Breaking Tolerance to Unresponsiveness to Immunotherapy by Natural Killer Cells

Breaking Tolerance to Unresponsiveness to Immunotherapy by Natural Killer Cells
Author: Sandro Matosevic
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2021-01-29
ISBN 10: 9780128206270
ISBN 13: 0128206276
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Breaking Tolerance to Unresponsiveness to Immunotherapy by Natural Killer Cells Book Review:

Breaking Tolerance to Unresponsiveness to Immunotherapy by Natural Killer Cells presents chapters by leaders in translational natural killer cell research and bridges the gap between clinical need and basic science by presenting state-of-the-art knowledge on innate immunity and the challenges associated with translating it to practical adoptive immunotherapies. New approaches, such as the genetic engineering of NK cells and their combination with checkpoint blockade therapies are discussed among other potential interventions to improve natural killer cell functionality against targets. In addition, challenges, such as the difficulty in genetically modifying NK cells or a poor understanding of their effect on checkpoint inhibition are included. The book is a key reference and go-to resource for researchers and clinicians who want to understand the current limitations associated with bringing natural killer cell-based immunotherapies to the clinic. Discusses translational aspects from leaders in the field to facilitate readers' understanding of clinical challenges Addresses important events that occur in patient tumor microenvironments as they pertain to NK cells and how they are, or can be, tackled to overcome immunosuppression of NK cells Focuses on immunometabolism by discussing the metabolic reprogramming that NK cells undergo in solid tumors, including hypoxia, adenosine and other metabolites

Immunotherapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Glioma

Immunotherapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Glioma
Author: Christopher Jackson,Michael Lim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 190
Release: 2021-09-10
ISBN 10: 0128197560
ISBN 13: 9780128197561
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Immunotherapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Glioma Book Review:

Immunotherapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Glioma provides a review of the current state of immunotherapy for primary brain tumors. The topic is of interest to patients, clinicians, and researchers alike, particularly given the recent failure of large clinical trials. This book serves as an overview of the most promising approaches in the field and provides a foundation for considering novel and combination therapies moving forward. The book discusses several types of immunotherapies for glioma, such as peptide, dendritic cell and heat shock protein vaccines; immune checkpoint blockade; myeloid cells as target; oncolytic viruses; and CAR T cell therapy. Additionally, it discusses the mechanisms of immune suppression in patients and immunogenomics. This volume is a valuable source for cancer researchers, oncologists and several members of biomedical field who are interested in novel strategies to fight glioblastoma. Summarizes the work in immunotherapy for glioma to-date, including the available evidence from preclinical studies and clinical trials Reviews the challenges and successes of the most promising strategies for brain tumor immunotherapy Provides a foundation for considering novel and combination therapies moving forward

Immunotherapy in Resistant Cancer From the Lab Bench Work to Its Clinical Perspectives

Immunotherapy in Resistant Cancer  From the Lab Bench Work to Its Clinical Perspectives
Author: Jorge Morales Montor,Mariana Segovia
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 286
Release: 2020-10-01
ISBN 10: 0128220295
ISBN 13: 9780128220290
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Immunotherapy in Resistant Cancer From the Lab Bench Work to Its Clinical Perspectives Book Review:

Immunotherapy in Resistant Cancer: From the Lab Bench Work to Its Clinical Perspectives provides high level knowledge on detailed mechanisms of actions and biological interactions of different immune drugs, with an aim of offering researchers and clinicians cutting-edge therapies to overcome drug resistance. The book explains the latest immunotherapies for different types of cancer, helping users carry out research projects or create alternatives for drug development in the pharmaceutical industry. Topics discussed include the relationship between immunotherapy and macrophages, immune checkpoints in different types of cancer, immune cocktails in solid tumors, and immune-phenotyping. Additionally, the book presents basic and clinical data on immunoresistance and glycosylation. This book is a valuable source for cancer researchers, medical doctors, clinicians and members of the biomedical field who must understand certain mechanisms to fight cancer that is resistant to immunotherapy. Provides basic and clinical evidence based on molecular interactions and clinical studies to address the risks and benefits of cancer immunotherapy Presents the results of new immunotherapy trials, discussing the state-of-the-art in different types of cancer Discusses targeted therapies approved by the FDA, along with therapies with clinical potential used in basic studies

