Polymer Gels

Polymer Gels
Author: Vijay Kumar Thakur,Manju Kumari Thakur
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 492
Release: 2018-08-01
ISBN 10: 981106086X
ISBN 13: 9789811060861
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Gels Book Review:

This book exclusively focuses on the science and fundamentals of polymer gels, as well as the numerous advantages that polymer gel-based materials offer. It presents a comprehensive collection of chapters on the recent advances and developments in the core science and fundamentals of both synthetic and natural polymer-based gels, and pays particular attention to applications in the various research fields of biomedicine and engineering. Key topics addressed include: polysaccharide-based gels and their fundamentals; stimuli-responsive polymer gels; polymer gels applied to enzyme and cell immobilization; chitosan-based gels for cancer therapy; natural polymeric and gelling agents; radiation dosimetry; polymeric gels as vehicles for enhanced drug delivery across the skin; transport in and through gel; and polymer gel nanocomposites and functional gels. The book’s extensive and highly topical coverage will appeal to researchers working in a broad range of fields in industry and academia alike.

Advanced Functional Polymers for Biomedical Applications

Advanced Functional Polymers for Biomedical Applications
Author: Masoud Mozafari,Narendra Pal Singh Chauhan
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2019-06-14
ISBN 10: 0128166045
ISBN 13: 9780128166048
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Functional Polymers for Biomedical Applications Book Review:

Advanced Functional Polymers for Biomedical Applications presents novel techniques for the preparation and characterization of functionalized polymers, enabling researchers, scientists and engineers to understand and utilize their enhanced functionality in a range of cutting-edge biomedical applications. Provides systematic coverage of the major types of functional polymers, discussing their properties, preparation techniques and potential applications Presents new synthetic approaches alongside the very latest polymer processing and characterization methods Unlocks the potential of functional polymers to support ground-breaking techniques for drug and gene delivery, diagnostics, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

Bioresponsive Polymers

Bioresponsive Polymers
Author: Deepa H. Patel
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 246
Release: 2020-10-09
ISBN 10: 1000517594
ISBN 13: 9781000517590
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioresponsive Polymers Book Review:

This volume, Bioresponsive Polymers: Design and Application in Drug Delivery, focuses on recent advancements in bioresponsive polymers and their design, characterization, and applications in varied fields, such as drug delivery and gene delivery. It looks at several carriers for drug delivery and biological molecules using different bioresponsive polymers. To address the many difficulties in existing dosage forms, this book provides information on recent developments to overcome drawbacks of conventional forms of the drug delivery. The chapters cover most areas of bioresponsive polymers, starting with a basic introduction to bioresponsive polymers, followed by chapters on design, characterization, and mechanism of bioresponsive polymers; and applications of drug and gene delivery using bioresponsive polymers via oral, topical, nasal, ocular, and parenteral methods. The book also reviews recent advancements in bioresponsive polymers and advanced applications, such as engineering particulate moieties, biomedical applications, hydrogels as emerging therapy, and electrochemical responses, bioresponsive nanoparticles, and bioresponsive hydrogels.

Emerging Concepts in Analysis and Applications of Hydrogels

Emerging Concepts in Analysis and Applications of Hydrogels
Author: Sutapa Biswas Majee
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 266
Release: 2016-08-24
ISBN 10: 9535125095
ISBN 13: 9789535125099
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emerging Concepts in Analysis and Applications of Hydrogels Book Review:

This book is an Up-to-date and authoritative account on physicochemical principles, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of hydrogels. It consists of eight contributions from different authors highlighting properties and synthesis of hydrogels, their characterization by various instrumental methods of analysis, comprehensive review on stimuli-responsive hydrogels and their diverse applications, and a special section on self-healing hydrogels. Thus, this book will equip academia and industry with adequate basic and applied principles related to hydrogels.

Hydrogels

Hydrogels
Author: Lacramioara Popa,Mihaela Violeta Ghica,Cristina Dinu-Pirvu
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 132
Release: 2019-04-10
ISBN 10: 1789858755
ISBN 13: 9781789858754
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hydrogels Book Review:

Hydrogels, as three-dimensional polymer networks, are able to retain a large amount of water in their swollen state. The biomedical application of hydrogels was initially hampered by the toxicity of cross-linking agents and the limitations of hydrogel formation under physiological conditions. However, emerging knowledge in polymer chemistry and an increased understanding of biological processes have resulted in the design of versatile materials and minimally invasive therapies.The novel but challenging properties of hydrogels are attracting the attention of researchers in the biological, medical, and pharmaceutical fields. In the last few years, new methods have been developed for the preparation of hydrophilic polymers and hydrogels, which may be used in future biomedical and drug delivery applications. Such efforts include the synthesis of self-organized nanostructures based on triblock copolymers with applications in controlled drug delivery. These hydrogels could be used as carriers for drug delivery when combined with the techniques of drug imprinting and subsequent release. Engineered protein hydrogels have many potential advantages. They are excellent biomaterials and biodegradables. Furthermore, they could encapsulate drugs and be used in injectable forms to replace surgery, to repair damaged cartilage, in regenerative medicine, or in tissue engineering. Also, they have potential applications in gene therapy, although this field is relatively new.

