Analytical Methods for Biomass Characterization and Conversion

Analytical Methods for Biomass Characterization and Conversion
Author: David C. Dayton,Thomas D. Foust
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 260
Release: 2019-11-05
ISBN 10: 0128156066
ISBN 13: 9780128156063
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Analytical Methods for Biomass Characterization and Conversion Book Review:

Analytical Methods for Biomass Characterization and Conversion is a thorough resource for researchers, students and professors who investigate the use of biomass for fuels, chemicals and products. Advanced analytical chemistry methods and techniques can now provide detailed compositional and chemical measurements of biomass, biomass conversion process streams, intermediates and products. This volume from the Emerging Issues in Analytical Chemistry series brings together the current knowledge on each of these methods, including spectroscopic methods (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Near-infrared Spectroscopy, Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), pyrolysis (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry), Liquid Chromatography/High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, and so on. Authors David C. Dayton and Thomas D. Foust show how these can be used for measuring biomass composition and for determining the composition of intermediates with regard to subsequent processing for biofuels, bio-chemicals and bio-based products. Covers the broad range of techniques and applications that have been developed and perfected in the last decade Highlights specific analyses required for understanding biomass conversion to select intermediates Provides references to seminal books, review articles and technical articles that go into greater depth, serving as a basis for further study

Sourcebook of Methods of Analysis for Biomass and Biomass Conversion Processes

Sourcebook of Methods of Analysis for Biomass and Biomass Conversion Processes
Author: T. Milne,A.H. Brennan,B.H. Glenn
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 341
Release: 1990-09-30
ISBN 10: 9781851665273
ISBN 13: 1851665277
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sourcebook of Methods of Analysis for Biomass and Biomass Conversion Processes Book Review:

Analytical Techniques and Methods for Biomass

Analytical Techniques and Methods for Biomass
Author: Sílvio Vaz Jr.
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2016-10-27
ISBN 10: 3319414143
ISBN 13: 9783319414140
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Analytical Techniques and Methods for Biomass Book Review:

This book deals with the application of techniques and methods of chemical analysis for the study of biomass and its conversion processes, aiming to fill the current gap in the book literature on the subject. The use of various techniques and analytical methods is presented and discussed in a straightforward manner, providing the reader with the possibility of choosing the most appropriate methodologies for analysis of the major classes of plant biomass and its products. In the present volume, a select group of international specialists describes different approaches to understand the biomass structure, their physical and chemical properties, the parameters of conversion processes, the products and by-products formation and quantification, quality parameters, etc. Modern chemistry plays a strong economic role in industrial activities based on biomass, with an increasing trend of the importance of its application from the deployment of biorefineries and the principles of green chemistry, which make use of the potential of biomass with decreasing impact negative environmental. In this context, analytical chemistry can contribute significantly to the supply chains of biomass, be it plant or animal origin; however, with the first offering the greatest challenges and the greatest opportunity for technical, scientific and economic progress, given its diversified chemical constitution. Thus, the chemical analysis can be used to examine the composition for characterizing physicochemical properties and to monitor their conversion processes, in order to obtain better products and uses of biomass. The quality of the biomass used determines the product quality. Therefore, reliable information is required about the chemical composition of the biomass to establish the best use (e.g., most suitable conversion process and its conditions), which will influence harvest and preparation steps. Conversion processes should be monitored for their yield, integrity, safety, and environmental impact. Effluent or residues should be monitored and analyzed for environmental control. Co-products need to be monitored to avoid interference with the product yield and product purity; however, co-products are also a good opportunity to add value to the biomass chain. Finally, products need to be monitored and analyzed to determine their yields and purity and to ensure their quality. In this context, analytical chemistry can contribute significantly to the biomass supply chains, be it of plant or animal origin.

Biomass Modification Characterization and Process Monitoring Analytics to Support Biofuel and Biomaterial Production

Biomass Modification  Characterization and Process Monitoring Analytics to Support Biofuel and Biomaterial Production
Author: Robert Henry,Blake Simmons,Jason Lupoi
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2016-06-09
ISBN 10: 2889198677
ISBN 13: 9782889198672
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomass Modification Characterization and Process Monitoring Analytics to Support Biofuel and Biomaterial Production Book Review:

The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into renewable fuels and other commodities has provided an appealing alternative towards supplanting global dependence on fossil fuels. The suitability of multitudes of plants for deconstruction to useful precursor molecules and products is currently being evaluated. These studies have probed a variety of phenotypic traits, including cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharide, lignin, and lignin monomer composition, glucose and xylose production following enzymatic hydrolysis, and an assessment of lignin-carbohydrate and lignin-lignin linkages, to name a few. These quintessential traits can provide an assessment of biomass recalcitrance, enabling researchers to devise appropriate deconstruction strategies. Plants with high polysaccharide and lower lignin contents have been shown to breakdown to monomeric sugars more readily. Not all plants contain ideal proportions of the various cell wall constituents, however. The capabilities of biotechnology can alleviate this conundrum by tailoring the chemical composition of plants to be more favorable for conversion to sugars, fuels, etc. Increases in the total biomass yield, cellulose content, or conversion efficiency through, for example, a reduction in lignin content, are pathways being evaluated to genetically improve plants for use in manufacturing biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Although plants have been previously domesticated for food and fiber production, the collection of phenotypic traits prerequisite for biofuel production may necessitate new genetic breeding schemes. Given the plethora of potential plants available for exploration, rapid analytical methods are needed to more efficiently screen through the bulk of samples to hone in on which feedstocks contain the desired chemistry for subsequent conversion to valuable, renewable commodities. The standard methods for analyzing biomass and related intermediates and finished products are laborious, potentially toxic, and/or destructive. They may also necessitate a complex data analysis, significantly increasing the experimental time and add unwanted delays in process monitoring, where delays can incur in significant costs. Advances in thermochemical and spectroscopic techniques have enabled the screening of thousands of plants for different phenotypes, such as cell-wall cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharide, and lignin composition, lignin monomer composition, or monomeric sugar release. Some instrumental methods have been coupled with multivariate analysis, providing elegant chemometric predictive models enabling the accelerated identification of potential feedstocks. In addition to the use of high-throughput analytical methods for the characterization of feedstocks based on phenotypic metrics, rapid instrumental techniques have been developed for the real-time monitoring of diverse processes, such as the efficacy of a specific pretreatment strategy, or the formation of end products, such as biofuels and biomaterials. Real-time process monitoring techniques are needed for all stages of the feedstocks-to-biofuels conversion process in order to maximize efficiency and lower costs by monitoring and optimizing performance. These approaches allow researchers to adjust experimental conditions during, rather than at the conclusion, of a process, thereby decreasing overhead expenses. This Frontiers Research Topic explores options for the modification of biomass composition and the conversion of these feedstocks into to biofuels or biomaterials and the related innovations in methods for the analysis of the composition of plant biomass, and advances in assessing up- and downstream processes in real-time. Finally, a review of the computational models available for techno-economic modeling and lifecycle analysis will be presented.

Biomass Volume Estimation and Valorization for Energy

Biomass Volume Estimation and Valorization for Energy
Author: Jaya Shankar Tumuluru
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 516
Release: 2017-02-22
ISBN 10: 9535129376
ISBN 13: 9789535129370
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomass Volume Estimation and Valorization for Energy Book Review:

This book is the outcome of contributions by many experts in the field from different disciplines, various backgrounds, and diverse expertise. This book provides information on biomass volume calculation methods and biomass valorization for energy production. The chapters presented in this book include original research and review articles. I hope the research presented in this book will help to advance the use of biomass for bioenergy production and valorization. The key features of the book are: Providing information on biomass volume estimation using direct, nondestructive and remote sensing methods Biomass valorization for energy using thermochemical (gasification and pyrolysis) and biochemical (fermentation) conversion processes.

Valorization of Biomass to Value Added Commodities

Valorization of Biomass to Value Added Commodities
Author: Michael O. Daramola,Augustine O. Ayeni
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 595
Release: 2020-04-21
ISBN 10: 3030380327
ISBN 13: 9783030380328
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Valorization of Biomass to Value Added Commodities Book Review:

This book presents the most up-to-date technologies for the transformation of biomass into valuable fuels, chemicals, materials, and products. It provides comprehensive coverage of the characterization and fractionation of various types of biomass and details the many challenges that are currently encountered during this process. Divided into two sections, this book discusses timely topics such as the characterization of biomass feedstock, pretreatment and fractionation of biomass, and describes the process for conversion of biomass to value-added commodities. The authors bring biomass transformational strategies that are yet to be explored to the forefront, making this innovative book useful for graduate students and researchers in academia, government, and industry.

