Biased Signaling in Physiology Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Biased Signaling in Physiology  Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Author: Brian J. Arey
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 316
Release: 2014-06-17
ISBN 10: 9780124114609
ISBN 13: 0124114601
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biased Signaling in Physiology Pharmacology and Therapeutics Book Review:

Biased Signaling in Physiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics is a unique and essential reference for the scientific community concerning how conformational-dependent activation is a common phenomenon across many classes of receptors or signaling molecules. It discusses the role of conformational dynamics in leading to signaling bias across different classes of receptors and signaling molecules. By providing a broader view of signaling bias, this resource helps to explain common mechanisms shared across receptor classes and how this can be utilized to elucidate their cellular activity and better understand their therapeutic potential. Written for both new and established scientists in pharmacology, cell biology, biochemistry, and signal transduction, as well as physicians, this book clearly illustrates how biased receptor signaling can be utilized to develop and understand complex pharmacology. Chapters are each focused on a specific class of receptor or other important topic and make use of real-world examples illustrating how the latest research in signal transduction has led to a better understanding of pharmacology and cell biology. This structure creates a basis for understanding that physiological signalling bias has been selected by nature in order to provide complex and tissue- specific biological responses in the face of limited receptors and signaling pathways. This book provides a framework to reveal that these physiological mechanisms are not restricted to one receptor type or family and thus presents receptor signaling from a newer, more global perspective. Offers a unique and valuable resource on biased receptor signaling that provides a global view for better understanding pharmacology across many receptor families Integrates biased receptor signaling, physiology, and pharmacology to place this emerging science within the context of treating disease Includes important chapters on both the pharmaceutical and therapeutic implications of biased signaling

Biased Signaling in Physiology Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Biased Signaling in Physiology  Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Author: Brian J Arey
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 316
Release: 2014-06-05
ISBN 10: 0124115071
ISBN 13: 9780124115071
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biased Signaling in Physiology Pharmacology and Therapeutics Book Review:

Biased Signaling in Physiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics is a unique and essential reference for the scientific community concerning how conformational-dependent activation is a common phenomenon across many classes of receptors or signaling molecules. It discusses the role of conformational dynamics in leading to signaling bias across different classes of receptors and signaling molecules. By providing a broader view of signaling bias, this resource helps to explain common mechanisms shared across receptor classes and how this can be utilized to elucidate their cellular activity and better understand their therapeutic potential. Written for both new and established scientists in pharmacology, cell biology, biochemistry, and signal transduction, as well as physicians, this book clearly illustrates how biased receptor signaling can be utilized to develop and understand complex pharmacology. Chapters are each focused on a specific class of receptor or other important topic and make use of real-world examples illustrating how the latest research in signal transduction has led to a better understanding of pharmacology and cell biology. This structure creates a basis for understanding that physiological signalling bias has been selected by nature in order to provide complex and tissue- specific biological responses in the face of limited receptors and signaling pathways. This book provides a framework to reveal that these physiological mechanisms are not restricted to one receptor type or family and thus presents receptor signaling from a newer, more global perspective. Offers a unique and valuable resource on biased receptor signaling that provides a global view for better understanding pharmacology across many receptor families Integrates biased receptor signaling, physiology, and pharmacology to place this emerging science within the context of treating disease Includes important chapters on both the pharmaceutical and therapeutic implications of biased signaling

Arrestins Pharmacology and Therapeutic Potential

Arrestins   Pharmacology and Therapeutic Potential
Author: Vsevolod V. Gurevich
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 447
Release: 2013-11-29
ISBN 10: 3642411991
ISBN 13: 9783642411991
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Arrestins Pharmacology and Therapeutic Potential Book Review:

This volume describes our current understanding of the biological role of visual and non-visual arrestins in different cells and tissues, focusing on the mechanisms of arrestin-mediated regulation of GPCRs and non-receptor signaling proteins in health and disease. The book covers wide range of arrestin functions, emphasizing therapeutic potential of targeting arrestin interactions with individual partners.