Stimuli Responsive Polymers

Stimuli Responsive Polymers
Author: Navid Rabiee,Mohammad Rabiee,Mojtaba Bagherzadeh,Michael R Hamblin
Publsiher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Total Pages: 44
Release: 2019-06-19
ISBN 10: 1643276387
ISBN 13: 9781643276380
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stimuli Responsive Polymers Book Review:

This book provides a general introduction to nanogels, and designs of various stimuli-sensitive nanogels that are able to control drug release in response to specific stimuli. Nanogels are three-dimensional nanosized networks that formed by physically or chemically crosslinking polymers. They have highly interesting properties such as biocompatibility, high stability, particle size adjustment, drug loading capability and modification of the surface for active targeting. They can respond to stimuli which results in the controlled release of drug and targeting of the site.

Polymers Coatings

Polymers Coatings
Author: Inamuddin,Rajender Boddula,Mohd Imran Ahamed,Abdullah M. Asiri
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2020-05-27
ISBN 10: 1119654998
ISBN 13: 9781119654995
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymers Coatings Book Review:

The explores the cutting-edge technology of polymer coatings. It discusses fundamentals, fabrication strategies, characterization techniques, and allied applications in fields such as corrosion, food, pharmaceutical, biomedical systems and electronics. It also discusses a few new innovative self-healing, antimicrobial and superhydrophobic polymer coatings. Current industrial applications and possible potential activities are also discussed.

Strategies in Regenerative Medicine

Strategies in Regenerative Medicine
Author: Matteo Santin
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 605
Release: 2009-02-28
ISBN 10: 9780387746609
ISBN 13: 0387746609
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Strategies in Regenerative Medicine Book Review:

The profound transformations occurred in our modern age have been made possible by the unique combination of new technologies. Among them, me- cine has completely changed our perception of life. Longevity has been signi- cantly extended and linked to new lifestyles. The negative impact that pathologies and ageing have always had on the quality of our life is now mitigated by the availability of treatments daily applied to many individuals worldwide. For many years, pharmacological and surgical treatments have been supported by the introduction of biomedical devices. Biomedical implants have played a key role in the development of these treatments and achieved the objective of replacing tissue and organ structures and functionalities. Gra- ally, the scientific and clinical communities have understood that replacement could be improved by materials able to interact with the tissues and to parti- pate in their metabolism and functions. This approach soon led to biomedical implants with improved clinical performances, but also to a new aspiration; rather than replacing damaged tissues and organs scientists and clinicians nowadays aim at their partial or complete regeneration. As a consequence of this ambition, the disciplines of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have recently emerged. It is the dawn of a fascinating era where scientists from various disciplines, clinicians, and industry will need to intensify their col- borative efforts to provide our society with new and affordable solutions.

Functionalized Nanomaterials I

Functionalized Nanomaterials I
Author: Vineet Kumar,Praveen Guleria,Nandita Dasgupta,Shivendu Ranjan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 318
Release: 2020-08-10
ISBN 10: 1351021605
ISBN 13: 9781351021609
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Functionalized Nanomaterials I Book Review:

Nanomaterials contain some unique properties compared to their bulk. Their unique properties are due to the chemical nature of the material, small size, and surface functionalization. Along with control over size, the functionalization of nanomaterials also affects their compatibility to the environment and living organisms. This book provides a detailed account of nanomaterials functionalization along with a brief overview of their application. This book serves as a reference for scientific investigators including doctoral and postdoctoral scholars and undergradate and graduate students who need to have knowledge of the basics of nanomaterial functionalization, recent advancements, challenges, and opportunities in this field. This book will also provide critical and comparative data for nano-technologists and may be beneficial for industry personnel, journalists, policy makers, and the general public to help understand functionalized nanomaterials in detail and in depth. Features: This book is comprehensive and covers all aspects of functionalized nanotechnology. It describes the challenges and methods of functionalized nanomaterials synthesis for different applications. It discusses the recent findings and cutting-edge global research trends on the functionalization of nanomaterials. It emphasizes the products and market, safety, and regulatory issues of functionalized nanomaterials. It contains contributions from international experts and will be a valuable resource for researchers.

