Big Debt Crises

Big Debt Crises
Author: Ray Dalio
Publsiher: Bridgewater
Total Pages: 472
Release: 2020-08-04
ISBN 10: 9780578565651
ISBN 13: 057856565X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Big Debt Crises Book Review:

"Ray Dalio's excellent study provides an innovative way of thinking about debt crises and the policy response." - Ben Bernanke ​"Ray Dalio's book is must reading for anyone who aspires to prevent or manage through the next financial crisis." - Larry Summers "A terrific piece of work from one of the world's top investors who has devoted his life to understanding markets and demonstrated that understanding by navigating the 2008 financial crisis well." - Hank Paulson "An outstanding history of financial crises, including the devastating crisis of 2008, with a very valuable framework for understanding why the engine of the financial system occasionally breaks down, and what types of policy actions by central banks and governments are necessary to resolve systemic financial crises. This should serve as a play book for future policy makers, with practical guidance about what to do and what not to do." - Tim Geithner "Dalio's approach, as in his investment management, is to synthesize information, and to convert a sprawling and multi-faceted issue into a clear-cut process of cause and effect. Critically, he simplifies without over-simplifying." - Financial Times For the 10th anniversary of the 2008 financial crisis, one of the world's most successful investors, Ray Dalio, shares his unique template for how debt crises work and principles for dealing with them well. This template allowed his firm, Bridgewater Associates, to anticipate events and navigate them well while others struggled badly. As he explained in his #1 New York Times Bestseller, Principles: Life & Work, Dalio believes that most everything happens over and over again through time so that by studying their patterns one can understand the cause-effect relationships behind them and develop principles for dealing with them well. In this 3-part research series, he does that for big debt crises and shares his template in the hopes reducing the chances of big debt crises happening and helping them be better managed in the future. The template comes in three parts:: 1) The Archetypal Big Debt Cycle (which explains the template), 2) 3 Detailed Cases (which examines in depth the 2008 financial crisis, the 1930's Great Depression, and the 1920's inflationary depression of Germany's Weimar Republic), and 3) Compendium of 48 Cases (which is a compendium of charts and brief descriptions of the worst debt crises of the last 100 years). Whether you're an investor, a policy maker, or are simply interested, the unconventional perspective of one of the few people who navigated the crises successfully, Principles for Navigating Big Debt Crises will help you understand the economy and markets in revealing new ways.

Big Debt Crises

Big Debt Crises
Author: Ray Dalio
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 456
Release: 2018-11
ISBN 10: 9781732689800
ISBN 13: 1732689806
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Big Debt Crises Book Review:

Big Debt Crises

Big Debt Crises
Author: Ray Dalio
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2018-11
ISBN 10: 9781732689824
ISBN 13: 1732689822
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Big Debt Crises Book Review:

"Ray Dalio's excellent study provides an innovative way of thinking about debt crises and the policy response." - Ben Bernanke "Ray Dalio's book is must reading for anyone who aspires to prevent or manage through the next financial crisis." - Larry Summers "A terrific piece of work from one of the world's top investors who has devoted his life to understanding markets and demonstrated that understanding by navigating the 2008 financial crisis well." - Hank Paulson "An outstanding history of financial crises, including the devastating crisis of 2008, with a very valuable framework for understanding why the engine of the financial system occasionally breaks down, and what types of policy actions by central banks and governments are necessary to resolve systemic financial crises. This should serve as a play book for future policy makers, with practical guidance about what to do and what not to do." - Tim Geithner "Dalio's approach, as in his investment management, is to synthesize information, and to convert a sprawling and multi-faceted issue into a clear-cut process of cause and effect. Critically, he simplifies without over-simplifying." - Financial Times For the 10th anniversary of the 2008 financial crisis, one of the world's most successful investors, Ray Dalio, shares his unique template for how debt crises work and principles for dealing with them well. This template allowed his firm, Bridgewater Associates, to anticipate events and navigate them well while others struggled badly. As he explained in his #1 New York Times Bestseller, Principles: Life & Work, Dalio believes that most everything happens over and over again through time so that by studying their patterns one can understand the cause-effect relationships behind them and develop principles for dealing with them well. In this 3-part research series, he does that for big debt crises and shares his template in the hopes reducing the chances of big debt crises happening and helping them be better managed in the future. The template comes in three parts provided in three books: 1) The Archetypal Big Debt Cycle (which explains the template), 2) 3 Detailed Cases (which examines in depth the 2008 financial crisis, the 1930's Great Depression, and the 1920's inflationary depression of Germany's Weimar Republic), and 3) Compendium of 48 Cases (which is a compendium of charts and brief descriptions of the worst debt crises of the last 100 years). Whether you're an investor, a policy maker, or are simply interested, the unconventional perspective of one of the few people who navigated the crises successfully, Principles for Navigating Big Debt Crises will help you understand the economy and markets in revealing new ways.