Improving the Therapeutic Ratio in Head and Neck Cancer

Improving the Therapeutic Ratio in Head and Neck Cancer
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 376
Release: 2019-10-04
ISBN 10: 0128178698
ISBN 13: 9780128178690
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Improving the Therapeutic Ratio in Head and Neck Cancer Book Review:

Improving the Therapeutic Ratio in Head and Neck Cancer provides a complete review of current approaches to modulating therapeutic sensitivity in head and neck cancer. It presents a broad background of current approaches and by highlighting the potential for clinical translational, introduces a roadmap for how to move promising preclinical findings into the clinic. The book discusses topics such as immunotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies in head and neck cancer, PI3k/mTOR pathway, autophagy inhibition to sensitize HNC to radiation and chemotherapy, TAM and Eph/Ephrin family proteins and metabolic reprogramming to modulate therapeutic sensitivity. Additionally, it details approaches to improve the response to immunotherapy, and Chk1/2 inhibition in radiation and cetuximab resistance. This book is a valuable source to head and neck cancer researchers and advanced students, and to those studying specific approaches in other model systems and disease sites. Provides key scientific background for clinicians when developing novel clinical trials and important examples for basic scientists of the types of work required to move a concept from the lab to the clinic Presents consistent pathway diagrams in each chapter, thus making it easier to understand complicated pathways Includes chapter summaries of the critical next steps needed to move studies from their current state into practice changing clinical data

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy
Author: Benjamin Bonavida,Anahid Jewett
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 538
Release: 2021-06-23
ISBN 10: 0128243961
ISBN 13: 9780128243961
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy Book Review:

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy: Increasing Anti-tumor Efficacy describes the unique therapeutic applications of NK cells to fight cancers and eliminate the bulk and subset of cancer stem cells responsible for metastasis, relapse and recurrences. The book provides information on the development, engineering, mechanisms of action, response to various preclinical models, and applications in various clinical trials. Sections cover the development of highly engineered cytotoxic NK cells, their mechanisms of action, preclinical and clinical applications, the development and application of CAR-NK cells, and new NK-drug conjugates, also emphasizing that activated NK cells can target and kill highly resistant cancer stem cells. Written by the leading experts on NK immunotherapy worldwide, this is a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians and members of the biomedical field who are interested in understanding novel and efficient therapies to fight cancers. Discusses the unique developmental applications of NK immunotherapy against cancers, which differs greatly from other types of immunotherapies Provides up-to-date and highly relevant information through chapters written by the leading researchers in the field Presents a significant number of schematic diagrams for easy understanding and reproducibility

Cancer Immunotherapy at the Crossroads

Cancer Immunotherapy at the Crossroads
Author: James H. Finke,Ronald M. Bukowski
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 386
Release: 2003-11-24
ISBN 10: 1592597432
ISBN 13: 9781592597437
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cancer Immunotherapy at the Crossroads Book Review:

Leading investigators and clinicians detail the different mechanisms used by tumors to escape and impair the immune system and then spell out possible clinical strategies to prevent or reverse tumor-induced immune dysfunction. The authors review the mechanisms of immune dysfunction and evasion mechanisms in histologically diverse human tumors, focusing on tumor-induced molecular defects in T cells and antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and tumors), that may serve as biomarkers for patient prognosis. They discuss the means by which these immune functions may be protected or restored in order to more effectively support the process of tumor rejection in situ. Cutting-edge techniques are outlined with the capacity to monitor the strength and quality of patients' immune responses using immunocytometry, MHC-peptide tetramers combined with apoptosis assay, ELISPOT assay, and detection of MHC-TAA peptide complexes on tumor cells.

