America s War for the Greater Middle East

America s War for the Greater Middle East
Author: Andrew J. Bacevich
Publsiher: Random House Trade Paperbacks
Total Pages: 453
Release: 2016
ISBN 10: 0553393952
ISBN 13: 9780553393958
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

America s War for the Greater Middle East Book Review:

From the end of World War II until 1980, virtually no American soldiers were killed in action while serving in the Greater Middle East. Since 1990, virtually no American soldiers have been killed in

America s War for the Greater Middle East

America s War for the Greater Middle East
Author: Andrew J. Bacevich
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 453
Release: 2016
ISBN 10: 0553393936
ISBN 13: 9780553393934
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

America s War for the Greater Middle East Book Review:

A critical assessment of America's foreign policy in the Middle East throughout the past four decades evaluates and connects regional engagements since 1990 while revealing their massive costs.

America s War for the Greater Middle East

America s War for the Greater Middle East
Author: Andrew J. Bacevich
Publsiher: Random House
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2016-04-05
ISBN 10: 0553393944
ISBN 13: 9780553393941
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

America s War for the Greater Middle East Book Review:

LONGLISTED FOR THE NATIONAL BOOK AWARD • A searing reassessment of U.S. military policy in the Middle East over the past four decades from retired army colonel and New York Times bestselling author Andrew J. Bacevich From the end of World War II until 1980, virtually no American soldiers were killed in action while serving in the Greater Middle East. Since 1990, virtually no American soldiers have been killed in action anywhere else. What caused this shift? Andrew J. Bacevich, one of the country’s most respected voices on foreign affairs, offers an incisive critical history of this ongoing military enterprise—now more than thirty years old and with no end in sight. During the 1980s, Bacevich argues, a great transition occurred. As the Cold War wound down, the United States initiated a new conflict—a War for the Greater Middle East—that continues to the present day. The long twilight struggle with the Soviet Union had involved only occasional and sporadic fighting. But as this new war unfolded, hostilities became persistent. From the Balkans and East Africa to the Persian Gulf and Central Asia, U.S. forces embarked upon a seemingly endless series of campaigns across the Islamic world. Few achieved anything remotely like conclusive success. Instead, actions undertaken with expectations of promoting peace and stability produced just the opposite. As a consequence, phrases like “permanent war” and “open-ended war” have become part of everyday discourse. Connecting the dots in a way no other historian has done before, Bacevich weaves a compelling narrative out of episodes as varied as the Beirut bombing of 1983, the Mogadishu firefight of 1993, the invasion of Iraq in 2003, and the rise of ISIS in the present decade. Understanding what America’s costly military exertions have wrought requires seeing these seemingly discrete events as parts of a single war. It also requires identifying the errors of judgment made by political leaders in both parties and by senior military officers who share responsibility for what has become a monumental march to folly. This Bacevich unflinchingly does. A twenty-year army veteran who served in Vietnam, Andrew J. Bacevich brings the full weight of his expertise to this vitally important subject. America’s War for the Greater Middle East is a bracing after-action report from the front lines of history. It will fundamentally change the way we view America’s engagement in the world’s most volatile region. Praise for America’s War for the Greater Middle East “Bacevich is thought-provoking, profane and fearless. . . . [His] call for Americans to rethink their nation’s militarized approach to the Middle East is incisive, urgent and essential.”—The New York Times Book Review “Bacevich’s magnum opus . . . a deft and rhythmic polemic aimed at America’s failures in the Middle East from the end of Jimmy Carter’s presidency to the present.”—Robert D. Kaplan, The Wall Street Journal “A critical review of American policy and military involvement . . . Those familiar with Bacevich’s work will recognize the clarity of expression, the devastating directness and the coruscating wit that characterize the writing of one of the most articulate and incisive living critics of American foreign policy.”—The Washington Post “[A] monumental new work.”—The Huffington Post “An unparalleled historical tour de force certain to affect the formation of future U.S. foreign policy.”—Lieutenant General Paul K. Van Riper, U.S. Marine Corps (Ret.)