Summary Of Big Debt Crises By Ray Dalio

Summary Of Big Debt Crises By Ray Dalio
Author: Scorpio Digital Press
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 60
Release: 2019-07-11
ISBN 10: 9781079982060
ISBN 13: 107998206X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Summary Of Big Debt Crises By Ray Dalio Book Review:

Are you ready for the next big debt crisis? Note to Readers: This is a fan-based summary and analysis companion book based on Big Debt Crises by Ray Dalio. This is not the original text; it is meant to enhance your original reading experience, not supplement it. You are strongly encouraged to purchase the original book here: https: //amzn.to/2O9RG1V In this current economic climate, consumers would do well to be very informed about where the economy rests in the current debt cycle. Ray Dalio breaks down the types of debt cycles, phases of debt cycles, and how each change affects interest rates, markets, and monetization. Dalio offers examples in words and visuals to give readers an understanding of how these terms are applied to economics and how each part of the cycle affects the marketplace. Dalio's goal for this guidebook is for everyone to learn how to manage debt crises. This management is contingent on not only how domestic consumers handle their debts, but how foreign money can become part of the overall debt picture and create significantly different outcomes. While consumers, lenders, and policy makers cannot always be in sync, it is critical for everyone in the system to realize how the steps they take will directly affect the debt management of all stakeholders. In this detailed summary and analysis of Big Debt Crises by Ray Dalio, you'll learn about and experience: The economical slang that you should be able to define. What a debt cycle is, and how it can personally affect you. The two major problems with debt cycles. Detailed case studies that prove Dalio's point. And much more! Scroll to the top and purchase with 1-click today! Don't let the next BIG DEBT CRISES eat you up!

Changing World Order

Changing World Order
Author: Ray Dalio
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2020-09-15
ISBN 10: 9781471196690
ISBN 13: 1471196690
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Changing World Order Book Review:

From the international bestselling author of Principles and legendary investor Ray Dalio, who has spent half a century studying global markets, The Changing World Order examines history's most turbulent economic and political periods to reveal why the times ahead will likely be radically different from those we've experienced in our lifetimes. A few years ago, renowned investor Ray Dalio began noticing a confluence of political and economic conditions he hadn't encountered before in his fifty-year career. They included large debts and zero or near-zero interest rates in the world's three major reserve currencies; significant wealth, political and values divisions within countries; and emerging conflict between a rising world power (China) and the existing one (US). Seeking to explain the cause-effect relationships behind these conditions, he began a study of analogous historical times and discovered that such combinations of conditions were characteristic of periods of transition, such as the years between 1930 and 1945, in which wealth and power shifted in ways that reshaped the world order. Looking back across five hundred years of history and nine major empires - including the Dutch, the British and the American - The Changing World Order puts into perspective the cycles and forces that have driven the successes and failures of all the world's major countries throughout history. Dalioreveals the timeless and universal dynamics that were behind these shifts, while also offering practical principles for policymakers, business leaders, investors and others operating in this environment.

