid in the ability to provide interactive delivery of video across networks. Specifically, reservation techniques that take into account interactive functions such as fast-forward and rewind are described. In addition, extensions to the bandwidth smoothing algorithms presented in the first few chapters are described. These algorithms are designed with interactive, continuous playback of stored video in mind and are also provably optimal under certain constraints. Buffering Techniques for Delivery of Compressed Video in Video-on-Demand Systems serves as an excellent resource for multimedia systems, networking and video-on-demand designers, and may be used as a text for advanced courses on the topic.
Specifications for Identity and Purity of Buffering Agents, Salts, Emulsifiers, Thickening Agents, Stabilizers, Flavouring Agents, Food Colours, Sweetening Agents, and Miscellaneous Food Additives
Next-generation high-speed Internet backbone networks will be required to support a broad range of emerging applications which may not only require significant bandwidth, but may also have strict quality of service (QoS) requirements. Furthermore, the traffic from such applications are expected to be highly bursty in nature. For such traffic, the allocation of static fixed-bandwidth circuits may lead to the over-provisioning of bandwidth resources in order to meet QoS requirements. Optical burst switching (OBS) is a promising new technique which attempts to address the problem of efficiently allocating resources for bursty traffic. In OBS, incoming data is assembled into bursts at the edges of the network, and when the burst is ready to be sent, resources in the network are reserved only for the duration of the burst. The reservation of resources is typically made by an out-of-band one-way control message which precedes the burst by some offset time. By reserving resources only for the duration of the burst, a greater degree of utilization may be achieved in the network. This book provides an overview of optical burst switching. Design and research issues involved in the development of OBS networks are discussed, and approaches to providing QoS in OBS networks are presented. Topics include: - Optical burst switching node and network architectures - Burst assembly - Signaling protocols - Contention resolution - Burst scheduling - Quality of service in OBS networks
Each Oklahoma Notes book presents the core information of one segment of the medical school curriculum. Written by some of the most effective medical educators in the U.S., and now thoroughly updated and revised, the Oklahoma Notes feature: Concise text presented in outline format for rapid review; contents oriented to promote success; self-assessment questions; and more tables and figures designed to facilitate self-assessment and review.
Designed for a one-semester course in Finite Element Method, this compact and well-organized text presents FEM as a tool to find approximate solutions to differential equations. This provides the student a better perspective on the technique and its wide range of applications. This approach reflects the current trend as the present-day applications range from structures to biomechanics to electromagnetics, unlike in conventional texts that view FEM primarily as an extension of matrix methods of structural analysis. After an introduction and a review of mathematical preliminaries, the book gives a detailed discussion on FEM as a technique for solving differential equations and variational formulation of FEM. This is followed by a lucid presentation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional finite elements and finite element formulation for dynamics. The book concludes with some case studies that focus on industrial problems and Appendices that include mini-project topics based on near-real-life problems. Postgraduate/Senior undergraduate students of civil, mechanical and aeronautical engineering will find this text extremely useful; it will also appeal to the practising engineers and the teaching community.
The wildly popular YouTube personality and author of the New York Times bestseller My Drunk Kitchen is back! This time, she’s stirring up memories and tales from her past. By combing through the journals that Hannah has kept for much of her life, this collection of narrative essays deliver a fuller picture of her life, her experiences, and the things she’s figured out about family, faith, love, sexuality, self-worth, friendship and fame. Revealing what makes Hannah tick, this sometimes cringe-worthy, poignant collection of stories is sure to deliver plenty of Hannah’s wit and wisdom, and hopefully encourage you to try your hand at her patented brand of reckless optimism. Personal note: Hello, my darlings! I am incredibly pleased to present BUFFERING: Unshared Tales of a Life Fully Loaded! As a big fan of memoirs, I wanted to try my hand at writing about the events of my life that deserve a little more consideration than can be accomplished in 140-characters or a 6-minute vlog. Now on the cusp of turning 30, I'm ready to expose some parts of my life that I haven't shared before. Before, it was all about privacy, process and time. And now the time has come! I’m ready to put myself out there, for you. I'm a little nervous about all these vulnerable words going into the world, these tales about my love life, the wrestling I’ve done with faith, how I feel about sex and my family and myself. I’ve had a lot of trials, a lot of errors, but also a lot of passion. Here’s the thing--I've always found comfort in the stories shared by others, so I hope my stories, now that I feel ready to tell them, will bring you some comfort too. And when you read this book please remember: Buffering is just the time it takes to process. Enjoy! Love, Hannah
This book presents chemical analyses of the most pressing waste, pollution, and resource problems for the undergraduate or graduate student. Its distinctive holistic approach provides a solid introduction to theory as well as a practical laboratory manual detailing beginning and advanced experimental applications. It presents laboratory procedures at microscale conditions, for minimum waste and maximum economy.
This book provides comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the accumulation of wastes at mine, including sulfidic mine wastes, mine water, tailings, cyanidation wastes of gold-silver ores, radioactive wastes of uranium ores, and wastes of phosphate and potash ores. The updated second edition includes new case studies; presents crucial aspects of mine wastes as scientific issues; reflects major developments and contemporary issues in mine waste science; additional figures; and an updated reference list.
Here is the first effort in a single volume to cover all of the integrative functions of calcium signalling - how changes in intracellular calcium coordinate a variety of coherent cellular responses. Written by a team of internationally established researchers, Integrative Aspects of Calcium Signalling provides the latest experimental data and concepts, bringing together a detailed analysis of the events, processes, and functions regulated by calcium signalling. A unique resource for professionals and students of physiology, biophysics, neurobiology, biochemistry, and all related fields.
Taking a systems perspective, this book enables the student to make sense of business behaviour by demonstrating how interrelated business processes determine the success of an organization.