America s Challenges in the Greater Middle East

America s Challenges in the Greater Middle East
Author: S. Akbarzadeh
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 276
Release: 2011-07-04
ISBN 10: 023011959X
ISBN 13: 9780230119598
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

America s Challenges in the Greater Middle East Book Review:

Barack Obama has faced many challenges in reversing U.S. policy on the Middle East. This book highlights points of resistance to Obama's efforts regarding U.S. foreign policy and what lessons may be learned from this experience for the remainder of his presidency and his potential second term in office.

Modern Conflict in the Greater Middle East A Country by Country Guide

Modern Conflict in the Greater Middle East  A Country by Country Guide
Author: Spencer C. Tucker
Publsiher: ABC-CLIO
Total Pages: 420
Release: 2017-04-17
ISBN 10: 1440843619
ISBN 13: 9781440843617
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modern Conflict in the Greater Middle East A Country by Country Guide Book Review:

This reference work covers the history of Middle East nations, addressing military, political, diplomatic, and ideological trends in each respective country and enabling readers to better understand the factors behind the crises shaping the Middle East today. • Provides a detailed overview of Middle East conflicts since World War I in a single resource • Offers historical context for the level of involvement in various wars by Middle Eastern countries as well as each country's interaction with the West and other Middle East nations • Includes "Did You Know?" sidebars with interesting details, statistics, and other information related to the countries covered in the book

Losing the Long Game

Losing the Long Game
Author: Philip H. Gordon
Publsiher: St. Martin's Press
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2020-10-06
ISBN 10: 1250217040
ISBN 13: 9781250217042
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Losing the Long Game Book Review:

The definitive account of how regime change in the Middle East has proven so tempting to American policymakers for decades—and why it always seems to go wrong. "Must reading—by someone who saw it first-hand—for all interested in America’s foreign policy and its place in the world.” —Robin Wright Since the end of World War II, the United States has set out to oust governments in the Middle East on an average of once per decade—in places as diverse as Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan (twice), Egypt, Libya, and Syria. The reasons for these interventions have also been extremely diverse, and the methods by which the United States pursued regime change have likewise been highly varied, ranging from diplomatic pressure alone to outright military invasion and occupation. What is common to all the operations, however, is that they failed to achieve their ultimate goals, produced a range of unintended and even catastrophic consequences, carried heavy financial and human costs, and in many cases left the countries in question worse off than they were before. Philip H. Gordon's Losing the Long Game is a thorough and riveting look at the U.S. experience with regime change over the past seventy years, and an insider’s view on U.S. policymaking in the region at the highest levels. It is the story of repeated U.S. interventions in the region that always started out with high hopes and often the best of intentions, but never turned out well. No future discussion of U.S. policy in the Middle East will be complete without taking into account the lessons of the past, especially at a time of intense domestic polarization and reckoning with America's standing in world.

Zones of Conflict

Zones of Conflict
Author: Vassilis K. Fouskas
Publsiher: Pluto Press
Total Pages: 184
Release: 2003-02-20
ISBN 10: 9780745320298
ISBN 13: 0745320295
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Zones of Conflict Book Review:

The US has several major interests in the Balkans, the Greater Middle East and the wide Eurasian zone, which determine its political and military strategies in the region. What are these interests, and what strategies are used to ensure that they are maintained? Examining the balance of power between the US, the EU and key EU states in the region, Vassilis Fouskas offers a sustained critique of US foreign policy and its underlying motivations. Fouskas argues that the major US objectives include control over gas and oil producing zones; safe transportation of energy to Western markets at stable prices; and the elimination, but not destruction, of America's Eurasian competitors. He asserts that US foreign policy is therefore driven by the desire to maintain a strategic partnership with key EU states, while preventing the emergence of an alternative coalition in Eurasia capable of challenging US supremacy. How does the US manage its interests in Eurasia and what are the particular strategies the EU has elaborated so far to deal with America's supremacy? Has US foreign policy undergone a dramatic U-turn after the end of the Cold War or, for that matter, after September 11th? What are the roles of Germany, France, Britain and Turkey, and how do EU- Cyprus relations affect the balance of power? This book tackles these questions and argues that the emergence of a social democratic administration in Eurasia is a feasible alternative to American unilateralism. "Thanks to the 'Zones of Conflict' we have a refreshing new interpretation of post-Cold War American foreign policy that challenges basic assumptions of the American foreign policy establishment." Van Coufoudakis, Rector Intercollege, Nicosia, Cyprus "Finally, an excellent counterblast to Zbigniew Brzezinski, written with verve and intelligence." Donald Sassoon, Professor of Comparative European History, Queen Mary, University of London

