Bioreactor Modeling

Bioreactor Modeling
Author: Jerome Morchain
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 218
Release: 2017-10-06
ISBN 10: 0081011660
ISBN 13: 9780081011669
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioreactor Modeling Book Review:

Dynamic simulation of bioreactors is a challenge for both the industrial and academic worlds. Beyond the large number of physical and biological phenomena to be considered and the wide range of scales involved, the central difficulty lies in the need to account for the dynamic behavior of suspended microorganisms. In the case of chemical reactors, knowledge of the thermodynamic equilibrium laws at the interfaces makes it possible to produce macroscopic models by integrating local laws. Microorganisms, on the other hand, have the ability to modulate the rate of substrate assimilation. Moreover, the nature of the biochemical transformations results from a compromise between the needs of the cell and the available resources. This book revisits the modeling of bioreactors using a multi-scale approach. It addresses issues related to mixing, phase-to-phase transfers and the adaptation of microorganisms to variations in concentration, and explores the use of population balances for the simulation of bioreactors. By adopting a multidisciplinary perspective that draws on process engineering, fluid mechanics and microbiology, this book sheds new light on the particularity of bioprocesses in relation to physical and chemical phenomena. Presents a multiphase description of bioreactor modeling Includes a combination of concepts issued from different scientific fields to address a practical issue Provides a detailed description of the population balance concept as applied to biological systems Covers a set of illustrative examples of the interaction between hydrodynamics and biological response

Solid State Fermentation Bioreactors

Solid State Fermentation Bioreactors
Author: David A. Mitchell,Nadia Krieger,Marin Berovic
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 448
Release: 2006-08-02
ISBN 10: 3540312862
ISBN 13: 9783540312864
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Solid State Fermentation Bioreactors Book Review:

This concise professional reference provides a fundamental framework for the design and operation of solid-state fermentation bioreactors, enabling researchers currently working at laboratory scale to scale up their processes. The authors survey bioreactor types in common use, and describe in depth how to plan a project, and model heat transfer phenomena. The book includes case studies, and a review of practical issues involved in bioreactor performance.

Computational Modeling in Biomechanics

Computational Modeling in Biomechanics
Author: Suvranu De,Farshid Guilak,Mohammad Mofrad
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 581
Release: 2010-03-10
ISBN 10: 9789048135752
ISBN 13: 9048135753
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computational Modeling in Biomechanics Book Review:

Availability of advanced computational technology has fundamentally altered the investigative paradigm in the field of biomechanics. Armed with sophisticated computational tools, researchers are seeking answers to fundamental questions by exploring complex biomechanical phenomena at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ levels. The computational armamentarium includes such diverse tools as the ab initio quantum mechanical and molecular dynamics methods at the atomistic scales and the finite element, boundary element, meshfree as well as immersed boundary and lattice-Boltzmann methods at the continuum scales. Multiscale methods that link various scales are also being developed. While most applications require forward analysis, e.g., finding deformations and stresses as a result of loading, others involve determination of constitutive parameters based on tissue imaging and inverse analysis. This book provides a glimpse of the diverse and important roles that modern computational technology is playing in various areas of biomechanics including biofluids and mass transfer, cardiovascular mechanics, musculoskeletal mechanics, soft tissue mechanics, and biomolecular mechanics.

Bioreactor Systems for Tissue Engineering

Bioreactor Systems for Tissue Engineering
Author: Cornelia Kasper,Martijn van Griensven,Ralf Pörtner
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 271
Release: 2009-02-03
ISBN 10: 3540693564
ISBN 13: 9783540693567
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioreactor Systems for Tissue Engineering Book Review:

The editors of this special volume would first like to thank all authors for their excellent contributions. We would also like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Scheper, Dr. Marion Hertel and Ulrike Kreusel for providing the opportunity to compose this volume and Springer for organizational and technical support. Tissue engineering represents one of the major emerging fields in modern b- technology; it combines different subjects ranging from biological and material sciences to engineering and clinical disciplines. The aim of tissue engineering is the development of therapeutic approaches to substitute diseased organs or tissues or improve their function. Therefore, three dimensional biocompatible materials are seeded with cells and cultivated in suitable systems to generate functional tissues. Many different aspects play a role in the formation of 3D tissue structures. In the first place the source of the used cells is of the utmost importance. To prevent tissue rejection or immune response, preferentially autologous cells are now used. In particular, stem cells from different sources are gaining exceptional importance as they can be differentiated into different tissues by using special media and supplements. In the field of biomaterials, numerous scaffold materials already exist but new composites are also being developed based on polymeric, natural or xenogenic sources. Moreover, a very important issue in tissue en- neering is the formation of tissues under well defined, controlled and reprod- ible conditions. Therefore, a substantial number of new bioreactors have been developed.

Bioreactors Process and Analysis

Bioreactors  Process and Analysis
Author: Tapobrata Panda
Publsiher: Tata McGraw-Hill Education
Total Pages: 491
Release: 2011
ISBN 10: 0070704244
ISBN 13: 9780070704244
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioreactors Process and Analysis Book Review:

6. Bioreactor modeling -- Model - what is it? -- Definition of lumped and distributed parameter models -- Introduction to a few terminologies and theorems -- Modeling principles -- Steps in modeling -- Fundamental laws used in process modeling -- First-order systems -- Second-order systems -- Complexity of the model -- Parameter sensitivity -- Exercises -- References -- Appendix 6 -- 7. Transport processes in bioreactors -- Introduction -- Heat transfer -- Other parameters influencing transfer operations -- Exercises -- References -- 8. Controls in bioreactors -- Introduction -- Control tasks in a bioreactor system -- Instrumentation to control a bioreactor -- Controlled variables and measurement devices -- Procedure for design of efficient control systems -- Conventional control techniques -- Advanced control techniques -- Consistency checks on measurements -- Adaptive online optimizing control of bioreactor system -- Exercises -- References -- Appendix 8 -- 9. Case studies -- Introduction -- Design of packed bed bioreactor -- Airlift bioreactors -- Hollow fiber bioreactor (HFBR) -- Plant cell bioreactor -- Design of bioreactors for solid state fermentation (SSF) -- Mammalian cell bioreactor design -- Exercises -- References -- Appendix 9 -- 10. Application of computational fluid dynamics in bioreactor analysis and design -- Introduction -- Fluid dynamic modeling -- Simulation -- Exercises -- References -- Appendix 10 -- 11. Scale-up of bioreactors -- Introduction -- Additional scale-up problems in bioreactors -- Criteria of scale-up -- Similarity criteria -- Scale-up methods -- Generalized approaches to scale-up in combination of methods -- Examples -- Exercises -- References -- 12. Mechanical aspects of bioreactor design -- Introduction -- Requirements for construction of a bioreactor -- Guidelines for bioreactor design -- Bioreactor vessels -- Agitator assembly -- Exercises -- References -- Appendix 12

Bioreactor System Design

Bioreactor System Design
Author: Juan A. Asenjo
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 648
Release: 1994-11-17
ISBN 10: 9780824790028
ISBN 13: 0824790022
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioreactor System Design Book Review:

Describes the state-of-the-art techniques and methods involved in the design, operation, preparation and containment of bioreactor systems, taking into account the interrelated effects of variables associated with both upstream and downstream stages of the design process. The importance of the initial steps in the development of a bioprocess, such as strain and media selection, that have an overwhelming influence on all further operations, is emphasized.;This work is intended for biochemical, chemical and bioprocess engineers; biotechnologists; industrial biochemists; micro- and molecular biologists; food scientists; and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.