Handbook on Characterization of Biomass Biowaste and Related By products

Handbook on Characterization of Biomass  Biowaste and Related By products
Author: Ange Nzihou
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 1387
Release: 2020-02-17
ISBN 10: 3030350207
ISBN 13: 9783030350208
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook on Characterization of Biomass Biowaste and Related By products Book Review:

This book provides authoritative information, techniques and data necessary for the appropriate understanding of biomass and biowaste (understood as contaminated biomass) composition and behaviour while processed in various conditions and technologies. Numerous techniques for characterizing biomass, biowaste and by-product streams exist in literature. However, there lacks a reference book where these techniques are gathered in a single book, although such information is in increasingly high demand. This handbook provides a wealth of characterization methods, protocols, standards, databases and references relevant to various biomass, biowaste materials and by-products. It specifically addresses sampling and preconditioning methods, extraction techniques of elements and molecules, as well as biochemical, mechanical and thermal characterization methods. Furthermore, advanced and innovative methods under development are highlighted. The characterization will allow the analysis, identification and quantification of molecules and species including biomass feedstocks and related conversion products. The characterization will also provide insight into physical, mechanical and thermal properties of biomass and biowaste as well as the resulting by-products.

Technologies for Biochemical Conversion of Biomass

Technologies for Biochemical Conversion of Biomass
Author: Hongzhang Chen,Lan Wang
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 284
Release: 2016-12-14
ISBN 10: 0128025948
ISBN 13: 9780128025949
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Technologies for Biochemical Conversion of Biomass Book Review:

Technologies for Biochemical Conversion of Biomass introduces biomass biochemical conversion technology, including the pretreatment platform, enzyme platform, cell refining platform, sugar platform, fermentation platform, and post-treatment platform. Readers will find a systematic treatment, not only of the basics of biomass biochemical conversion and the introduction of each strategy, but also of the current advances of research in this area. Researchers will find the key problems in each technology platform for biomass biochemical conversion identified and solutions offered. This valuable reference book features new scientific research and the related industrial application of biomass biochemical conversion technology as the main content, and then systematically introduces the basic principles and applications of biomass biochemical conversion technology. Combines descriptions of these technologies to provide strategies and a platform for biochemical conversion in terms of basic knowledge, research advances, and key problems Summarizes models of biomass biochemical conversion for multiple products Presents products of biomass biochemical conversion from C1 to C10

Progress in Biomass and Bioenergy Production

Progress in Biomass and Bioenergy Production
Author: Shahid Shaukat
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 458
Release: 2011-07-27
ISBN 10: 9533074914
ISBN 13: 9789533074917
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Progress in Biomass and Bioenergy Production Book Review:

Alternative energy sources have become a hot topic in recent years. The supply of fossil fuel, which provides about 95 percent of total energy demand today, will eventually run out in a few decades. By contrast, biomass and biofuel have the potential to become one of the major global primary energy source along with other alternate energy sources in the years to come. A wide variety of biomass conversion options with different performance characteristics exists. The goal of this book is to provide the readers with current state of art about biomass and bioenergy production and some other environmental technologies such as Wastewater treatment, Biosorption and Bio-economics. Organized around providing recent methodology, current state of modelling and techniques of parameter estimation in gasification process are presented at length. As such, this volume can be used by undergraduate and graduate students as a reference book and by the researchers and environmental engineers for reviewing the current state of knowledge on biomass and bioenergy production, biosorption and wastewater treatment.

Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Fact Sheet

Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory  Fact Sheet
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 2
Release: 2014
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1066537701
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Fact Sheet Book Review:

At the Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory, NREL scientists have more than 20 years of experience supporting the biomass conversion industry. They develop, refine, and validate analytical methods to determine the chemical composition of biomass samples before, during, and after conversion processing. These high-quality compositional analysis data are used to determine feedstock compositions as well as mass balances and product yields from conversion processes.

Process Design Strategies for Biomass Conversion Systems

Process Design Strategies for Biomass Conversion Systems
Author: Denny K. S. Ng,Raymond R. Tan,Dominic C. Y. Foo,Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2016-01-19
ISBN 10: 1118699130
ISBN 13: 9781118699133
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Process Design Strategies for Biomass Conversion Systems Book Review:

This book covers recent developments in process systems engineering (PSE) for efficient resource use in biomass conversion systems. It provides an overview of process development in biomass conversion systems with focus on biorefineries involving the production and coproduction of fuels, heating, cooling, and chemicals. The scope includes grassroots and retrofitting applications. In order to reach high levels of processing efficiency, it also covers techniques and applications of natural-resource (mass and energy) conservation. Technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of biorefineries are discussed and reconciled. The assessment scales vary from unit- to process- and life-cycle or supply chain levels. The chapters are written by leading experts from around the world, and present an integrated set of contributions. Providing a comprehensive, multi-dimensional analysis of various aspects of bioenergy systems, the book is suitable for both academic researchers and energy professionals in industry.