Crescent of Crisis

Crescent of Crisis
Author: Ivo H. Daalder,Nicole Gnesotto,Philip H. Gordon
Publsiher: Brookings Institution Press
Total Pages: 263
Release: 2006-01-10
ISBN 10: 9780815716877
ISBN 13: 0815716877
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Crescent of Crisis Book Review:

The greater Middle East region is beset by a crescent of crises, stretching from Pakistan through Afghanistan, Iran, and Iraq to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Together, these five crises pose the most pressing security challenges faced by the United States and its European allies—ranging from terrorism and weapons proliferation to the rise of fundamentalism and the lack of democracy. Until now, Europe and the United States have approached these issues (indeed, the Middle East as a whole) in differing ways, with little effective coordination of policy. In fact, how best to deal with the greater Middle East has emerged as one of the most contentious issues in U.S.-European relations. The need for a common approach to the region is more evident than ever. This book brings together some of Europe and America's leading scholars and practitioners in an effort to develop a common approach to resolving the five major crises in the region. European and American authors provide succinct and fact-filled overviews of the different crises, describe U.S. and European perspectives on the way forward, and suggest ways in which the United States and Europe can better cooperate. In the conclusion, the editors synthesize the different suggestions into a roadmap for U.S.-European cooperation for addressing the challenges of the Greater Middle East in the years ahead. Contributors include Stephen Cohen (Brookings Institution), James Dobbins (RAND), Toby Dodge (University of London), Martin Indyk (Saban Center at Brookings), Kenneth Pollack (Saban Center at Brookings), Jean-Luc Racine (Center for the Study of India and South Asia), Barnett Rubin (New York University), Yezid Sayigh (University of Cambridge), and Bruno Tertrais (Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique).

Explorations in Critical Criminology in Honor of William J Chambliss

Explorations in Critical Criminology in Honor of William J  Chambliss
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: BRILL
Total Pages: 228
Release: 2019-08-26
ISBN 10: 9004411674
ISBN 13: 9789004411678
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Explorations in Critical Criminology in Honor of William J Chambliss Book Review:

In honor of William J. Chambliss all of the chapters are dedicated to highlighting the impact Bill’s 50 year career had on various disciplines from methods, organized crime, climate crime, state-organized crime, to structural contradictions of law-making.

The Generals

The Generals
Author: Thomas E. Ricks
Publsiher: Penguin
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2012-10-30
ISBN 10: 1101595930
ISBN 13: 9781101595930
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Generals Book Review:

A New York Times bestseller! An epic history of the decline of American military leadership—from the bestselling author of Fiasco and Churchill and Orwell. While history has been kind to the American generals of World War II—Marshall, Eisenhower, Patton, and Bradley—it has been less kind to the generals of the wars that followed, such as Koster, Franks, Sanchez, and Petraeus. In The Generals, Thomas E. Ricks sets out to explain why that is. In chronicling the widening gulf between performance and accountability among the top brass of the U.S. military, Ricks tells the stories of great leaders and suspect ones, generals who rose to the occasion and generals who failed themselves and their soldiers. In Ricks’s hands, this story resounds with larger meaning: about the transmission of values, about strategic thinking, and about the difference between an organization that learns and one that fails.

The Greater Middle East in Global Politics

The Greater Middle East in Global Politics
Author: Mehdi Amineh
Publsiher: BRILL
Total Pages: 568
Release: 2007-10-15
ISBN 10: 9047422090
ISBN 13: 9789047422099
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Greater Middle East in Global Politics Book Review:

This anthology unites in one volume two studies of the Greater Middle East in global politics – each conceptual and empirical. First, it is a historical-comparative study of politics and societies in selected Greater Middle Eastern countries. Second, it is an empirical case study of states and societies of the Greater Middle East in global politics.