An Introduction to Bioreactor Hydrodynamics and Gas Liquid Mass Transfer

An Introduction to Bioreactor Hydrodynamics and Gas Liquid Mass Transfer
Author: Enes Kadic,Theodore J. Heindel
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2014-03-14
ISBN 10: 1118869834
ISBN 13: 9781118869833
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

An Introduction to Bioreactor Hydrodynamics and Gas Liquid Mass Transfer Book Review:

Reviews and compares the major types of bioreactors, defines their pros and cons, and identifies research needs and figures of merit that have yet to be addressed Describes common modes of operation in bioreactors Covers the three common bioreactor types, including stirred-tank bioreactors, bubble column bioreactors, and airlift bioreactors Details less common bioreactors types, including fixed bed bioreactors and novel bioreactor designs Discusses advantages and disadvantages of each bioreactor and provides a procedure for optimal bioreactor selection based on current process needs Reviews the problems of bioreactor selection globally while considering all bioreactor options rather than concentrating on one specific bioreactor type

Bioreactors

Bioreactors
Author: Carl-Fredrik Mandenius
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 520
Release: 2016-02-16
ISBN 10: 3527683372
ISBN 13: 9783527683376
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioreactors Book Review:

In this expert handbook both the topics and contributors are selected so as to provide an authoritative view of possible applications for this new technology. The result is an up-to-date survey of current challenges and opportunities in the design and operation of bioreactors for high-value products in the biomedical and chemical industries. Combining theory and practice, the authors explain such leading-edge technologies as single-use bioreactors, bioreactor simulators, and soft sensor monitoring, and discuss novel applications, such as stem cell production, process development, and multi-product reactors, using case studies from academia as well as from industry. A final section addresses the latest trends, including culture media design and systems biotechnology, which are expected to have an increasing impact on bioreactor design. With its focus on cutting-edge technologies and discussions of future developments, this handbook will remain an invaluable reference for many years to come.

Bioreactors

Bioreactors
Author: Goutam Saha,Alok Barua,Satyabroto Sinha
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 136
Release: 2017-12-01
ISBN 10: 1498736017
ISBN 13: 9781498736015
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioreactors Book Review:

Bioreactors: Animal Cell Culture Control for Bioprocess Engineering presents the design, fabrication, and control of a new type of bioreactor meant especially for animal cell line culture. The new bioreactor, called the "see-saw bioreactor," is ideal for the growth of cells with a sensitive membrane. The see-saw bioreactor derives its name from its principle of operation in which liquid columns in either limb of the reactor alternately go up and down. The working volume of the reactor is small, to within 15 L. However, it can easily be scaled up for large production in volume of cell mass in the drug and pharmaceutical industries. The authors describe the principle of operation of the see-saw bioreactor and how to automatically control the bioprocess. They discuss different control strategies as well as the thorough experimental research they conducted on this prototype bioreactor in which they applied a time delay control for yield maximization. To give you a complete understanding of the design and development of the see-saw bioreactor, the authors cover the mathematical model they use to describe the kinetics of fermentation, the genetic algorithms used for deriving the optimal time trajectories of the bioprocess variables, and the corresponding control inputs for maximizing the product yield. One chapter is devoted to the application of time delay control. Following a description of the bioreactor’s working setup in the laboratory, the authors sum up their investigation and define the future scope of work in terms of design, control, and software sensors.

Application of Neural Networks to Bioreactor Modeling

Application of Neural Networks to Bioreactor Modeling
Author: Oscar Gargallo
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 246
Release: 2002
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:51960308
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Application of Neural Networks to Bioreactor Modeling Book Review:

Comprehensive Biotechnology

Comprehensive Biotechnology
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 4870
Release: 2019-07-17
ISBN 10: 0444640479
ISBN 13: 9780444640475
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Comprehensive Biotechnology Book Review:

Comprehensive Biotechnology, Third Edition unifies, in a single source, a huge amount of information in this growing field. The book covers scientific fundamentals, along with engineering considerations and applications in industry, agriculture, medicine, the environment and socio-economics, including the related government regulatory overviews. This new edition builds on the solid basis provided by previous editions, incorporating all recent advances in the field since the second edition was published in 2011. Offers researchers a one-stop shop for information on the subject of biotechnology Provides in-depth treatment of relevant topics from recognized authorities, including the contributions of a Nobel laureate Presents the perspective of researchers in different fields, such as biochemistry, agriculture, engineering, biomedicine and environmental science

Biological Reaction Engineering

Biological Reaction Engineering
Author: Elmar Heinzle,Irving J. Dunn,John Ingham,Jiří E. Přenosil
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2021-04-26
ISBN 10: 3527325247
ISBN 13: 9783527325245
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biological Reaction Engineering Book Review:

This practical book presents the modeling of dynamic biological engineering processes in a readily comprehensible manner, using the unique combination of simplified fundamental theory and direct hands-on computer simulation. The mathematics is kept to a minimum, and yet the 60 examples illustrate almost every aspect of biological engineering science, with each one described in detail, including the model equations. The programs are written in the modern user-friendly simulation language Berkeley Madonna, which can be run on both Windows PC and Power-Macintosh computers. Madonna solves models comprising many ordinary differential equations using very simple programming, including arrays. It is so powerful that the model parameters may be defined as "sliders", which allow the effect of their change on the model behavior to be seen almost immediately. Data may be included for curve fitting, and sensitivity or multiple runs may be performed. The results can be viewed simultaneously on multiple-graph windows or by using overlays. The examples can be varied to fit any real situation, and the suggested exercises provide practical guidance. The extensive teaching experience of the authors is reflected in this well-balanced presentation, which is suitable for the teacher, student, biochemist or the engineer.

Control in Bioprocessing

Control in Bioprocessing
Author: Pablo A. López Pérez,Ricardo Aguilar López,Ricardo Femat
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2020-03-10
ISBN 10: 1119296323
ISBN 13: 9781119296324
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Control in Bioprocessing Book Review:

Closes the gap between bioscience and mathematics-based process engineering This book presents the most commonly employed approaches in the control of bioprocesses. It discusses the role that control theory plays in understanding the mechanisms of cellular and metabolic processes, and presents key results in various fields such as dynamic modeling, dynamic properties of bioprocess models, software sensors designed for the online estimation of parameters and state variables, and control and supervision of bioprocesses Control in Bioengineering and Bioprocessing: Modeling, Estimation and the Use of Sensors is divided into three sections. Part I, Mathematical preliminaries and overview of the control and monitoring of bioprocess, provides a general overview of the control and monitoring of bioprocesses, and introduces the mathematical framework necessary for the analysis and characterization of bioprocess dynamics. Part II, Observability and control concepts, presents the observability concepts which form the basis of design online estimation algorithms (software sensor) for bioprocesses, and reviews controllability of these concepts, including automatic feedback control systems. Part III, Software sensors and observer-based control schemes for bioprocesses, features six application cases including dynamic behavior of 3-dimensional continuous bioreactors; observability analysis applied to 2D and 3D bioreactors with inhibitory and non-inhibitory models; and regulation of a continuously stirred bioreactor via modeling error compensation. Applicable across all areas of bioprocess engineering, including food and beverages, biofuels and renewable energy, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, fermentation systems, product separation technologies, wastewater and solid-waste treatment technology, and bioremediation Provides a clear explanation of the mass-balance–based mathematical modelling of bioprocesses and the main tools for its dynamic analysis Offers industry-based applications on: myco-diesel for implementing "quality" of observability; developing a virtual sensor based on the Just-In-Time Model to monitor biological control systems; and virtual sensor design for state estimation in a photocatalytic bioreactor for hydrogen production Control in Bioengineering and Bioprocessing is intended as a foundational text for graduate level students in bioengineering, as well as a reference text for researchers, engineers, and other practitioners interested in the field of estimation and control of bioprocesses.