Lignocellulosic Biomass to Value Added Products

Lignocellulosic Biomass to Value Added Products
Author: Mihir Kumar Purkait,Dibyajyoti Haldar
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2021-06-17
ISBN 10: 0128235918
ISBN 13: 9780128235911
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lignocellulosic Biomass to Value Added Products Book Review:

Lignocellulosic Biomass to Value-Added Products: Fundamental Strategies and Technological Advancements focuses on fundamental and advanced topics surrounding technologies for the conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass. Each and every concept related to the utilization of biomass in the process of conversion is elaborately explained, with importance given to minute details. Advanced level technologies involved in the conversion of biomass into biofuels, like bioethanol and biobutanol, are addressed, along with the process of pyrolysis. Readers of this book will become fully acquainted with the field of lignocellulosic conversion, from its basics to current research accomplishments. The uniqueness of the book lies in the fact that it covers each and every topic related to biomass and its conversion into value-added products. Technologies involved in the major areas of pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation are explained precisely. Additional emphasis is given to the analytical part, especially the established protocols for rapid and accurate quantification of total sugars obtained from lignocellulosic biomass. Includes chapters arranged in a flow-through manner Discusses mechanistic insights in different phenomena using colorful figures for quick understanding Provides the most up-to-date information on all aspects of the conversion of individual components of lignocellulosic biomass

Advancements in Biomass Feedstock Preprocessing Conversion Ready Feedstocks

Advancements in Biomass Feedstock Preprocessing  Conversion Ready Feedstocks
Author: J. Richard Hess,Allison E. Ray,Timothy G. Rials
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-03-12
ISBN 10: 2889634655
ISBN 13: 9782889634651
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advancements in Biomass Feedstock Preprocessing Conversion Ready Feedstocks Book Review:

The success of lignocellulosic biofuels and biochemical industries depends upon an economic and reliable supply of quality biomass. However, research and development efforts have historically focused on the utilization of agriculturally-derived, cellulosic feedstocks without consideration of their low energy density, high variations in physical and chemical characteristics and potential supply risks in terms of availability and affordability. This Research Topic will explore strategies that enable supply chain improvements in biomass quality and consistency through blending, preprocessing, diversity and landscape design for development of conversion-ready, lignocellulosic feedstocks for production of biofuels and bio-products. Biomass variability has proven a formidable challenge to the emerging biorefining industry, impeding continuous operation and reducing yields required for economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels at scale. Conventional supply systems lack the preprocessing capabilities necessary to ensure consistent biomass feedstocks with physical and chemical properties that are compatible with supply chain operations and conversion processes. Direct coupling of conventional feedstock supply systems with sophisticated conversion systems has reduced the operability of biorefining processes to less than 50%. As the bioeconomy grows, the inherent variability of biomass resources cannot be managed by passive means alone. As such, there is a need to fully recognize the magnitude of biomass variability and uncertainty, as well as the cost of failing to design feedstock supply systems that can mitigate biomass variability and uncertainty. A paradigm shift is needed, from biorefinery designs using raw, single-resource biomass, to advanced feedstock supply systems that harness diverse biomass resources to enable supply chain resilience and development of conversion-ready feedstocks. Blending and preprocessing (e.g., drying, sorting, sizing, fractionation, leaching, densification, etc.) can mitigate variable quality and performance in diverse resources when integrated with downstream conversion systems. Decoupling feedstock supply from biorefining provides an opportunity to manage supply risks and incorporate value-added upgrading to develop feedstocks with improved convertibility and/ or market fungibility. Conversion-ready feedstocks have undergone the required preprocessing to ensure compatibility with conversion and utilization prior to delivery at the biorefinery and represent lignocellulosic biomass with physical and chemical properties that are tailored to meet the requirements of industrially-relevant handling and conversion systems.