Nanotechnology in Cancer Treatment

Nanotechnology in Cancer Treatment
Author: Steve N. Fiering ,Robert Ivkov
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2020-12-16
ISBN 10: 3039363743
ISBN 13: 9783039363742
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanotechnology in Cancer Treatment Book Review:

The collection is diverse in the topics covered as well as the contributors, who come from across the globe. The overall topic is inherently a complex one since it integrates the exceptional complexity of cancer biology and treatment with the large and rapidly growing number of potential nanostructures and modifications that could be applied to treatment. In both cancer and nanotechnology, a very small change of a relevant variable can generate exceptional variability in biological outcome, creating inherent challenges to clinical adoption. As with many high-potential fields in medicine, the recognition of exceptional potential for nanotechnology in cancer therapy, with associated expectations of rapid clinical impact, has been followed by disappointingly slow progress that highlights not failure but rather unrealistic expectations for rapid progress. We have passed that period of expected rapid clinical impact for nanoparticle treatment of cancer and are now well-entrenched in the more realistic phase of exploiting the easiest applications, in this case packaging of established chemotherapy drugs, while carefully studying the exceptional numbers of relevant variables that must be evaluated for efficacy and safety of innovative strategies. Although never as rapid as hoped, the progress is clear and clinical impact is growing.

Smart Polymers and their Applications

Smart Polymers and their Applications
Author: Maria Rosa Aguilar,Julio San Román
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 584
Release: 2014-02-19
ISBN 10: 0857097024
ISBN 13: 9780857097026
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Polymers and their Applications Book Review:

Smart polymers are polymers that respond to different stimuli or changes in the environment. Smart Polymers and their Applications reviews the types, synthesis, properties, and applications of smart polymers. Chapters in part one focus on types of polymers, including temperature-, pH-, photo-, and enzyme-responsive polymers. Shape memory polymers, smart polymer hydrogels, and self-healing polymer systems are also explored. Part two highlights applications of smart polymers, including smart instructive polymer substrates for tissue engineering; smart polymer nanocarriers for drug delivery; the use of smart polymers in medical devices for minimally invasive surgery, diagnosis, and other applications; and smart polymers for bioseparation and other biotechnology applications. Further chapters discuss the use of smart polymers for textile and packaging applications, and for optical data storage. Smart Polymers and their Applications is a technical resource for chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, and other professionals in the polymer industry; manufacturers in such sectors as medical, automotive, and aerospace engineering; and academic researchers in polymer science. Reviews the different types of smart polymer, discussing their properties, structure, design, and characterization Reviews applications of smart polymers in such areas as biomedical engineering, textiles, and food packaging

Application of Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery

Application of Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery
Author: Ali Demir Sezer
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 554
Release: 2014-07-25
ISBN 10: 9535116282
ISBN 13: 9789535116288
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Application of Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery Book Review:

This book collects reviews and original articles from eminent experts working in the interdisciplinary arena of nanotechnology use in drug delivery. From their direct and recent experience, the readers can achieve a wide vision on the new and ongoing potentialities of nanotechnology application of drug delivery. Since the advent of analytical techniques and capabilities to measure particle sizes in nanometer ranges, there has been tremendous interest in the use of nanoparticles for more efficient methods of drug delivery. On the other hand, this reference discusses advances in design, optimization, and adaptation of gene delivery systems for the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular, pulmonary, genetic, and infectious diseases, and considers assessment and review procedures involved in the development of gene-based pharmaceuticals.

Polymer Gels

Polymer Gels
Author: Vijay Kumar Thakur,Manju Kumari Thakur,Stefan Ioan Voicu
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 414
Release: 2018-02-12
ISBN 10: 9811060800
ISBN 13: 9789811060809
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Gels Book Review:

This book summarizes the recent advances in the science and engineering of polymer-gel-based materials in different fields. It also discusses the extensive research developments for the next generation of smart materials. It takes an in-depth look at the current perspectives and market opportunities while pointing to new possibilities and applications. The book addresses important topics such as stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles for cancer therapy; polymer gel containing metallic materials; chemotherapeutic applications in oncology; conducting polymer-based gels and their applications in biological sensors; imprinted polymeric gels for pharmaceutical and biomedical purposes; applications of biopolymeric gels in the agricultural sector; application of polymer gels and their nanocomposites in electrochemistry; smart polyelectrolyte gels as a platform for biomedical applications; agro-based polymer gels and their application in purification of industrial water wastes; polymer gel composites for bio-applications. It will be of interest to researchers working in both industry and academia.