GPCRs

GPCRs
Author: Beata Jastrzebska,Paul S.-H. Park
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 500
Release: 2019-09-11
ISBN 10: 0128167289
ISBN 13: 9780128167281
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GPCRs Book Review:

GPCRS: Structure, Function, and Drug Discovery provides a comprehensive overview of recent discoveries and our current understanding of GPCR structure, signaling, physiology, pharmacology and methods of study. In addition to the fundamental aspects of GPCR function and dynamics, international experts discuss crystal structures, GPCR complexes with partner proteins, GPCR allosteric modulation, biased signaling through protein partners, deorphanization of GPCRs, and novel GPCR-targeting ligands that could lead to the development of new therapeutics against human diseases. GPCR association with, and possible therapeutic pathways for, retinal degenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cancer and diabetic nephropathy, among other illnesses, are examined in-depth. Addresses our current understanding and novel advances in the GPCR field, directing readers towards recent finding of key significance for translational medicine Combines a thorough discussion of structure and function of GPCRs with disease association and drug discovery Features chapter contributions from international experts in GPCR structure, signaling, physiology and pharmacology

The Molecular Biology of Arrestins

The Molecular Biology of Arrestins
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 536
Release: 2013-06-10
ISBN 10: 0123947898
ISBN 13: 9780123947895
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Molecular Biology of Arrestins Book Review:

This special volume of Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science focuses on the molecular biology of arrestins, with contributions from leaders in the field. Arrestins have emerged as central players in the regulation of many facets of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. This volume covers a variety of topics with reviews written by experts in the field. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

Pharmacology of G Protein Coupled Receptors

Pharmacology of G Protein Coupled Receptors
Author: S. J. Enna
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 391
Release: 2011
ISBN 10: 0123859522
ISBN 13: 9780123859525
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pharmacology of G Protein Coupled Receptors Book Review:

G protein coupled receptors remain the most important class of therapeutic targets in medicine. In the last 5 years, tremendous advances have been made in our understanding of the structure and mechanism of this critical family of drug targets. The present volume explores the modern experimental and conceptual framework for drug discovery for G protein coupled receptors. It explores advances in structure determination and structure-based drug design as well as new concepts of allosteric modulation, functional selectivity/biased agonism, and pharmacological chaperones. In addition, emerging drug targets such as receptor families for fatty acids, carboxylic acids, lipid mediators, etc. are included. Final chapters cover novel mechanisms of signal regulation through PDZ domains and RGS proteins. This volume will bring an up-to-date perspective on the G protein coupled receptor field to both academic and industry scientists. The present volume explores the modern experimental and conceptual framework for drug discovery for G protein coupled receptors It explores advances in structure determination and structure-based drug design as well as new concepts of allosteric modulation, functional selectivity/biased agonism, and pharmacological chaperones This volume will bring an up-to-date perspective on the G protein coupled receptor field to both academic and industry scientists

G Protein Coupled Receptors

G Protein Coupled Receptors
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2013-01-17
ISBN 10: 0123918723
ISBN 13: 9780123918727
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

G Protein Coupled Receptors Book Review:

This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial by containing quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers G protein coupled receptors and includes chapters on such topics as post-translation modification of GPCR in relationship to biased agonism, structure-based virtual screening, and GPCR oligomerization in the brain. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers G protein coupled receptors Contains chapters on such topics as post-translation modification of GPCR in relationship to biased agonism, structure-based virtual screening, and GPCR oligomerization in the brain

G Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling

G Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling
Author: Mario Tiberi
Publsiher: Humana Press
Total Pages: 406
Release: 2019-03-01
ISBN 10: 9781493991204
ISBN 13: 1493991205
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

G Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling Book Review:

This detailed volume assembles comprehensive protocols to assist with the study of structural, molecular, cell biological, and in vivo facets of GPCRs, and to enable the development of experimental tools for screening novel GPCR drugs. Sections explore the tweaking of ligands, bioluminescence and FRET approaches, specific GPCR signaling properties, as well as visualization of subcellular compartmentalization. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal reference for life scientists working in a variety of research fields including molecular pharmacology, cell and developmental biology, brain behavior and physiology, drug development and screening. Chapter 4 is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com.

GPCRs

GPCRs
Author: Beata Jastrzebska,Paul S. H. Park
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 552
Release: 2019-10
ISBN 10: 9780128162286
ISBN 13: 0128162287
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GPCRs Book Review:

GPCRS: Structure, Function, and Drug Discovery provides a comprehensive overview of recent discoveries and our current understanding of GPCR structure, signaling, physiology, pharmacology and methods of study. In addition to the fundamental aspects of GPCR function and dynamics, international experts discuss crystal structures, GPCR complexes with partner proteins, GPCR allosteric modulation, biased signaling through protein partners, deorphanization of GPCRs, and novel GPCR-targeting ligands that could lead to the development of new therapeutics against human diseases. GPCR association with, and possible therapeutic pathways for, retinal degenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer and diabetic nephropathy, among other illnesses, are examined in-depth. Addresses our current understanding and novel advances in the GPCR field, directing readers towards recent finding of key significance for translational medicine Combines a thorough discussion of structure and function of GPCRs with disease association and drug discovery Features chapter contributions from international experts in GPCR structure, signaling, physiology and pharmacology

