Aging

Aging
Author: Victor R. Preedy,Vinood B. Patel
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 398
Release: 2020-06-15
ISBN 10: 0128186984
ISBN 13: 9780128186985
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Aging Book Review:

Aging: Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants, Second Edition, bridges the trans-disciplinary divide and covers the science of oxidative stress in aging and the therapeutic use of natural antioxidants in the food matrix in a single volume. The second edition covers new trials and investigations used to determine the comprehensive properties of antioxidants, food items and extracts, as well as any adverse properties they may have. It has been updated to include new clinical human trials and a new section dedicated to animal models of aging. Throughtout the book the processes within the science of oxidative stress are described in concert with other processes, such as apoptosis, cell signaling, and receptor mediated responses. This approach recognizes that diseases are often multifactorial, and oxidative stress is a single component of this. Gerontologists, geriatricians, nutritionists, and dieticians are separated by divergent skills and professional disciplines that need to be bridged to advance preventative as well as treatment strategies. While gerontologists and geriatricians may study the underlying processes of aging, they are less likely to be conversant in the science of nutrition and dietetics. On the other hand, nutritionists and dietitians are less conversant with the detailed clinical background and science of gerontology. This book addresses this gap and brings each of these disciplines to bear on the processes inherent in the oxidative stress of aging. This will aid in better research, treatment and outcome for patients. Compares information related to mitochondrial oxidative stress in one disease to diet-related strategies in other unrelated diseases Provides an understanding of cell signalling leading to new suggestions of preventative or therapeutic strategies Includes a new section dedicated to animal models of aging

Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants in Neurological Diseases

Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants in Neurological Diseases
Author: Colin R. Martin,Victor R. Preedy
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 444
Release: 2020-06-12
ISBN 10: 0128177810
ISBN 13: 9780128177815
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants in Neurological Diseases Book Review:

Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants in Neurological Diseases provides an overview of oxidative stress in neurological diseases and associated conditions, including behavioral aspects and the potentially therapeutic usage of natural antioxidants in the diet. The processes within the science of oxidative stress are described in concert with other processes, such as apoptosis, cell signaling, and receptor mediated responses. This approach recognizes that diseases are often multifactorial and oxidative stress is a single component of this. The book examines basic processes of oxidative stress—from molecular biology to whole organs—relative to cellular defense systems, and across a range of neurological diseases. Sections discuss antioxidants in foods, including plants and components of the diet, examining the underlying mechanisms associated with therapeutic potential and clinical applications. Although some of this material is exploratory or preclinical, it can provide the framework for further in-depth analysis or studies via well-designed clinical trials or the analysis of pathways, mechanisms, and components in order to devise new therapeutic strategies. Very often oxidative stress is a feature of neurological disease and associated conditions which either centers on or around molecular and cellular processes. Oxidative stress can also arise due to nutritional imbalance during a spectrum of timeframes before the onset of disease or during its development. Offers an overview of oxidative stress from molecular biology to whole organs Discusses the potentially therapeutic usage of natural antioxidants in the patient diet Provides the framework for further in-depth analysis or studies of potential treatments

Toxicology

Toxicology
Author: Vinood B. Patel,Victor R. Preedy
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 594
Release: 2020-11-20
ISBN 10: 0128190930
ISBN 13: 9780128190937
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Toxicology Book Review:

Toxicology: Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants examines the nature of oxidative stress as a consequence of exposure to toxins and how antioxidant approaches can mitigate the impact of toxicant exposures. Sections covers the basic biology of oxidative stress, from molecular biology, to physiological pathology, mechanisms of action of specific toxicants, metals and other chemicals/drugs, and antioxidant approaches and therapies for toxic exposures. With contributions from an international group of experts, useful summary sections, a dictionary of terms, and applications to other areas of toxicology, this book is an informative, consolidated reference that helps bridge the interrelationship between toxicology, oxidative stress and antioxidants. Provides a novel collection of information linking both sides of redox biology (oxidants and antioxidants) and toxicology Explores the role of free radical mediated damage and toxicology Contains contributions from experts on toxicological science surrounding oxidative stress and on antioxidant approaches for reducing the impact of toxicant exposures

Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases

Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases
Author: Jose Antonio Morales-Gonzalez
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 514
Release: 2013-05-22
ISBN 10: 953511123X
ISBN 13: 9789535111238
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases Book Review:

This work responds to the need to find, in a sole document, the affect of oxidative stress at different levels, as well as treatment with antioxidants to revert and diminish the damage. Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - a Role for Antioxidants is written for health professionals by researchers at diverse educative institutions (Mexico, Brazil, USA, Spain, Australia, and Slovenia). I would like to underscore that of the 19 chapters, 14 are by Mexican researchers, which demonstrates the commitment of Mexican institutions to academic life and to the prevention and treatment of chronic degenerative diseases.