Summary of Ray Dalio s Big Debt Crises by Swift Reads

Summary of Ray Dalio   s Big Debt Crises by Swift Reads
Author: Swift Reads
Publsiher: Swift Reads
Total Pages: 34
Release: 2019-06-28
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13:
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Summary of Ray Dalio s Big Debt Crises by Swift Reads Book Review:

Big Debt Crises (2018) by Ray Dalio is an economic primer based on the proprietary decision-making system used at the author’s hugely successful hedge fund, Bridgewater Associates. Financial crises across history tend to share certain features... Purchase this in-depth summary to learn more.

This Time Is Different

This Time Is Different
Author: Carmen M. Reinhart,Kenneth Rogoff
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 463
Release: 2011-08-07
ISBN 10: 0691152640
ISBN 13: 9780691152646
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

This Time Is Different Book Review:

Examines financial crises of the past and discusses similarities between these events and the current crisis, presenting and comparing historical patterns in bank failures, inflation, debt, currency, housing, employment, and government spending.

Mastering the Market Cycle

Mastering the Market Cycle
Author: Howard Marks
Publsiher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2018-10-02
ISBN 10: 1328480569
ISBN 13: 9781328480569
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mastering the Market Cycle Book Review:

A NEW YORK TIMES, WALL STREET JOURNAL, AND USA TODAY BESTSELLER Named one of the Best Business Books of 2018 by Business Insider The legendary investor shows how to identify and master the cycles that govern the markets. We all know markets rise and fall, but when should you pull out, and when should you stay in? The answer is never black or white, but is best reached through a keen understanding of the reasons behind the rhythm of cycles. Confidence about where we are in a cycle comes when you learn the patterns of ups and downs that influence not just economics, markets and companies, but also human psychology and the investing behaviors that result. If you study past cycles, understand their origins and remain alert for the next one, you will become keenly attuned to the investment environment as it changes. You’ll be aware and prepared while others get blindsided by unexpected events or fall victim to emotions like fear and greed. By following Marks’s insights — drawn in part from his iconic memos over the years to Oaktree’s clients — you can master these recurring patterns to have the opportunity to improve your results.

Big Debt Crisis

Big Debt Crisis
Author: Introbooks
Publsiher: Independently Published
Total Pages: 26
Release: 2019-04-09
ISBN 10: 9781093313550
ISBN 13: 1093313552
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Big Debt Crisis Book Review:

The world is interconnected through many links. One of the links is economic. The economies of the world are connected via trade and transactions. There is a huge number of transactions taking place on a daily basis between people belonging to different countries. Thus the world is in itself an economy. There are many chances that this economy underperforms due to various reasons. A major reason for this underperformance is a failure of one or other economy inside the world if a country faces a financial downturn it definitely affects other countries also. History shows that there are many cases of such economic crisis that have happened across the globe. These have lasted for years or sometimes decided. Their immediate effects can be easily seen in the economic performance of a country. Almost all the financial institutions get affected in some way or the other. Many of them even fail to sustain. Unemployment rise is also a common outcome of such debt crisis. These crises act as an example and a lesson for future generations.

Principles

Principles
Author: Ray Dalio
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 592
Release: 2018-08-07
ISBN 10: 1982112387
ISBN 13: 9781982112387
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Principles Book Review:

#1 New York Times Bestseller “Significant...The book is both instructive and surprisingly moving.” —The New York Times Ray Dalio, one of the world’s most successful investors and entrepreneurs, shares the unconventional principles that he’s developed, refined, and used over the past forty years to create unique results in both life and business—and which any person or organization can adopt to help achieve their goals. In 1975, Ray Dalio founded an investment firm, Bridgewater Associates, out of his two-bedroom apartment in New York City. Forty years later, Bridgewater has made more money for its clients than any other hedge fund in history and grown into the fifth most important private company in the United States, according to Fortune magazine. Dalio himself has been named to Time magazine’s list of the 100 most influential people in the world. Along the way, Dalio discovered a set of unique principles that have led to Bridgewater’s exceptionally effective culture, which he describes as “an idea meritocracy that strives to achieve meaningful work and meaningful relationships through radical transparency.” It is these principles, and not anything special about Dalio—who grew up an ordinary kid in a middle-class Long Island neighborhood—that he believes are the reason behind his success. In Principles, Dalio shares what he’s learned over the course of his remarkable career. He argues that life, management, economics, and investing can all be systemized into rules and understood like machines. The book’s hundreds of practical lessons, which are built around his cornerstones of “radical truth” and “radical transparency,” include Dalio laying out the most effective ways for individuals and organizations to make decisions, approach challenges, and build strong teams. He also describes the innovative tools the firm uses to bring an idea meritocracy to life, such as creating “baseball cards” for all employees that distill their strengths and weaknesses, and employing computerized decision-making systems to make believability-weighted decisions. While the book brims with novel ideas for organizations and institutions, Principles also offers a clear, straightforward approach to decision-making that Dalio believes anyone can apply, no matter what they’re seeking to achieve. Here, from a man who has been called both “the Steve Jobs of investing” and “the philosopher king of the financial universe” (CIO magazine), is a rare opportunity to gain proven advice unlike anything you’ll find in the conventional business press.

The Coming Bond Market Collapse

The Coming Bond Market Collapse
Author: Michael G. Pento
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2013-03-28
ISBN 10: 1118457153
ISBN 13: 9781118457153
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Coming Bond Market Collapse Book Review:

The coming financial apocalypse and what government andindividuals can do to insulate themselves against the worstshocks In this controversial book a noted adherent of Austrian Schoolof Economics theories advances the thesis that the United States isfast approaching the end stage of the biggest asset bubble inhistory. He describes how the bursting of the bubble will cause amassive interest rate shock that will send the US consumer economyand the US government—pumped up by massive Treasurydebt—into bankruptcy, an event that will send shockwavesthroughout the global economy. Michael Pento examines how policiesfollowed by both the Federal Reserve and private industry havecontributed to the impending interest rate disaster and highlightsthe similarities between the US and European debt crisis. But thebook isn't all doom and gloom. Pento also provides well-reasonedsolutions that, government, industry and individuals can take toinsulate themselves against the coming crisis. Paints an alarmingly vivid picture of the massive interest rateshock which soon will send consumers and the government intobankruptcy Backed by a wealth of historical and economic data, Pentoexplains how the bubble was created and what the U.S. can do tomitigate the impending crisis Provides investors with sound strategies for protectingthemselves and their assets against the coming financialapocalypse Explains why retirees, in particular, will be at risk as realestate prices decline, pensions weaken, and the bond bubblebursts

Bust

Bust
Author: Matthew Lynn
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2010-12-21
ISBN 10: 9781119990680
ISBN 13: 1119990688
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bust Book Review:

In 2001, Greece saw its application for membership into the Eurozone accepted, and the country sat down to the greatest free lunch in economic history. However, the coming years of global economic prosperity would lead to unrestrained spending, cheap borrowing, and a failure to implement financial reform, leaving the country massively exposed to a financial crisis—which duly struck. In Bust: Greece, the Euro, and the Sovereign Debt Crisis, Bloomberg columnist Matthew Lynn explores Greece's spectacular rise and fall from grace and the global repercussions of its financial disaster. Page by page, he provides a thrilling account of the Greek financial crisis, drawing out its origins, how it escalated, and its implications for a fragile global economy. Along the way, Lynn looks at how the Greek contagion has spread like wildfire throughout Europe and explores how government ineptitude as well as financial speculators compounded the problem. Blending financial history, politics, and current affairs, Lynn skillfully tells the story of how one nation rode the wave of economic prosperity and brought a continent, a currency, and, potentially, the global financial system to its knees. Lively, engaging, and thought provoking, Bust reminds us just how interconnected the world really is.