Receptor Receptor Interactions

Receptor Receptor Interactions
Author: Kjell Fuxe,Luigi F. Agnati
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 580
Release: 2013-03-13
ISBN 10: 1468454153
ISBN 13: 9781468454154
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Receptor Receptor Interactions Book Review:

The Physiology and Pharmacology of Leucine rich Repeat GPCRs

The Physiology and Pharmacology of Leucine rich Repeat GPCRs
Author: Brian J. Arey,James A. Dias
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2016-08-05
ISBN 10: 2889199584
ISBN 13: 9782889199587
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Physiology and Pharmacology of Leucine rich Repeat GPCRs Book Review:

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a large and physiologically important class of cell surface receptors. There are approximately 750 known GPCRs present in the human genome that can be subdivided into general classes based upon sequence homology within their transmembrane domains. Therapeutically, GPCRs represent a fertile source for the development of therapies as they are a significant percentage of our current pharmacopeia. Among the three subclasses of GPCRs, the Class A (rhodopsin-like) receptors are by far the most prevalent and extensively studied. However, within the Class A receptors, sub-families of receptors can be distinguished based upon common sequence motifs within the transmembrane domains as well as extracellular and intracellular domains. One such family of Class A receptors is characterized by multiple leucine- rich repeats within their amino- terminal domains (the Leucine-rich Repeat family (LRR)). This family of GPCRs are best represented by the glycoprotein hormone receptors (LHR, FSHR and TSHR) which have been studied extensively but also includes receptors for the peptide hormone relaxin (RXFP1 and RXFP2 (RXFP2 also binds insulin-like peptide 3)) and three other receptors (LGR4, LGR5 and LGR6). LGR4-6 were, until recently, considered orphan receptors. However, emerging data have revealed that these proteins are the receptors for a family of growth factors called R-spondins. Over the last 20 years much has been learned about LRR receptors, including the development of synthetic agonists and antagonists, new insights into signaling (including signaling bias) and the physiological role these receptors play in regulating the function of many tissues. This topic will focus on what is known concerning the regulation of these receptors, their signaling pathways, functional consequences of activation and pharmacology.

APPNING Animal Population Imaging

APPNING  Animal Population Imaging
Author: Michel Dojat,Jan G. Bjaalie,Emmanuel L. Barbier
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2021-07-14
ISBN 10: 2889668657
ISBN 13: 9782889668656
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

APPNING Animal Population Imaging Book Review:

A Pharmacology Primer

A Pharmacology Primer
Author: Terry Kenakin
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 488
Release: 2018-10-26
ISBN 10: 0128139587
ISBN 13: 9780128139585
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Pharmacology Primer Book Review:

A Pharmacology Primer: Techniques for More Effective and Strategic Drug Discovery, Fifth Edition features the latest ideas and research regarding the application of pharmacology to the process of drug discovery. Written by well-respected pharmacologist, Terry P. Kenakin, this primer is an indispensable resource for all those involved in drug discovery. This updated edition has been thoroughly revised to include material on quantifying drug efficacy through bias and cluster analysis, the impact of molecular dynamics and protein structural analysis, the real time kinetic analysis of drug effect, virtual screening for new drug chemical scaffolds, and much more. With full color illustrations and new examples throughout, this book remains a top reference for all industry and academic scientists that is also ideal for students directly involved in drug discovery or pharmacologic research. Highlights changes surrounding strategies for drug discovery, providing a comprehensive reference and featuring advances in the methods involved Includes multiple new sections, such as development and utilization of models in pharmacology, de-orphanization of new drug targets, predicting impact of disease on drug pharmacokinetics, and the impact of enzyme kinetics on drug-drug interactions Illustrates the application of rapid inexpensive assays to predict activity in the therapeutic setting, showing data outcomes and the limitations inherent in interpreting this data

Pharmacology and Therapeutics of Constitutively Active Receptors

Pharmacology and Therapeutics of Constitutively Active Receptors
Author: Ya-Xiong Tao
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2014-06-11
ISBN 10: 0124172067
ISBN 13: 9780124172067
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pharmacology and Therapeutics of Constitutively Active Receptors Book Review:

Volume 70 of Advances in Pharmacology presents the pharmacology and therapeutics of constitutively active receptors. With a variety of chapters and the best authors in the field, the volume is an essential resource for pharmacologists, immunologists, and biochemists alike. Advances in Pharmacology provides a rich collection of reviews on timely topics. The series places emphasis on the molecular bases of drug action, both applied and experimental. Contributions from the best authors in the field An essential resource for pharmacologists, immunologists, and biochemists

Free Fatty Acid Receptors

Free Fatty Acid Receptors
Author: Graeme Milligan,Ikuo Kimura
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2017-02-08
ISBN 10: 3319506935
ISBN 13: 9783319506937
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Free Fatty Acid Receptors Book Review:

This book highlights the important role free fatty acids (FFA) play as potential drug targets. While FFA have long been considered byproducts of cell metabolism, they are now recognized as ligands that regulate cell and tissue function via G-protein-coupled receptors. At least three receptors have been identified for which FFA appear to be the endogenous ligands.

Histamine Receptors as Drug Targets

Histamine Receptors as Drug Targets
Author: Ekaterini Tiligada,Madeleine Ennis
Publsiher: Humana Press
Total Pages: 404
Release: 2017-03-16
ISBN 10: 9781493968411
ISBN 13: 1493968416
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Histamine Receptors as Drug Targets Book Review:

This book illustrates the current state-of-the-art in histamine research, with a focus on the appropriate methodologies to investigate the pharmacological properties and the therapeutic exploitation of HRs and their ligands. In addition, the range of techniques described provides an introduction to complementary cross-methodological disciplines beyond these fields. This multi-disciplinary approach is required to define the ‘decision gates’ that determine the development of more effective and safer therapeutic options for many forms of highly prevalent and debilitating diseases, such as asthma, dementias, dermatitis, and arthritis. Written for the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology series, chapters concentrate on practical, hands-on protocols from experts in the techniques. Authoritative and thorough, Histamine Receptors as Drug Targets seeks to aid pharmacologists, biochemists, drug discovery researchers, molecular biologists, chemists, toxicologists, lab scientists, medical doctors, principle investigators, research scientists, lab directors and technicians, as well as graduate students around the world in pursuing the study of this vital scientific area.

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults Third Edition

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults  Third Edition
Author: American Psychiatric Association
Publsiher: American Psychiatric Pub
Total Pages: 170
Release: 2015-07-29
ISBN 10: 0890424659
ISBN 13: 9780890424650
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults Third Edition Book Review:

Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust in 2011, there has been an increasing emphasis on assuring that clinical practice guidelines are trustworthy, developed in a transparent fashion, and based on a systematic review of the available research evidence. To align with the IOM recommendations and to meet the new requirements for inclusion of a guideline in the National Guidelines Clearinghouse of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), American Psychiatric Association (APA) has adopted a new process for practice guideline development. Under this new process APA's practice guidelines also seek to provide better clinical utility and usability. Rather than a broad overview of treatment for a disorder, new practice guidelines focus on a set of discrete clinical questions of relevance to an overarching subject area. A systematic review of evidence is conducted to address these clinical questions and involves a detailed assessment of individual studies. The quality of the overall body of evidence is also rated and is summarized in the practice guideline. With the new process, recommendations are determined by weighing potential benefits and harms of an intervention in a specific clinical context. Clear, concise, and actionable recommendation statements help clinicians to incorporate recommendations into clinical practice, with the goal of improving quality of care. The new practice guideline format is also designed to be more user friendly by dividing information into modules on specific clinical questions. Each module has a consistent organization, which will assist users in finding clinically useful and relevant information quickly and easily. This new edition of the practice guidelines on psychiatric evaluation for adults is the first set of the APA's guidelines developed under the new guideline development process. These guidelines address the following nine topics, in the context of an initial psychiatric evaluation: review of psychiatric symptoms, trauma history, and treatment history; substance use assessment; assessment of suicide risk; assessment for risk of aggressive behaviors; assessment of cultural factors; assessment of medical health; quantitative assessment; involvement of the patient in treatment decision making; and documentation of the psychiatric evaluation. Each guideline recommends or suggests topics to include during an initial psychiatric evaluation. Findings from an expert opinion survey have also been taken into consideration in making recommendations or suggestions. In addition to reviewing the available evidence on psychiatry evaluation, each guideline also provides guidance to clinicians on implementing these recommendations to enhance patient care.