Obesity

Obesity
Author: Amelia Marti del Moral,Concepcion M. Aguilera
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2018-08-10
ISBN 10: 0128125055
ISBN 13: 9780128125052
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Obesity Book Review:

Obesity: Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants cover the science of oxidative stress in obesity and associated conditions, including metabolic syndrome, bariatric surgery, and the potentially therapeutic usage of natural antioxidants in the diet or food matrix. The processes within the science of oxidative stress are not described in isolation, but in concert with other processes, such as apoptosis, cell signaling and receptor mediated responses. This approach recognizes that diseases are often multifactorial and oxidative stress is but a single component. The book is designed for nutritionists, dietitians, food scientists, physicians and clinical workers, health care workers and research scientists. Covers the basic processes of oxidative stress, from molecular biology, to whole organs Highlights antioxidants in foods, including plants and other components of diet Provides the framework for further, in-depth analysis or studies via well-designed clinical trials or via the analysis of pathways, mechanisms and componentsa

Oxidative Stress and Aging

Oxidative Stress and Aging
Author: R.C. Cutler,L. Packer,J. Bertram,A. Mori
Publsiher: Birkhäuser
Total Pages: 399
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 3034873379
ISBN 13: 9783034873376
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oxidative Stress and Aging Book Review:

Oxidative stress and aging Over the past several years there has been an extraordinarily rapid growth in our knowledge of free radical chemistry and its possible involvement in both normal essential biology and age related disease and dysfunction. Much of this growth in the traditionally separate sciences of chemistry and molecular gerontology occurred independently, with little interaction or communi cation between the scientists working in these two fields. In view of the growing maturity of the two fields and the potential importance of advancing our knowledge in the area of oxidative stress and aging, we perceived a critical need to organize an international conference the "First Inter national Conference on Oxidative Stress and Aging" in Hawaii in 1994 to bring together the world's leading scientists in the fields of reactive oxygen species and molecular gerontology. The objective of this conference was to provide a unique opportunity for scholars working in these two related and rapidly growing fields to participate in the exchange, integration, and synthesis of new concepts and ideas, to engage in constructive criticism and to initiate new collaborative research projects. The conference focused on the molecular and cellular aspects of aging as related to oxidative stress. It was one of the largest and most comprehensive international conferences held in molecular gerontology. At this conference a call was made for submission of papers to be used in the publication of a book covering the major contributions of the meeting.

Diabetes

Diabetes
Author: Victor R. Preedy
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 454
Release: 2020-04-24
ISBN 10: 0128157771
ISBN 13: 9780128157770
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Diabetes Book Review:

Diabetes: Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants, Second Edition, builds on the success of the first edition, covering updated research on the science of oxidative stress in diabetes and the potentially therapeutic usage of natural antioxidants in the diet and food matrix. The processes within the science of oxidative stress are not described in isolation, but rather in concert with other processes, such as apoptosis, cell signaling and receptor mediated responses. This approach recognizes that diseases are often multifactorial and oxidative stress is a single component of this. Since the publication of the first edition, the science of oxidative stress and free radical biology continues to rapidly advance with thousands of the research articles on the topic. New sections in this update cover the role of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in causing OS in diabetes, oxidative stress and diabetes-induced bone metabolism, and oxidative stress and diabetic foot ulcer. Saves clinicians and researchers time in quickly accessing the very latest details on a broad range of diabetes and oxidation issues Combines the science of oxidative stress and the putative therapeutic usage of natural antioxidants in the diet, its food matrix or plant Includes preclinical, clinical and population studies to help endocrinologists, diabetologists, nutritionists, dieticians and clinicians map out key areas for research and further clinical recommendations

Inflammation Aging and Oxidative Stress

Inflammation  Aging  and Oxidative Stress
Author: Stephen C. Bondy,Arezoo Campbell
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 405
Release: 2016-12-14
ISBN 10: 3319334867
ISBN 13: 9783319334868
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Inflammation Aging and Oxidative Stress Book Review:

The book describes the major degenerative processes and pathologies exacerbated by senescence and how they can be alleviated through retardation of cellular aging. Topics discussed include neurodegenerative disease, protein oxidation, cerebrovascular disease, particle-induced inflammation and cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, ovarian aging, dietary and endogenous anti-oxidants in management of Parkinson’s disease, and effects of exercise on oxidation and inflammation. The nineteen expertly authored chapters are organized into three sections in order to present a complete picture to the reader: Age Related Cellular Events, Role of Inflammatory and Oxidative Processes in Age-Related Diseases, and Retardation of Cellular Aging. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Age-Related Disease draws from a variety of international perspectives and provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between disease, cell aging, and oxidative stress, as well as potential for preventing or slowing these processes. This installment of Springer’s Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice is ideal for researchers, clinicians, and advanced graduate students in the fields of cardiology, neuroscience, biogerontolgy, and cell biology.

Pathology

Pathology
Author: Victor R. Preedy
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2020-04-25
ISBN 10: 0128159731
ISBN 13: 9780128159736
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pathology Book Review:

Pathology: Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants bridges the disciplinary knowledge gap to help advance medical sciences and provide preventative and treatment strategies for pathologists, health care workers, food scientists and nutritionists who have divergent skills. This is important as oxidative stress can be ameliorated with pharmacological, nutraceutical or natural agents. While pathologists and clinical workers understand the processes in disease, they are less conversant in the science of nutrition and dietetics. Conversely, nutritionists and dietitians are less conversant with the detailed clinical background and science of pathology. This book helps to fill those gaps. Saves clinicians and researchers time by helping them to quickly access the very latest details on a broad range of pathologies and oxidation issues Combines the science of oxidative stress and the putative therapeutic usage of natural antioxidants in the diet Includes preclinical, clinical and population studies to help pathologists, nutritionists, dieticians, and clinicians map out key areas for research and further clinical recommendations

Oxidative Stress in Aging

Oxidative Stress in Aging
Author: Satomi Miwa,Kenneth Bruce Beckman,Florian Muller
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2008-06-17
ISBN 10: 9781597454209
ISBN 13: 1597454206
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oxidative Stress in Aging Book Review:

Human aging is a complex phenomenon. This state-of-the-art book discusses the role of free radicals in aging in different animal models, as well as the relevance of free radicals on age-related diseases and pathological conditions in humans (following an introduction section of the basics and theory of free radicals). In addition, the major interventions trials of antioxidant supplements in age-related disease, cancer and so forth are reviewed and discussed.

Brain Aging

Brain Aging
Author: David R. Riddle
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2007-04-19
ISBN 10: 9781420005523
ISBN 13: 1420005529
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Brain Aging Book Review:

Recognition that aging is not the accumulation of disease, but rather comprises fundamental biological processes that are amenable to experimental study, is the basis for the recent growth of experimental biogerontology. As increasingly sophisticated studies provide greater understanding of what occurs in the aging brain and how these changes occur

Handbook of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Exercise

Handbook of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Exercise
Author: C. Sen,L. Packer,O. Hänninen
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 1220
Release: 2000-02-16
ISBN 10: 9780080538297
ISBN 13: 0080538290
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Exercise Book Review:

Interest in the science of exercise dates back to the time of ancient Greece. Today exercise is viewed not only as a leisurely activity but also as an effective preventive and therapeutic tool in medicine. Further biomedical studies in exercise physiology and biochemistry reports that strenuous physical exercise might cause oxidative lipid damage in various tissues. The generation of reactive oxygen species is elevated to a level that overwhelms the tissue antioxidant defense systems resulting in oxidative stress. The Handbook of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Exercise examines the different aspects of exercise-induced oxidative stress, its management, and how reactive oxygen may affect the functional capacity of various vital organs and tissues. It includes key related issues such as analytical methods, environmental factors, nutrition, aging, organ function and several pathophysiological processes. This timely publication will be of relevance to those in biomedical science and was designed to be readily understood by the general scientific audience.