Principles for Success

Principles for Success
Author: Ray Dalio
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 160
Release: 2019-11-26
ISBN 10: 1982147253
ISBN 13: 9781982147259
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Principles for Success Book Review:

An entertaining, illustrated adaptation of Ray Dalio’s Principles, the #1 New York Times bestseller that has sold more than two million copies worldwide. Principles for Success distills Ray Dalio’s 600-page bestseller, Principles: Life & Work, down to an easy-to-read and entertaining format that’s acces­sible to readers of all ages. It contains the key elements of the unconven­tional principles that helped Dalio become one of the world’s most suc­cessful people—and that have now been read and shared by millions worldwide—including how to set goals, learn from mistakes, and collaborate with others to produce exceptional results. Whether you’re already a fan of the ideas in Princi­ples or are discovering them for the first time, this illustrated guide will help you achieve success in having the life that you want to have.

Lost Decades The Making of America s Debt Crisis and the Long Recovery

Lost Decades  The Making of America s Debt Crisis and the Long Recovery
Author: Menzie D. Chinn,Jeffry A. Frieden
Publsiher: W. W. Norton & Company
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2011-09-19
ISBN 10: 0393080501
ISBN 13: 9780393080506
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lost Decades The Making of America s Debt Crisis and the Long Recovery Book Review:

A clear, authoritative guide to the crisis of 2008, its continuing repercussions, and the needed reforms ahead. The U.S. economy lost the first decade of the twenty-first century to an ill-conceived boom and subsequent bust. It is in danger of losing another decade to the stagnation of an incomplete recovery. How did this happen? Read this lucid explanation of the origins and long-term effects of the recent financial crisis, drawn in historical and comparative perspective by two leading political economists. By 2008 the United States had become the biggest international borrower in world history, with more than two-thirds of its $6 trillion federal debt in foreign hands. The proportion of foreign loans to the size of the economy put the United States in league with Mexico, Indonesia, and other third-world debtor nations. The massive inflow of foreign funds financed the booms in housing prices and consumer spending that fueled the economy until the collapse of late 2008. This was the most serious international economic crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Menzie Chinn and Jeffry Frieden explain the political and economic roots of this crisis as well as its long-term effects. They explore the political strategies behind the Bush administration’s policy of funding massive deficits with foreign borrowing. They show that the crisis was foreseen by many and was avoidable through appropriate policy measures. They examine the continuing impact of our huge debt on the continuing slow recovery from the recession. Lost Decades will long be regarded as the standard account of the crisis and its aftermath.

The Acquirer s Multiple

The Acquirer s Multiple
Author: Tobias E. Carlisle
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 160
Release: 2017-10-16
ISBN 10: 9780692928851
ISBN 13: 0692928855
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Acquirer s Multiple Book Review:

The Acquirer's Multiple: How the Billionaire Contrarians of Deep Value Beat the Market is an easy-to-read account of deep value investing. The book shows how investors Warren Buffett, Carl Icahn, David Einhorn and Dan Loeb got started and how they do it. Carlisle combines engaging stories with research and data to show how you can do it too. Written by an active value investor, The Acquirer's Multiple provides an insider's view on deep value investing.The Acquirer's Multiple covers: How the billionaire contrarians invest How Warren Buffett got started The history of activist hedge funds How to Beat the Little Book That Beats the Market A simple way to value stocks: The Acquirer's Multiple The secret to beating the market How Carl Icahn got started How David Einhorn and Dan Loeb got started The 9 rules of deep value The Acquirer's Multiple: How the Billionaire Contrarians of Deep Value Beat the Market provides a simple summary of the way deep value investors find stocks that beat the market.

Boomerang Travels in the New Third World

Boomerang  Travels in the New Third World
Author: Michael Lewis
Publsiher: W. W. Norton & Company
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2011-10-03
ISBN 10: 0393082245
ISBN 13: 9780393082241
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Boomerang Travels in the New Third World Book Review:

“Lewis shows again why he is the leading journalist of his generation.”—Kyle Smith, Forbes The tsunami of cheap credit that rolled across the planet between 2002 and 2008 was more than a simple financial phenomenon: it was temptation, offering entire societies the chance to reveal aspects of their characters they could not normally afford to indulge. Icelanders wanted to stop fishing and become investment bankers. The Greeks wanted to turn their country into a pinata stuffed with cash and allow as many citizens as possible to take a whack at it. The Germans wanted to be even more German; the Irish wanted to stop being Irish. Michael Lewis's investigation of bubbles beyond our shores is so brilliantly, sadly hilarious that it leads the American reader to a comfortable complacency: oh, those foolish foreigners. But when he turns a merciless eye on California and Washington, DC, we see that the narrative is a trap baited with humor, and we understand the reckoning that awaits the greatest and greediest of debtor nations.