The Health and Social Effects of Nonmedical Cannabis Use

The Health and Social Effects of Nonmedical Cannabis Use
Author: World Health Organization
Publsiher: World Health Organization
Total Pages: 95
Release: 2016-02-15
ISBN 10: 9241510242
ISBN 13: 9789241510240
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Health and Social Effects of Nonmedical Cannabis Use Book Review:

Cannabis is globally the most commonly used psychoactive substance under international control. In 2013, an estimated 181.8 million people aged 15-64 years used cannabis for nonmedical purposes globally (UNODC, 2015). There is an increasing demand for treatment for cannabis-use disorders and associated health conditions in high- and middle-income countries. This report focuses on nonmedical use of cannabis, building on contributions from a broad range of experts and researchers from different parts of the world. It aims to present current knowledge on the impact of nonmedical cannabis use on health, from its impact on brain development to its role in respiratory diseases. The potential medical utility of cannabis -- including the pharmacology, toxicology and possible therapeutic applications of the cannabis plant -- is outside the scope of this report.

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline on the Use of Antipsychotics to Treat Agitation or Psychosis in Patients With Dementia

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline on the Use of Antipsychotics to Treat Agitation or Psychosis in Patients With Dementia
Author: American Psychiatric Association
Publsiher: American Psychiatric Pub
Total Pages: 218
Release: 2016
ISBN 10: 0890426775
ISBN 13: 9780890426777
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline on the Use of Antipsychotics to Treat Agitation or Psychosis in Patients With Dementia Book Review:

Dementia is associated with a sizeable public health burden that is growing rapidly as the population ages. In addition to cognitive impairments, individuals with dementia often come to clinical attention because of symptoms of a behavioral disturbance (e.g., irritability, agitation, aggression) or psychosis. The burden on caregivers is substantial and is increased when dementia is associated with behavioral and psychological symptoms, and particularly with agitation or aggression. Treatment of psychotic symptoms and agitation in individuals with dementia has often involved use of antipsychotic medications. In recent years, the risks associated with use of these agents in the older adult population have become apparent. There has been a growing need to develop guidelines for appropriate use of antipsychotic medications in dementia. The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline on the Use of Antipsychotics to Treat Agitation or Psychosis in Patients With Dementia seeks to fulfill this need to improve the care of patients with dementia who are exhibiting agitation or psychosis. The guideline focuses on the judicious use of antipsychotic medications when agitation or psychosis occurs in association with dementia. It is intended to apply to individuals with dementia in all settings of care as well as to care delivered by generalist and specialist clinicians. The guideline offers clear, concise, and actionable recommendation statements to help clinicians to incorporate recommendations into clinical practice, with the goal of improving quality of care. Each recommendation is given a rating that reflects the level of confidence that potential benefits of an intervention outweigh potential harms. Findings from an expert opinion survey have also been taken into consideration in making recommendations or suggestions. In addition to reviewing the available evidence on use of antipsychotics in treating agitation or psychosis in patients with dementia, the guideline provides guidance to clinicians on implementing these recommendations to enhance patient care.

Protein Conformational Dynamics

Protein Conformational Dynamics
Author: Ke-li Han,Xin Zhang,Ming-jun Yang
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 488
Release: 2014-01-20
ISBN 10: 3319029703
ISBN 13: 9783319029702
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Protein Conformational Dynamics Book Review:

This book discusses how biological molecules exert their function and regulate biological processes, with a clear focus on how conformational dynamics of proteins are critical in this respect. In the last decade, the advancements in computational biology, nuclear magnetic resonance including paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, and fluorescence-based ensemble/single-molecule techniques have shown that biological molecules (proteins, DNAs and RNAs) fluctuate under equilibrium conditions. The conformational and energetic spaces that these fluctuations explore likely contain active conformations that are critical for their function. More interestingly, these fluctuations can respond actively to external cues, which introduces layers of tight regulation on the biological processes that they dictate. A growing number of studies have suggested that conformational dynamics of proteins govern their role in regulating biological functions, examples of this regulation can be found in signal transduction, molecular recognition, apoptosis, protein / ion / other molecules translocation and gene expression. On the experimental side, the technical advances have offered deep insights into the conformational motions of a number of proteins. These studies greatly enrich our knowledge of the interplay between structure and function. On the theoretical side, novel approaches and detailed computational simulations have provided powerful tools in the study of enzyme catalysis, protein / drug design, protein / ion / other molecule translocation and protein folding/aggregation, to name but a few. This work contains detailed information, not only on the conformational motions of biological systems, but also on the potential governing forces of conformational dynamics (transient interactions, chemical and physical origins, thermodynamic properties). New developments in computational simulations will greatly enhance our understanding of how these molecules function in various biological events.