The Prospect of Industry 5 0 in Biomanufacturing

The Prospect of Industry 5 0 in Biomanufacturing
Author: Pau Loke Show,Kit Wayne Chew,Tau Chuan Ling
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 326
Release: 2021-07-02
ISBN 10: 1000407411
ISBN 13: 9781000407419
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Prospect of Industry 5 0 in Biomanufacturing Book Review:

This is the first book to present the idea of Industry 5.0 in biomanufacturing and bioprocess engineering, both upstream and downstream. The Prospect of Industry 5.0 in Biomanufacturing details the latest technologies and how they can be used efficiently and explains process analysis from an engineering point of view. In addition, it covers applications and challenges. FEATURES Describes the previous Industrial Revolution, current Industry 4.0, and how new technologies will transition toward Industry 5.0 Explains how Industry 5.0 can be applied in biomanufacturing Demonstrates new technologies catered to Industry 5.0 Uses worked examples related to biological systems This book enables readers in industry and academia working in the biomanufacturing engineering sector to understand current trends and future directions in this field.

Degrading Malonate Waste in a Membrane Bioreactor

Degrading Malonate Waste in a Membrane Bioreactor
Author: Hector A. Garcia
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2007
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:173817970
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Degrading Malonate Waste in a Membrane Bioreactor Book Review:

Control in Bioprocessing

Control in Bioprocessing
Author: Pablo A. López Pérez,Ricardo Aguilar López,Ricardo Femat
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2020-03-03
ISBN 10: 1119296080
ISBN 13: 9781119296089
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Control in Bioprocessing Book Review:

Closes the gap between bioscience and mathematics-based process engineering This book presents the most commonly employed approaches in the control of bioprocesses. It discusses the role that control theory plays in understanding the mechanisms of cellular and metabolic processes, and presents key results in various fields such as dynamic modeling, dynamic properties of bioprocess models, software sensors designed for the online estimation of parameters and state variables, and control and supervision of bioprocesses Control in Bioengineering and Bioprocessing: Modeling, Estimation and the Use of Sensors is divided into three sections. Part I, Mathematical preliminaries and overview of the control and monitoring of bioprocess, provides a general overview of the control and monitoring of bioprocesses, and introduces the mathematical framework necessary for the analysis and characterization of bioprocess dynamics. Part II, Observability and control concepts, presents the observability concepts which form the basis of design online estimation algorithms (software sensor) for bioprocesses, and reviews controllability of these concepts, including automatic feedback control systems. Part III, Software sensors and observer-based control schemes for bioprocesses, features six application cases including dynamic behavior of 3-dimensional continuous bioreactors; observability analysis applied to 2D and 3D bioreactors with inhibitory and non-inhibitory models; and regulation of a continuously stirred bioreactor via modeling error compensation. Applicable across all areas of bioprocess engineering, including food and beverages, biofuels and renewable energy, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, fermentation systems, product separation technologies, wastewater and solid-waste treatment technology, and bioremediation Provides a clear explanation of the mass-balance–based mathematical modelling of bioprocesses and the main tools for its dynamic analysis Offers industry-based applications on: myco-diesel for implementing "quality" of observability; developing a virtual sensor based on the Just-In-Time Model to monitor biological control systems; and virtual sensor design for state estimation in a photocatalytic bioreactor for hydrogen production Control in Bioengineering and Bioprocessing is intended as a foundational text for graduate level students in bioengineering, as well as a reference text for researchers, engineers, and other practitioners interested in the field of estimation and control of bioprocesses.