Biomedical Applications of Polymeric Materials and Composites

Biomedical Applications of Polymeric Materials and Composites
Author: Raju Francis,D. Sakthi Kumar
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2016-12-19
ISBN 10: 3527338365
ISBN 13: 9783527338368
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomedical Applications of Polymeric Materials and Composites Book Review:

With its content taken from only the very latest results, this is an extensive summary of the various polymeric materials used for biomedical applications. Following an introduction listing various functional polymers, including conductive, biocompatible and conjugated polymers, the book goes on to discuss different synthetic polymers that can be used, for example, as hydrogels, biochemical sensors, functional surfaces, and natural degradable materials. Throughout, the focus is on applications, with worked examples for training purposes as well as case studies included. The whole is rounded off with a look at future trends.

Nanotechnology Applications for Tissue Engineering

Nanotechnology Applications for Tissue Engineering
Author: Sabu Thomas,Yves Grohens,Neethu Ninan
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2015-01-03
ISBN 10: 0323353037
ISBN 13: 9780323353038
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanotechnology Applications for Tissue Engineering Book Review:

Tissue engineering involves seeding of cells on bio-mimicked scaffolds providing adhesive surfaces. Researchers though face a range of problems in generating tissue which can be circumvented by employing nanotechnology. It provides substrates for cell adhesion and proliferation and agents for cell growth and can be used to create nanostructures and nanoparticles to aid the engineering of different types of tissue. Written by renowned scientists from academia and industry, this book covers the recent developments, trends and innovations in the application of nanotechnologies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It provides information on methodologies for designing and using biomaterials to regenerate tissue, on novel nano-textured surface features of materials (nano-structured polymers and metals e.g.) as well as on theranostics, immunology and nano-toxicology aspects. In the book also explained are fabrication techniques for production of scaffolds to a series of tissue-specific applications of scaffolds in tissue engineering for specific biomaterials and several types of tissue (such as skin bone, cartilage, vascular, cardiac, bladder and brain tissue). Furthermore, developments in nano drug delivery, gene therapy and cancer nanotechonology are described. The book helps readers to gain a working knowledge about the nanotechnology aspects of tissue engineering and will be of great use to those involved in building specific tissue substitutes in reaching their objective in a more efficient way. It is aimed for R&D and academic scientists, lab engineers, lecturers and PhD students engaged in the fields of tissue engineering or more generally regenerative medicine, nanomedicine, medical devices, nanofabrication, biofabrication, nano- and biomaterials and biomedical engineering. Provides state-of-the-art knowledge on how nanotechnology can help tackling known problems in tissue engineering Covers materials design, fabrication techniques for tissue-specific applications as well as immunology and toxicology aspects Helps scientists and lab engineers building tissue substitutes in a more efficient way

Biopolymer Based Composites

Biopolymer Based Composites
Author: Sougata Jana,Sabyasachi Maiti,Subrata Jana
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 422
Release: 2017-06-15
ISBN 10: 0081019157
ISBN 13: 9780081019153
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biopolymer Based Composites Book Review:

Biopolymer-Based Composites: Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications presents a comprehensive review on recent developments in biopolymer-based composites and their use in drug delivery and biomedical applications. The information contained in this book is critical for the more efficient use of composites, as detailed up-to-date information is a pre-requirement. The information provided brings cutting-edge developments to the attention of young investigators to encourage further advances in the field of bio-composite research. Currently, biopolymers are being investigated for the design of various drug delivery and biomedical devices due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. Mostly, biopolymer-based solid orals, gels, hydrogel beads, and transdermal matrices have been designed in order to control drug/protein release in simulated bio-fluids. Presents the most updated information in the field of pharmaceutical and biological sciences Contains color figures and illustrations to help users understand key topics Useful guide for young researchers working towards new innovations Includes chapters covered by eminent scientists in the field

Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Applications

Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Applications
Author: Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf,Nedal Y. Abu-Thabit
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 637
Release: 2018-10-24
ISBN 10: 0081019963
ISBN 13: 9780081019962
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Applications Book Review:

Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Applications: Volume Two: Advanced Nanocarriers for Therapeutics discusses, in detail, the recent trends in designing dual and multi-responsive polymers and nanoparticles for safe drug delivery. Chapters cover dual-responsive polymeric nanocarriers for drug delivery and their different stimuli, multi-responsive polymeric nanocarriers, and the therapeutic applications of stimuli-responsive polymers. With an emphasis on advanced medical applications and synergistic operational and technological methodologies for the improvement of polymers systems for the production of stimuli-responsive polymers, this book is essential reading for materials scientists and researchers working in the drug delivery and pharmaceutical industries. As innovation and development in the area of stimuli responsive polymer-based nanomaterials for drug delivery is moving fast and there is an increased global demand for biodegradable and biocompatible responsive polymers and nanoparticles for safe drug delivery, users will find this to be a timely resource. Focusses on the most advanced technologies, recent evaluation methods, technical aspects, and advanced synthesis techniques stimuli-responsive polymers Examines advanced medical applications of stimuli responsive polymers Analyzes synergistic operational and technological methodologies for the improvement of polymer systems for the production of stimuli-responsive polymers in drug delivery

Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Applications

Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Applications
Author: Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf,Nedal Y. Abu-Thabit
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 692
Release: 2018-06-14
ISBN 10: 008101998X
ISBN 13: 9780081019986
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Applications Book Review:

Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Applications, Volume One: Types and Triggers discusses, in detail, the recent trends in designing biodegradable and biocompatible single-responsive polymers and nanoparticles for safe drug delivery. Focusing on the most advanced materials and technologies, evaluation methods, and advanced synthesis techniques stimuli-responsive polymers, the book is an essential reference for scientists with an interest in drug delivery vehicles. Sections focus on innovation, development and the increased global demand for biodegradable and biocompatible responsive polymers and nanoparticles for safe drug delivery. Offers an in-depth look at the basic and fundamental aspects of alternative stimuli-responsive polymers, mechanisms, structure, synthesis and properties Provides a well-defined categorization for stimuli-responsive polymers for drug delivery based on different triggering mechanisms Discusses novel approaches and challenges for scaling up and commercialization of stimuli-responsive polymers

Functional Marine Biomaterials

Functional Marine Biomaterials
Author: Se-Kwon Kim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 170
Release: 2015-06-29
ISBN 10: 1782420940
ISBN 13: 9781782420941
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Functional Marine Biomaterials Book Review:

Functional Marine Biomaterials: Properties and Applications provides readers with the latest information on the diverse marine environment as a resource for many new substances, including biopolymers, bioceramics, and biominerals. As recent advances and funding has enabled scientists to begin harnessing many of these materials for biomedical applications from drug delivery to bone tissue engineering and biosensors, this important new text provides readers with a comprehensive review of these materials and their functional applications in the biomedical field. Chapters discuss the properties of the main classes of functional marine biomaterials, applications of marine products in tissue engineering, applications in drug delivery systems, and the role of marine derived materials in medical devices. Provides readers with the latest information on the diverse marine environment as a resource for many new substances, including biopolymers, bioceramics, and biominerals Presents a comprehensive review of these materials and their functional applications in the biomedical field Discusses the properties of the main classes of functional marine biomaterials, applications of marine products in tissue engineering, applications in drug delivery systems, and the role of marine derived materials in medical devices

3D and 4D Printing of Polymer Nanocomposite Materials

3D and 4D Printing of Polymer Nanocomposite Materials
Author: Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni,Kalim Deshmukh,Mariam AlAli AlMaadeed
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 592
Release: 2019-10-11
ISBN 10: 0128173025
ISBN 13: 9780128173022
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

3D and 4D Printing of Polymer Nanocomposite Materials Book Review:

3D and 4D Printing of Polymer Nanocomposite Materials: Processing, Applications, and Challenges covers advanced 3D and 4D printing processes and the latest developments in novel polymer-based printing materials, thus enabling the reader to understand and benefit from the advantages of this groundbreaking technology. The book presents processes, materials selection, and printability issues, along with sections on the preparation of polymer composite materials for 3D and 4D printing. Across the book, advanced printing techniques are covered and discussed thoroughly, including fused deposition modeling (FDM), selective laser sintering (SLS), selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM), inkjet 3D printing (3DP), stereolithography (SLA), and 3D plotting. Finally, major applications areas are discussed, including electronic, aerospace, construction and biomedical applications, with detailed information on the design, fabrication and processing methods required in each case. Provides a thorough, clear understanding of polymer preparation techniques and 3D and 4D printing processes, with a view to specific applications Examines synthesis, formation methodology, the dispersion of fillers, characterization, properties, and performance of polymer nanocomposites Explores the possibilities of 4D printing, covering the usage of stimuli responsive hydrogels and shape memory polymers