Perilous Power

Perilous Power
Author: Noam Chomsky,Gilbert Achcar,Stephan R. Shalom
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2015-12-03
ISBN 10: 1317254317
ISBN 13: 9781317254317
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Perilous Power Book Review:

The volatile Middle East is the site of vast resources, profound passions, frequent crises, and long-standing conflicts, as well as a major source of international tensions and a key site of direct US intervention. Two of the most astute analysts of this part of the world are Noam Chomsky, the preeminent critic of U.S, foreign policy, and Gilbert Achcar, a leading specialist of the Middle East who lived in that region for many years. In their new book, Chomsky and Achcar bring a keen understanding of the internal dynamics of the Middle East and of the role of the United States, taking up all the key questions of interest to concerned citizens, including such topics as terrorism, fundamentalism, conspiracies, oil, democracy, self-determination, anti-Semitism, and anti-Arab racism, as well as the war in Afghanistan, the invasion and occupation of Iraq, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the sources of U.S. foreign policy. This book provides the best readable introduction for all who wish to understand the complex issues related to the Middle East from a perspective dedicated to peace and justice.

Defeating Jihad

Defeating Jihad
Author: Sebastian Gorka
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2016-04-11
ISBN 10: 1621575276
ISBN 13: 9781621575276
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Defeating Jihad Book Review:

Now a New York Times bestseller! America is at war. The fight against global jihad has cost 7,000 American lives and almost $2 trillion, and yet, most Americans do not understand what is at stake. The public lacks knowledge and safety because two presidents and their administrations neglected the most basic strategic question: who is the enemy? Presidents Bush and Obama both named the global jihadi movement—a movement with an intent to destroy the West—“violent extremism.” Their tidy term was an attempt to maintain peace with the Muslim community. But when they failed to appropriately name the enemy, they failed to fully understand Islamic extremism. This failure is why the U.S. has been in Afghanistan for sixteen years with no end in sight. But this war is eminently winnable if we remove our ideological blinders, accurately name our enemy, and draw up a strategy to defeat the ideas that inspire terrorism. So says Dr. Sebastian Gorka, one of the most experienced and sought-after authorities on counterterrorism. Dr. Gorka has been one of the intelligence community’s go-to experts on counterterrorism since 9/11. He’s been called to brief Congress and the Marine Corps and was asked to analyze the Patriot’s Day Boston Marathon Bombing for the US government. Dr. Gorka’s report for the trial of Dzhokhar "Jahar" Tsarnaev was widely circulated in counterterrorism circles and the media because it accurately painted a picture, not of a teenager on the cover of Rolling Stone, but of a terrorist. Dr. Gorka is respected by peers because he understands our enemy is not "terror" or "violent extremism." Our enemy is the global jihadi movement, a modern totalitarian ideology rooted in the doctrines and martial history of Islam whose goals are to build an empire, suppress “false Muslims,” and engage in guerilla warfare against infidels. Taking his cue from the formerly top-secret analyses that shaped the U.S. response to the communist threat, Dr. Gorka has produced a compelling profile of the jihadi movement—its mind and motivation—and a plan to defeat it.

Resurrecting Empire

Resurrecting Empire
Author: Rashid Khalidi
Publsiher: Beacon Press
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2010-07-01
ISBN 10: 080700314X
ISBN 13: 9780807003145
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Resurrecting Empire Book Review:

Begun as the United States moved its armed forces into Iraq, Rashid Khalidi's powerful and thoughtful new book examines the record of Western involvement in the region and analyzes the likely outcome of our most recent Middle East incursions. Drawing on his encyclopedic knowledge of the political and cultural history of the entire region as well as interviews and documents, Khalidi paints a chilling scenario of our present situation and yet offers a tangible alternative that can help us find the path to peace rather than Empire. We all know that those who refuse to learn from history are doomed to repeat it. Sadly, as Khalidi reveals with clarity and surety, America's leaders seem blindly committed to an ahistorical path of conflict, occupation, and colonial rule. Our current policies ignore rather than incorporate the lessons of experience. American troops in Iraq have seen first hand the consequences of U.S. led "democratization" in the region. The Israeli/Palestinian conflict seems intractable, and U.S. efforts in recent years have only inflamed the situation. The footprints America follows have led us into the same quagmire that swallowed our European forerunners. Peace and prosperity for the region are nowhere in sight. This cogent and highly accessible book provides the historical and cultural perspective so vital to understanding our present situation and to finding and pursuing a more effective and just foreign policy. From the Hardcover edition.