Renal Cell Carcinoma

Renal Cell Carcinoma
Author: Eric A. Klein
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 368
Release: 1993-04-23
ISBN 10: 9780824790332
ISBN 13: 0824790332
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Renal Cell Carcinoma Book Review:

This reference brings together all aspects of renal cell carcinoma, and provides a basis for understanding the disease's origin, progression and responses to immunotherapy.;Examining the current status of cytokine, cell-based and chemotherapeutic methods of treatment, this book: discusses the clinical presentation of advanced renal carcinoma and its therapeutic challenges; reviews prognostic factors and the management of renal cell carcinoma occurring with von Hippel-Landau syndrome; summarizes efforts to identify the tumour suppressor gene deleted from chromosome 3 in most renal cell carcinomas; explicates the role of oncogenes in the progression of renal cell cancer and the molecular correlates of responses to interferon-alpha treatment; details the latest laboratory efforts to establish gene therapy for tumour treatment by transfection of cytokine genes in murine model systems; focuses on biologic response modifier therapy in humans, including cell-mediated immune responses and adoptive immunotherapy; presents preclinical and clinical studies of interleukin-2 alone, in combination with othe cytokines, and with chemothrapeutic agents; and addresses studies on the tumour necrosis factor and low- and high-dose interferon-alpha.

Theranostic Approach for Pancreatic Cancer

Theranostic Approach for Pancreatic Cancer
Author: Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju,Sarfraz Ahmad
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 410
Release: 2019-08-19
ISBN 10: 0128194588
ISBN 13: 9780128194584
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Theranostic Approach for Pancreatic Cancer Book Review:

Theranostic Approach for Pancreatic Cancer modulates the biologic properties of stroma in pancreatic cancer by targeting the several chemotherapy resistance mechanisms to impede their malignant property through introducing new strategies and drugs for tackling the disease. It brings information about ongoing research as well as clinical data about pancreatic cancer and provides detailed descriptions about diagnostic and therapeutic options for easy understanding. The book discusses several topics related to pancreatic cancer, such as stem cells, drug resistance and pancreatic tumor microenvironment, the latest developments in chemotherapy for metastatic cancer and chemoprevention, and epigenome as a therapeutic strategy. Additionally, it encompasses a discussion on theranostic clinical applications for personalized treatment and management of pancreatic cancer. The book is a valuable resource for cancer researchers, oncologists, and several members of the biomedical field who need to understand more about the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Provides information on the roadblocks of chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed and metastatic pancreatic cancer“/li> Discusses treatment options available currently and prospective options for the future Focuses especially on stroma, tumor microenvironment, stem cells, stellate cells, transcription factors, growth factors, and important signaling pathways as already tested types of treatment

Natural Killer Cell Protocols

Natural Killer Cell Protocols
Author: Kerry S. Campbell,Marco Colonna
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 398
Release: 2000
ISBN 10: 1592590446
ISBN 13: 9781592590445
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Natural Killer Cell Protocols Book Review:

In Natural Killer Cell Protocols: Cellular and Molecular Methods, Kerry S. Campbell and Marco Colonna have assembled a comprehensive collection of readily reproducible methods designed to study natural killer (NK) cells from the broadest variety of viewpoints. These include not only classic techniques, but also new approaches to standard methods, newly evolved techniques that have become valuable for specific applications, and unique models for manipulating and studying NK cells. Among the advanced methods covered are those for in vitro transendothelial migration, in vivo detection of cells migrating into tumors, immunofluorescence staining of intracellular cytokines, and in vitro NK cell development. Valuable techniques for specific applications include vaccinia virus protein expression, soluble KIR-Fc fusions for HLA class I binding assays, calcium mobilization in cell conjugates, and identification of heterodimeric receptor complexes using cDNA library expression cloning. No less important are accounts of such classic methods as hybrid resistance, ADCC, viral defense, target cell cytotoxicity assays, cloning and culturing, tumor immunotherapy, and generation of HLA class I transfected target cells. Natural Killer Cell Protocols: Cellular and Molecular Methods offers immunologists, cancer researchers, virologists, and cell biologists today's most comprehensive collection of both established and cutting-edge techniques, methods that will contribute significantly to advancing our understanding of this fascinating and critically important class of cells.