The Control Handbook three volume set

The Control Handbook  three volume set
Author: William S. Levine
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 3526
Release: 2018-10-08
ISBN 10: 1420073672
ISBN 13: 9781420073676
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Control Handbook three volume set Book Review:

At publication, The Control Handbook immediately became the definitive resource that engineers working with modern control systems required. Among its many accolades, that first edition was cited by the AAP as the Best Engineering Handbook of 1996. Now, 15 years later, William Levine has once again compiled the most comprehensive and authoritative resource on control engineering. He has fully reorganized the text to reflect the technical advances achieved since the last edition and has expanded its contents to include the multidisciplinary perspective that is making control engineering a critical component in so many fields. Now expanded from one to three volumes, The Control Handbook, Second Edition brilliantly organizes cutting-edge contributions from more than 200 leading experts representing every corner of the globe. They cover everything from basic closed-loop systems to multi-agent adaptive systems and from the control of electric motors to the control of complex networks. Progressively organized, the three volume set includes: Control System Fundamentals Control System Applications Control System Advanced Methods Any practicing engineer, student, or researcher working in fields as diverse as electronics, aeronautics, or biomedicine will find this handbook to be a time-saving resource filled with invaluable formulas, models, methods, and innovative thinking. In fact, any physicist, biologist, mathematician, or researcher in any number of fields developing or improving products and systems will find the answers and ideas they need. As with the first edition, the new edition not only stands as a record of accomplishment in control engineering but provides researchers with the means to make further advances.

Modern Solid State Fermentation

Modern Solid State Fermentation
Author: Hongzhang Chen
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 324
Release: 2013-03-22
ISBN 10: 9400760434
ISBN 13: 9789400760431
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modern Solid State Fermentation Book Review:

“Modern Solid State Fermentation: Theory and Practice” covers state-of-the-art studies in the field of solid state fermentation (SSF). In terms of different characteristics of microbial metabolites, this book catalogs SSF into two main parts: anaerobic and aerobic SSF. Based on the principles of porous media and strategies of process control and scale-up, which are introduced in the book, it not only presents a well-founded explanation of essence of solid state fermentation, but also their influence on microbial physiology. In addition, due to the rapid development of this field in recent years, inert support solid state fermentation is also examined in detail. At last, the modern solid state fermentation technology platform is proposed, which will be used in solid biomass bioconversion. This book is intended for biochemists, biotechnologists and process engineers, as well as researchers interested in SSF. Dr. Hongzhang Chen is a Professor at Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Bioreactors

Bioreactors
Author: Lakhveer Singh,Abu Yousuf,Durga Madhab Mahapatra
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 340
Release: 2020-04-07
ISBN 10: 0128215372
ISBN 13: 9780128215371
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioreactors Book Review:

Bioreactors: Sustainable Design and Industrial Applications in Mitigation of GHG Emissions presents and compares the foundational concepts, state-of-the-art design and fabrication of bioreactors. Solidly based on theoretical fundamentals, the book examines various aspects of the commercially available bioreactors, such as construction and fabrication, design, modeling and simulation, development, operation, maintenance, management and target applications for biofuels production and bio-waste management. Emerging issues in commercial feasibility are explored, constraints and pathways for upscaling, and techno-economic assessment are also covered. This book provides researchers and engineers in the biofuels and waste management sectors a clear, at-a-glance understanding of the actual potential of different advanced bioreactors for their requirements. It is a must-have reference for better-informed decisions when selecting the appropriate technology models for sustainable systems development and commercialization. Focuses on sustainable bioreactor processes and applications in bioenergy and bio-waste management Explores techno-economic and sustainability assessment aspects through a comparative approach, catering to diverse arrays and applications Offers comprehensive coverage of the most recent technology, from fundamentals to applications

Industrial Biotechnology

Industrial Biotechnology
Author: Christoph Wittmann
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 640
Release: 2017-03-06
ISBN 10: 3527341811
ISBN 13: 9783527341818
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Industrial Biotechnology Book Review:

The latest volume in the Advanced Biotechnology series provides an overview of the main product classes and platform chemicals produced by biotechnological processes today, with applications in the food, healthcare and fine chemical industries. Alongside the production of drugs and flavors as well as amino acids, bio-based monomers and polymers and biofuels, basic insights are also given as to the biotechnological processes yielding such products and how large-scale production may be enabled and improved. Of interest to biotechnologists, bio and chemical engineers, as well as those working in the biotechnological, chemical, and food industries.