Camelot s Court

Camelot s Court
Author: Robert Dallek
Publsiher: Harper Collins
Total Pages: 528
Release: 2013-10-08
ISBN 10: 0062065866
ISBN 13: 9780062065865
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Camelot s Court Book Review:

Fifty years after John F. Kennedy’s assassination, presidential historian Robert Dallek, whom The New York Times calls “Kennedy’s leading biographer,” delivers a riveting new portrait of this president and his inner circle of advisors—their rivalries, personality clashes, and political battles. In Camelot’s Court, Dallek analyzes the brain trust whose contributions to the successes and failures of Kennedy’s administration—including the Bay of Pigs, civil rights, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and Vietnam—were indelible. Kennedy purposefully put together a dynamic team of advisors noted for their brilliance and acumen, including Attorney General Robert Kennedy, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, Secretary of State Dean Rusk, National Security Advisor McGeorge Bundy, and trusted aides Ted Sorensen and Arthur Schlesinger. Yet the very traits these men shared also created sharp divisions. Far from being unified, this was an uneasy band of rivals whose ambitions and clashing beliefs ignited fiery internal debates. Robert Dallek illuminates a president deeply determined to surround himself with the best and the brightest, who often found himself disappointed with their recommendations. The result, Camelot's Court: Inside the Kennedy White House, is a striking portrait of a leader whose wise resistance to pressure and adherence to principle offers a cautionary tale for our own time.

The East Moves West

The East Moves West
Author: Geoffrey Kemp
Publsiher: Brookings Institution Press
Total Pages: 326
Release: 2012-06-22
ISBN 10: 0815724314
ISBN 13: 9780815724315
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The East Moves West Book Review:

While traditionally powerful Western economies are treading water at best, beset by crises in banking, housing, and employment, industrial growth and economic development are exploding in China and India. The world's two most populous nations are the biggest reasons for Asia's growing footprint on other global regions. The increasing size and impact of that footprint are especially important in the Middle East, an economic, religious, and geopolitical linchpin. The East Moves West details the growing interdependence of the Middle East and Asia and projects the likely ramifications of this evolving relationship. It also examines the role of Pakistan, Japan, and South Korea in the region. Geoffrey Kemp, a longtime analyst of global security and political economy, compares and contrasts Indian and Chinese involvement in the Middle East. He stresses an embedded historical dimension that gives India substantially more familiarity and interest in the region—India was there first, and it has maintained that head start. Both nations, however, are clearly on the rise and leaving an indelible mark on the Middle East, and that enhanced influence has international ramifications for the United States and throughout the world. Does the emergence of these Asian giants—with their increasingly huge need for energy—strengthen the case for cooperative security, particularly in the maritime arena? After all, safe and open sea-lanes remain an essential component of mutually beneficial intercontinental trade, making India and China increasingly dependent on safe passage of oil tankers. Or will we see reversion to more traditional competition and even conflict, given that the major Asian powers themselves have so many unresolved problems and that the future of the U.S. presence in the area is uncertain. Kemp believes the United States will remain the dominant military power in the region but will have to share some security responsibilities with the Asians, especially in the Indian Ocean.

America s War for the Greater Middle East

America s War for the Greater Middle East
Author: Andrew J. Bacevich
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2016
ISBN 10: 9780451483218
ISBN 13: 0451483219
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

America s War for the Greater Middle East Book Review:

a-- America's War for the Greater Middle East -- -Richard K. Betts, director, Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies, Columbia University "An unparalleled historical tour de force certain to affect the formation of future U.S. foreign policy . . . Every citizen aspiring to high office needs not only to read but to study and learn from this important book. This is one of the most serious and essential books I have read in more than half a century of public service." -- -Graham Allison, director, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, and Douglas Dillon Professor of Government at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government