Chemical Abstracts

Chemical Abstracts
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2002
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UOM:39015057321377
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chemical Abstracts Book Review:

Immunotherapy of Cancer

Immunotherapy of Cancer
Author: Mary L. Disis
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 516
Release: 2007-10-28
ISBN 10: 1597450111
ISBN 13: 9781597450119
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Immunotherapy of Cancer Book Review:

Expert bench and clinical scientists join forces to concurrently review both the state-of-the-art in tumor immunology and its clinical translation into promising practical treatments. The authors explain in each chapter the scientific basis behind such therapeutic agents as monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, vaccines, and T-cells, and illustrate their clinical manipulation to combat cancer. Additional chapters address statistical analysis-both of clinical trials and assay evaluations-methods for the discovery of antigens, adoptive T cell therapy, and adaptive and innate immunity. The challenges in clinical trial design, the need for biomarkers of response-such as novel imaging techniques and immunologic monitoring-and the new advances and directions in cancer immunotherapy are also fully examined.

Trends in Allergic Conditions Among Children

Trends in Allergic Conditions Among Children
Author: Kristen D. Jackson,LaJeana D. Howie,Omolara Jean Akinbami
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 7
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UCR:31210023846601
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Trends in Allergic Conditions Among Children Book Review:

Immunotherapy of Cancer

Immunotherapy of Cancer
Author: Yoshiyuki Yamaguchi
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 358
Release: 2016-02-22
ISBN 10: 4431550313
ISBN 13: 9784431550310
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Immunotherapy of Cancer Book Review:

This timely book, published just as cancer immunotherapy comes of age, summarizes the rationale, present status, and future perspective for cancer immunotherapy. Included are explanations of the constitution of the immune system and immunocheckpoints, the mechanism of antigen presentation and recognition, valuable modalities, clinical trials and guidance, personalization, and biomarkers, all of which are essential for understanding the success of cancer immunotherapy. This innovative therapy has been investigated worldwide as the fourth line of cancer treatment after the standard treatments of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The progress in fundamental understanding of tumor immunology and the recent advances in clinical trials have opened new avenues with a cancer vaccine in 2010 and immunocheckpoint modulation in 2011, with their approval already granted in the United States. Today, there are no doubts, even among experts in cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy, that the immune system plays a vital role in tumor eradication. Following American approval, many clinical trials of cancer immunotherapy are being conducted. With this book the reader will readily understand the paradigm shift in cancer treatment and will realize the importance of cancer immunotherapy. The great value of immunotherapy will be obvious, not only for tumor shrinkage but for prolonging patient survival.

Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches to the Treatment of Cancer

Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches to the Treatment of Cancer
Author: Paul D. Rennert
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 276
Release: 2016-05-30
ISBN 10: 3319298275
ISBN 13: 9783319298276
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches to the Treatment of Cancer Book Review:

Cancer care is undergoing a radical transformation as novel technologies are directed toward new treatments and personalized medicine. The most dramatic advances in the treatment of cancer have come from therapeutics that augment the immune response to tumors. The immune checkpoint inhibitors are the best-known and most highly advanced examples of Immune Therapeutics targeting tumor cells and include approved antibody drugs directed at the cell surface proteins CTLA4 and PD-1. These are now considered foundational treatments for several solid tumor indications, and that list of indications is growing quickly. More broadly, antibodies have become workhorse molecules across the entire immunotherapy landscape. Antibodies to novel targets modulate the activity of diverse immune cell regulatory proteins. Engineered antibodies can induce tumor cell death or expose tumor cells to poisonous toxins (ADCC and ADC, respectively). Bi-specific antibodies can engage multiple tumor targets simultaneously, or can redirect lymphocytes to attack tumor cells. The antigen-binding domains within antibodies can be spliced onto cell stimulatory domains and transduced into T cells or NK cells, creating remarkable tumor-specific cellular therapeutics (CAR-T, CAR-NK). Beyond antibody-based therapies there are highly diverse and differentiated technology tool kits being applied to immunotherapy. Small molecule drugs are being developed to attack the tumor microenvironment, novel tumor vaccine approaches are showing great promise, patient lymphocytes are being isolated, expanded and reintroduced to patients, gene-editing techniques are becoming widely deployed, and a vast number of new tumor targets, and mutated tumor proteins (neoantigens), are being discovered. The past decade has seen unprecedented success in the treatment of diverse cancers. The authors of this volume have been asked to not only review progress to date, but importantly, to look ahead, and anticipate the evolution of cancer treatment across diverse Immune Therapeutic approaches. Our hypothesis is that the advances we are seeing across the immunotherapy landscape will further evolve and synergize, leading us finally to outright cures for many cancers.