Smokeless Tobacco Products

Smokeless Tobacco Products
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2020-01-23
ISBN 10: 0128181591
ISBN 13: 9780128181591
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smokeless Tobacco Products Book Review:

Smokeless Tobacco Products: Characteristics, Usage, Health Effects, and Regulatory Implications, a title in the Emerging Issues in Analytical Chemistry series, presents an overview of research on the second most dangerous tobacco product. This book presents findings on public health risks emanating from the complex interaction between smokeless tobacco products and their users. It covers the key components of assessment and provides insight into scientific and public health considerations. The book does not take a simplistic condemnatory position, but rather conceptualizes tobacco use in terms of graduated public health danger and harm reduction. The book begins by introducing smokeless tobacco, its history of use, marketing, and implications for public health. It then continues with coverage of epidemiology, pathology and clinical implications, addiction, and treatment, and includes laboratory studies of human use. The following section explains the chemistry, biochemical mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and role of plant cultivation and manufacturing in toxicity. Finally, the book concludes by addressing regulatory considerations, the scientific basis of regulations, and the role of these products in harm reduction for smokers. This is the first resource of its kind to cover these topics together and in language appropriate to both specialists in the research community and informed persons responsible for legislative, funding, and public health matters in the community at large. Brings attention to smokeless tobacco product use and its association with addiction and disease Considers smokeless tobacco use historically and currently, as well as its place in a future harm-reduction conceptualization of tobacco Written by a distinguished, internationally recognized group of tobacco researchers from academia, independent research organizations, and the federal government with expertise in the many and various disciplines covered

Recent Advances in Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass

Recent Advances in Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass
Author: Ashok Pandey,Thallada Bhaskar,Michael Stöcker,Rajeev Sukumaran
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 504
Release: 2015-01-28
ISBN 10: 0444632905
ISBN 13: 9780444632906
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Recent Advances in Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass Book Review:

This book provides general information and data on one of the most promising renewable energy sources: biomass for its thermochemical conversion. During the last few years, there has been increasing focus on developing the processes and technologies for the conversion of biomass to liquid and gaseous fuels and chemicals, in particular to develop low-cost technologies. This book provides date-based scientific information on the most advanced and innovative processing of biomass as well as the process development elements on thermochemical processing of biomass for the production of biofuels and bio-products on (biomass-based biorefinery). The conversion of biomass to biofuels and other value-added products on the principle biorefinery offers potential from technological perspectives as alternate energy. The book covers intensive R&D and technological developments done during the last few years in the area of renewable energy utilizing biomass as feedstock and will be highly beneficial for the researchers, scientists and engineers working in the area of biomass-biofuels- biorefinery. Provides the most advanced and innovative thermochemical conversion technology for biomass Provides information on large scales such as thermochemical biorefinery Useful for researchers intending to study scale up Serves as both a textbook for graduate students and a reference book for researchers Provides information on integration of process and technology on thermochemical conversion of biomass

Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion

Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion
Author: R.P. Overend,T. Milne,L. Mudge
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 1192
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 9400949324
ISBN 13: 9789400949324
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion Book Review:

Throughout the world many projects have been underway to investigate the conversion of renewable biomass into energy and synthetic fuels by thermo chemical methods such as combustion, pyrolysis, gasification and lique faction. While many of these represent prior art used during the early 20th century, the recent decade since the 1970s oil shock has immeasurably increased the knowledge base for such processes. Much of the new knowledge has been gained by persons who were not trained in classical wood chemistry and there have not yet been many attempts to synthesize the knowledge into a corpus of systematic information. To bring this about the International Energy Agency's Forestry Energy collaboration, the Gas Research Institute, the National Research Council of Canada and the US Department of Energy jointly sponsored a conference on the Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion in Estes Park, Colorado which was held on October 18-22, 1982. The Conference, which was structured around invited plenary papers and contributions from researchers, served as the basis for the papers in this volume which reflect the substantial conclusions of the Conference. During the planning for the Conference, it was realized by the editors in their capacity as Co-chairmen that a major problem in biomass research was the lack of reproducibility between reported experiments and their inter comparison on account of the heterogeneity of biomass materials. A well known wood chemist, George M.

Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source for the Future

Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source for the Future
Author: Wiebren de Jong,J. Ruud van Ommen
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 600
Release: 2014-11-03
ISBN 10: 1118304918
ISBN 13: 9781118304914
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source for the Future Book Review:

Focusing on the conversion of biomass into gas or liquid fuels the book covers physical pre-treatment technologies, thermal, chemical and biochemical conversion technologies • Details the latest biomass characterization techniques • Explains the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes • Discusses the development of integrated biorefineries, which are similar to petroleum refineries in concept, covering such topics as reactor configurations and downstream processing • Describes how to mitigate the environmental risks when using biomass as fuel • Includes many problems, small projects, sample calculations and industrial application examples

Fuel Conversion and Ash Formation Interactions

Fuel Conversion and Ash Formation Interactions
Author: Anna Strandberg
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2018
ISBN 10: 9789176018712
ISBN 13: 9176018717
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fuel Conversion and Ash Formation Interactions Book Review:

Biomass is considered to be CO 2 neutral, and to be able to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels the need for expanded and sustainable biomass feedstock is increasing. Ash-related problems are some of the most important aspects of this increasing use of new biomass assortments in thermal energy conversion systems. An improved basic understanding of fuel conversion, ash formation, ash transformation and ash interactions with the converting fuel is therefore important. In the present thesis, the main objective was to provide new knowledge on thermochemical fuel conversion, specifically on how ash formation interacts with fuel conversion for lignocellulosic biomasses. The main methods used were experimental characterization of decomposition behavior and analysis of morphology and elemental composition of samples, using different appliances, analytical methods and fuels. Multivariate data analysis was successfully used on thermogravimetric data for prediction of compositional data and fuel properties. New, detailed explanations of structural changes in char morphology and ash properties during conversion were provided including descriptions of the influences of ash formation on fuel conversion rates under different conditions. The influences were found different depending on both particle size and ash composition. One implication of these findings is that for fuels with low temperature melting ash, the diffusion barrier formed causes difficulties for typical thermogravimetric experiments aiming at determination of reactivity in the kinetically controlled regime. This is recommended to carefully consider for future studies. On a single pellet level, char encapsulation was not found to dominate and limit gas transport and conversion for any of the fuels tested. In practical applications, however, the situation may be different with thick ash layers accumulating on a fuel bed surface. Another important finding was the extensive formation of cracks and internal cavities during combustion of pellets, providing new insights in the fundamentals of fuel conversion. Clean woody fuels, rich in calcium, formed a porous ash layer with no sign of limiting char conversion rates. The phase chemical transformations involving carbonate and oxide formation from poplar pellets was studied in detail. For grassy fuels, on the other hand, low melting point silicates are expected to form. The physical properties of K-Ca-silicates from silicon rich straw fuels were also characterized, providing new insights on ash formation on micrometer scale resolution; at high temperature, the silicate melt formed bubbles on the surface that partially covered the char, while for lower temperature a more rigid net structure was formed.

Introduction to Biomass Energy Conversions

Introduction to Biomass Energy Conversions
Author: Sergio Capareda
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 645
Release: 2013-07-09
ISBN 10: 1466513330
ISBN 13: 9781466513334
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to Biomass Energy Conversions Book Review:

The potential that biomass energy has to supplement traditional fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions has put it front and center in the plan to replace fossil-based fuels with renewable fuels. While much has been written about biomass conversions, no single textbook contains all the information needed to teach a biomass conversion course—until now. Introduction to Biomass Energy Conversions presents a comprehensive review of biomass resources available for conversion into heat, power, and biofuels. The textbook covers biomass characterization and discusses facilities, equipment, and standards (e.g. ASTM or NREL) used for analysis. It examines the range of biomass resources available for conversion and presents traditional biomass conversion processes along with extensive biomass characterization data tables, illustrations, and graphical presentations of the various biomass energy conversion processes. The author also describes how to set up a laboratory for biomass energy conversion, and presents economics and sustainability issues. Loaded with real-world examples, the text includes numerous worked examples and problems in each chapter. No one knows what the price of oil will be next year or in future decades. It is governed by many factors other than supply and demand (politics, wars, etc.), however, whatever the future of energy is, bio-fuels will play an important role. This technical guide prepares students for managing bio-refineries, no matter what type of bio-fuel is produced. It also provides practicing engineers with a resource for starting a small bio-fuel business.

Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion

Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion
Author: A. V. Bridgwater
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 1744
Release: 2008-04-30
ISBN 10: 047069484X
ISBN 13: 9780470694848
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion Book Review:

This book is for chemical engineers, fuel technologists, agricultural engineers and chemists in the world-wide energy industry and in academic, research and government institutions. It provides a thorough review of, and entry to, the primary and review literature surrounding the subject. The authors are internationally recognised experts in their field and combine to provide both commercial relevance and academic rigour. Contributions are based on papers delivered to the Fifth International Conference sponsored by the IEA Bioenergy Agreement.