The Ambassadors

The Ambassadors
Author: Paul Richter
Publsiher: Simon & Schuster
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2020-10-27
ISBN 10: 1501172433
ISBN 13: 9781501172434
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Ambassadors Book Review:

Veteran diplomatic correspondent Paul Richter goes behind the battles and the headlines to show how American ambassadors are the unconventional warriors in the Muslim world—running local government, directing drone strikes, building nations, and risking their lives on the front lines. The tale’s heroes are a small circle of top career diplomats who have been an unheralded but crucial line of national defense in the past two decades of wars in the greater Middle East. In The Ambassadors, Paul Richter shares the astonishing, true-life stories of four expeditionary diplomats who “do the hardest things in the hardest places.” The book describes how Ryan Crocker helped rebuild a shattered Afghan government after the fall of the Taliban and secretly negotiated with the shadowy Iranian mastermind General Qassim Suleimani to wage war in Afghanistan and choose new leaders for post-invasion Iraq. Robert Ford, assigned to be a one-man occupation government for an Iraqi province, struggled to restart a collapsed economy and to deal with spiraling sectarian violence—and was taken hostage by a militia. In Syria at the eruption of the civil war, he is chased by government thugs for defying the country’s ruler. J. Christopher Stevens is smuggled into Libya as US Envoy to the rebels during its bloody civil war, then returns as ambassador only to be killed during a terror attach in Benghazi. War-zone veteran Anne Patterson is sent to Pakistan, considered the world’s most dangerous country, to broker deals that prevent a government collapse and to help guide the secret war on jihadists. “An important and illuminating read” (The Washington Post) and the winner of the prestigious Douglas Dillon Book Award from the American Academy of Diplomacy, The Ambassadors is a candid examination of the career diplomatic corps, America’s first point of contact with the outside world, and a critical piece of modern-day history.

Fiasco

Fiasco
Author: Thomas E. Ricks
Publsiher: Penguin
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2006-07-25
ISBN 10: 1101201401
ISBN 13: 9781101201404
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fiasco Book Review:

Finalist for the Pulitzer Prize One of the Washington Post Book World's 10 Best Books of the Year One of Time's 10 Best Books of the Year USA Today's Nonfiction Book of the Year A New York Times Notable Book The definitive account of the American military's tragic experience in Iraq Fiasco is a masterful reckoning with the planning and execution of the American military invasion and occupation of Iraq through mid-2006, now with a postscript on recent developments. Ricks draws on the exclusive cooperation of an extraordinary number of American personnel, including more than one hundred senior officers, and access to more than 30,000 pages of official documents, many of them never before made public. Tragically, it is an undeniable account—explosive, shocking, and authoritative—of unsurpassed tactical success combined with unsurpassed strategic failure that indicts some of America's most powerful and honored civilian and military leaders.

Crisis and Crossfire

Crisis and Crossfire
Author: Peter L. Hahn
Publsiher: Potomac Books, Inc.
Total Pages: 244
Release: 2011
ISBN 10: 1597973475
ISBN 13: 9781597973472
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Crisis and Crossfire Book Review:

Although it seems almost incredible today, the United States had relatively little interest in the Middle East before 1945. But the dynamics and outcome of World War II elevated the importance of the Middle East in the American mind, and the United States has viewed the region with vital interest to its security and economy ever since. The projection of American power into the region has had consequences that have forever changed the United States and the Middle East, with the rise of al Qaeda and the turbulent occupation of Iraq being the latest examples. Crisis and Crossfire surveys and analyzes the broad contours of U.S. involvement in the region. It probes the reasons why the United States implemented various policies and assesses the wisdom of American leaders as they accepted greater responsibilities for preserving stability and security in the Middle East. Major themes include U.S.-Middle East policy in the context of the Cold War, the rise of Arab and Iranian nationalism, decolonization, the U.S. approach to the Arab-Israeli conflict, the politics of Western dependence on Middle Eastern oil, and America's military interventions, particularly its two wars against Iraq. This book's concise narrative and selection of primary-source documents make it an ideal introduction to U.S.-Middle East relations for students and for anyone with an interest in understanding the history behind today's events.