Self and Nonself

Self and Nonself
Author: Carlos López-Larrea
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2012-03-07
ISBN 10: 1461416809
ISBN 13: 9781461416807
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Self and Nonself Book Review:

In 1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet received the Noble Prize in Physiology and Medicine. He titled his Nobel Lecture “Immunological Recognition of Self” emphasizing the central argument of immunological tolerance in “How does the vertebrate organism recognize self from nonself in this the immunological sense—and how did the capacity evolve.” The concept of self is linked to the concept of biological self identity. All organisms, from bacteria to higher animals, possess recognition systems to defend themselves from nonself. Even in the context of the limited number of metazoan phyla that have been studied in detail, we can now describe many of the alternative mechanism of immune recognition that have emerged at varying points in phylogeny. Two different arms—the innate and adaptive immune system—have emerged at different moments in evolution, and they are conceptually different. The ultimate goals of immune biology include reconstructing the molecular networks underlying immune processes.

The KIR Gene Cluster

The KIR Gene Cluster
Author: Mary Carrington,Paul Norman
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2003
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:505330608
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The KIR Gene Cluster Book Review:

Transplantation Immunology

Transplantation Immunology
Author: Fritz H. Bach,Hugh Auchincloss
Publsiher: Wiley-Liss
Total Pages: 424
Release: 1995-08-18
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UOM:39015034864515
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transplantation Immunology Book Review:

Transplantation Immunology Edited by Fritz H. Bach, M.D., and Hugh Auchincloss, Jr., M.D. In recent years, transplantation immunology has evolved as a distinct field founded on the recognition that rejection of a transplanted organ or tissue is mediated by immune mechanisms in the host responding to antigens in the donor tissue. This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of current knowledge regarding the specific immune mechanisms which can cause recipients to reject clinical transplants. The text is divided into four sections: Major and Minor Histocompatibility Antigens, Immunobiology of Graft Rejection, Clinical Transplantation, and Frontiers in Transplantation. The first two sections cover present-day understanding of the genetic controls of immunity as well as the two basic concerns of transplantation immunology, namely donor tissue antigens and the host cellular response. The third section deals with clinical aspects of transplantation, while the fourth looks toward future efforts of scientific research in this field—including advances in tolerance and xenotransplantation. A detailed appendix entitled "Molecular Biology for the Clinician" is included to help make the material accessible to readers of all backgrounds. Authored by a wide range of experts in both clinical and research fields, individual chapters cover such topics as: T cell immunity Antigen presentation Alloreactivity Pancreas and islet cell transplantation Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation Models of tolerance induction Xenotransplantation The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex Transplantation Immunology is an ideal teaching text for the fundamental concepts, latest findings, and future directions in this increasingly important field. This volume will appeal to a wide range of clinicians including surgeons and primary-care physicians, as well as scientists in molecular biology and immunology.