Global Waves of Debt

Global Waves of Debt
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2020
ISBN 10: 9781464815447
ISBN 13: 1464815445
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Global Waves of Debt Book Review:

China

China
Author: Thomas Orlik,Tom Orlik
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2020-05-15
ISBN 10: 0190877405
ISBN 13: 9780190877408
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

China Book Review:

The Chinese economy appears destined for failure, the financial bubble forever in peril of popping, the real estate sector doomed to collapse, the factories fated for bankruptcy. Banks drowning in bad loans. An urban landscape littered with ghost towns of empty property. Industrial zones stalked by zombie firms. Trade tariffs blocking the path to global markets. And yet, against the odds and against expectations, growth continues, wealth rises, international influence expands. The coming collapse of China is always coming, never arriving. Thomas Orlik, a veteran of more than a decade in Beijing, turns the spotlight on China's fragile fundamentals, and resources for resilience. Drawing on discussions with Communist cadres, shadow bankers, and migrant workers, Orlik pieces together a unique perspective on China's past, present, and possible futures. From Deng Xiaoping's reform and opening to Donald Trump's trade war, Orlik traces the policy steps and missteps that have taken China to the brink of a "Lehman moment" credit crisis. Delving into the balance sheets for banks, corporates, and local governments, he plumbs the depths of financial risks. From Japan in 1989, to Korea in 1997, to the U.S. in 2007, he positions China in the context of a rolling series of global crisis. Mapping possible scenarios, Orlik games out what will happens if the bubble that never pops finally does. The magnitude of the shock to China and the world would be tremendous. For those in the West nervously watching China's rise as a geopolitical challenger, the alternative could be even less palatable.

Big Debt Crisis

Big Debt Crisis
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2019
ISBN 10: 9781393110477
ISBN 13: 1393110479
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Big Debt Crisis Book Review:

The world is interconnected through many links. One of the links is economic. The economies of the world are connected via trade and transactions. There is a huge number of transactions taking place on a daily basis between people belonging to different countries. Thus the world is in itself an economy. There are many chances that this economy underperforms due to various reasons. A major reason for this underperformance is a failure of one or other economy inside the world if a country faces a financial downturn it definitely affects other countries also. History shows that there are many cases of such economic crisis that have happened across the globe. These have lasted for years or sometimes decided. Their immediate effects can be easily seen in the economic performance of a country. Almost all the financial institutions get affected in some way or the other. Many of them even fail to sustain. Unemployment rise is also a common outcome of such debt crisis. These crises act as an example and a lesson for future generations.

Big Debt Crisis

Big Debt Crisis
Author: IntroBooks Team
Publsiher: IntroBooks
Total Pages: 21
Release: 2019-12-04
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13:
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Big Debt Crisis Book Review:

The world is interconnected through many links. One of the links is economic. The economies of the world are connected via trade and transactions. There is a huge number of transactions taking place on a daily basis between people belonging to different countries. Thus the world is in itself an economy. There are many chances that this economy underperforms due to various reasons. A major reason for this underperformance is a failure of one or other economy inside the world if a country faces a financial downturn it definitely affects other countries also. History shows that there are many cases of such economic crisis that have happened across the globe. These have lasted for years or sometimes decided. Their immediate effects can be easily seen in the economic performance of a country. Almost all the financial institutions get affected in some way or the other. Many of them even fail to sustain. Unemployment rise is also a common outcome of such debt crisis. These crises act as an example and a lesson for future generations.