Crossroads Between Innate and Adaptive Immunity IV

Crossroads Between Innate and Adaptive Immunity IV
Author: Peter D. Katsikis,Stephen P. Schoenberger,Bali Pulendran
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 136
Release: 2013-03-01
ISBN 10: 1461462177
ISBN 13: 9781461462170
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Crossroads Between Innate and Adaptive Immunity IV Book Review:

This volume presents a collection of reviews derived from work presented at the Aegean Conference: “4th Crossroads between innate and adaptive immunity”. This meeting was the fourth in a series, and assembled a team of scientists working on mechanisms by which the innate immune system of the host senses pathogens, the cellular and signaling networks that orchestrate the innate response and antigen presentation and adaptive immunity. The importance of the crosstalk between innate immunity and the adaptive immune response has only recently started to be appreciated. Although it is well recognized that dendritic cells, NK cells, NK-T cells and T cells are all critical for the host response to pathogens, the respective fields that study the biology of these immune cells tend to exist in parallel worlds with minimum exchange of information and ideas. This fragmentation hinders the integration of these fields towards a unified theory of host response. The Aegean Conference “Crossroads between Innate and Adaptive Immunity” brought together leading international scientists and experts to address critical areas of Innate and Adaptive immunity something necessary for the development of more efficient scientific exchange and crosspollination between these fields. This conference attracted scientists from all over the world to discuss their latest findings on the various aspects of Innate and Adaptive immunity. The conference had limited participation and a scientific and social program that maximized scientific interchange through lecture presentations, poster sessions and informal discussions. ​

Immune Recognition

Immune Recognition
Author: Alan Rosenthal
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 876
Release: 2012-12-02
ISBN 10: 0323142133
ISBN 13: 9780323142137
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Immune Recognition Book Review:

Immune Recognition is a modified compilation of an experimental leukocyte culture conference about various aspects of macrophage and lymphocyte biology in relation to the eponymous central theme. The book is divided into nine sections. Section I covers non-antigenic signals and receptors for lymphocyte activation; the recognition of chemically modified autologous cells; surface membrane saccharides; and B and T cell activation. Section II is about antigenic signals; the activation of macrophages; and the induction of autosensitization of initiator lymphocytes. Sections III and IV discuss the early membrane and biochemical events in lymphocyte activation. Sections V to IX cover the coupling of cytoplasmic and nuclear events to membrane cycles; cellular and molecular basis of cell recognition and interaction in nonlymphocyte systems; the genetic control of immunocompetent cell interactions; and cellular mechanisms that regulate the immune response. The text is intended for doctors who specialize in immunology and want to know more about the different factors that cause the recognition of the immune system.

Regulation of Cancer Immune Checkpoints

Regulation of Cancer Immune Checkpoints
Author: Jie Xu
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 653
Release: 2020-03-17
ISBN 10: 9811532664
ISBN 13: 9789811532665
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Regulation of Cancer Immune Checkpoints Book Review:

This book systematically reviews the most important findings on cancer immune checkpoints, sharing essential insights into this rapidly evolving yet largely unexplored research topic. The past decade has seen major advances in cancer immune checkpoint therapy, which has demonstrated impressive clinical benefits. The family of checkpoints for mediating cancer immune evasion now includes CTLA-4, PD-1/PD-L1, CD27/CD70, FGL-1/LAG-3, Siglec-15, VISTA (PD-1L)/VSIG3, CD47/SIRPA, APOE/LILRB4, TIGIT, and many others. Despite these strides, most patients do not show lasting remission, and some cancers have been completely resistant to the therapy. The potentially lethal adverse effects of checkpoint blockade represent another major challenge, the mechanisms of which remain poorly understood. Compared to the cancer signaling pathways, such as p53 and Ras, mechanistic studies on immune checkpoint pathways are still in their infancy. To improve the responses to checkpoint blockade therapy and limit the adverse effects, it is essential to understand the molecular regulation of checkpoint molecules in both malignant and healthy cells/tissues. This book begins with an introduction to immune checkpoint therapy and its challenges, and subsequently describes the regulation of checkpoints at different levels. In closing, it discusses recent therapeutic developments based on mechanistic findings, and outlines goals for future translational studies. The book offers a valuable resource for researchers in the cancer immunotherapy field, helping to form a roadmap for checkpoint regulation and develop safer and more effective immunotherapies.