Oxidative Stress in Heart Diseases

Oxidative Stress in Heart Diseases
Author: Sajal Chakraborti,Naranjan S Dhalla,Nirmal K Ganguly,Madhu Dikshit
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 596
Release: 2019-11-06
ISBN 10: 9811382735
ISBN 13: 9789811382734
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oxidative Stress in Heart Diseases Book Review:

This book bridges the gap between fundamental and translational research in the area of heart disease. It describes a multidisciplinary approach, and demonstrates biochemical mechanisms associated with dysregulation of redox signaling, which leads heart disease. Presenting recent studies on improved forms of ROS scavenging enzymes; specific inhibitors for different ROS generating enzymes; and oxidant induced signaling pathways and their antagonists that allow subtle modulation of redox signaling, it also discusses the spatial and temporal aspects of oxidative stress in the cardiovascular system, which are of vital importance in developing better strategies for treating heart disease. Each chapter offers researchers valuable insights into identifying targets for drug development for different types of heart disease.

The Liver

The Liver
Author: Vinood Patel,Rajkumar Rajendram
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 368
Release: 2018-01-03
ISBN 10: 0128039787
ISBN 13: 9780128039786
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Liver Book Review:

The Liver: Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants takes a novel approach to the science of oxidative stress in liver disease by recognizing that diseases are multifactorial and oxidative stress is a single component. It highlights oxidative stress in relation to other processes, such as apoptosis, cell signaling and receptor mediated responses, and includes the therapeutic usage of natural antioxidants in the diet and food matrix, along with coverage of pharmacological and natural agents designed to counteract oxidative stress. Written for research scientists, gastroenterologists, food scientists, hepatologists and physicians, this trans-disciplinary guide will help advance medical sciences and enable new preventative and treatment strategies. Provides a framework for in-depth analysis of the basic processes of oxidative stress, from molecular biology, to whole organs in relation to the liver Bridges the trans-disciplinary divide between the basic science and mechanisms of liver disease and oxidative stress to advance medical sciences and enable preventative and treatment strategies Contains contributions from leading national and international experts, including those from world renowned institutions

Oxidative Stress Exercise and Aging

Oxidative Stress  Exercise and Aging
Author: Helaine M Alessio,Ann E Hagerman
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 184
Release: 2006-03-27
ISBN 10: 178326005X
ISBN 13: 9781783260058
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oxidative Stress Exercise and Aging Book Review:

This book brings together some of the leading researchers in the actively investigated field of oxidative stress, an area of study which is of importance to human health and disease. It examines oxidative stress in a variety of models, at rest and after exercise, in young and old. Key concepts of oxidative stress, exercise and aging are presented in clear and easy-to-understand terms. Oxidative stress in different types of exercises — isometric, isotonic and sports — is explained in detail, with several chapters focusing on acute and chronic adaptations of skeletal muscles following both aerobic and non-aerobic exercises. The book includes current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms influencing health and disease processes associated with oxidative stress. Contents:Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants (D C Close & A E Hagerman)Oxidative Stress in Plants and Animals (D C Close & A E Hagerman)The Exercise Continuum (R L Wiley)Oxidative Stress and Muscle Size, Type, and Action (H M Alessio)Oxidative Stress Across the Exercise Continuum (H M Alessio)Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense: Effects of Aging and Exercise (L L Ji)Muscle, Oxidative Stress and Aging (J S Moylan et al.)Aging, Exercise, Antioxidants, and Cardioprotection (J Quindry & S Powers)Genetic Expressions: Oxidative Stress, Exercise, and Aging (N B Schweitzer & H M Alessio) Readership: Academics, researchers, upper undergraduate and graduate students in biochemistry, biological chemistry, physiology, gerontology, and cell & molecular biology; companies that develop and market products for sports, health, antioxidants and anti-aging interventions. Key Features:Descriptions of oxidative stress reactions in plants as well as animal modelsThe role of gene expression regulation in oxidative stressDiscussion of Oxidative stress reactions in skeletal and cardiac musclesNew mechanisms for understanding positive and negative consequences of oxidative stressKeywords:Exercise;Oxidative Stress;Aging;Health;Sports;Radicals;Antioxidants;Plants and Oxidative Stress

Antioxidant Status Diet Nutrition and Health

Antioxidant Status  Diet  Nutrition  and Health
Author: Andreas M. Papas
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 672
Release: 2019-10-16
ISBN 10: 1000714802
ISBN 13: 9781000714807
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Antioxidant Status Diet Nutrition and Health Book Review:

This is the first book to integrate the biological, nutritional, and health aspects of antioxidant status. Fifty contributors integrate and transfer the knowledge of free radicals and antioxidants from the test tube to the laboratory of the biologist, clinical nutritionist, and medical researcher, as well as to the office of the dietician, nutritionist, and physician. Topics examined include factors affecting and methods for evaluating antioxidant status in humans; effect of diet and physiological stage (infancy, aging, exercise, alcoholism, HIV infection, etc.) on antioxidant status; and the role of antioxidant status in nutrition, health, and disease.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C Vitamin E Selenium and Carotenoids

Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C  Vitamin E  Selenium  and Carotenoids
Author: Institute of Medicine,Food and Nutrition Board,Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes,Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of DRIs,Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients,Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 529
Release: 2000-08-27
ISBN 10: 0309069351
ISBN 13: 9780309069359
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C Vitamin E Selenium and Carotenoids Book Review:

This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series of quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is the newest framework for an expanded approach developed by U.S. and Canadian scientists. This book discusses in detail the role of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and the carotenoids in human physiology and health. For each nutrient the committee presents what is known about how it functions in the human body, which factors may affect how it works, and how the nutrient may be related to chronic disease. Dietary Reference Intakes provides reference intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for different groups based on age and gender, along with a new reference intake, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), designed to assist an individual in knowing how much is "too much" of a nutrient.

Micronutrients in Health and Disease Second Edition

Micronutrients in Health and Disease  Second Edition
Author: Kedar N. Prasad
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 528
Release: 2019-04-15
ISBN 10: 0429513186
ISBN 13: 9780429513183
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Micronutrients in Health and Disease Second Edition Book Review:

Increased oxidative stress due to the production of excessive amounts of free radicals along with the effects of chronic inflammation plays a major role in the initiation and progression of most chronic diseases. In addition, increased release of glutamate plays a central role in the pathogenesis of various disorders. This second edition of Micronutrients in Health and Disease proposes a novel concept that in order to simultaneously and optimally reduce oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and glutamate, it is essential to increase levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as levels of dietary and endogenous antioxidant compounds at the same time. This is accomplished by activating the Nrf2 pathways and by increasing the levels of antioxidant compounds and B-vitamins through supplementation. This book proposes a mixture of micronutrients that achieves this above goal. The mixture of micronutrients together with modification in diet and lifestyle may reduce the risk of chronic diseases and in combination with standard care, may improve the management of these diseases. KEY FEATURES • Provides evidence in support of the idea that increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and glutamate are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. • Contains three new chapters on Huntington’s disease, Autism spectra, and Prion disease. • Discusses the role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. • Presents information on regulation of the expression of microRNAs by reactive oxygen species and antioxidants. Micronutrients in Health and Disease, Second Edition serves as a valuable resource for those seeking to promote healthy aging and prevent and improved management of chronic diseases.

Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non Communicable Diseases

Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non Communicable Diseases
Author: Giuseppe Grosso
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 216
Release: 2018-10-11
ISBN 10: 3038972266
ISBN 13: 9783038972266
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non Communicable Diseases Book Review:

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases" that was published in Antioxidants

Neuroscience of Alcohol

Neuroscience of Alcohol
Author: Victor R. Preedy
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 736
Release: 2019-03-19
ISBN 10: 0128131268
ISBN 13: 9780128131268
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neuroscience of Alcohol Book Review:

Neuroscience of Alcohol: Mechanisms and Treatment presents the fundamental information necessary for a thorough understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol addiction and its effects on the brain. Offering thorough coverage of all aspects of alcohol research, treatment and prevention, and containing contributions from internationally recognized experts, the book provides students, early-career researchers, and investigators at all levels with a fundamental introduction to all aspects of alcohol misuse. Alcohol is one of the world’s most common addictive substances, with about two billion individuals worldwide consuming it in one form or another and three million annual deaths that are associated with alcohol misuse. Alcohol alters a variety of neurological processes, from molecular biology, to cognition. Moreover, addiction to alcohol can lead to numerous other health concerns and damage virtually every organ system in the body, making diagnosis and treatment of individuals addicted to alcohol of critical importance. Integrates cutting-edge research on the pharmacological, cellular and molecular aspects of alcohol use, along with its effects on neurobiological function Discusses alcohol use as a component of dual-use and poly addictions Outlines numerous screening and treatment strategies for alcohol misuse Covers both the physical and psychological effects of alcohol use and withdrawals to provide a fully-formed view of alcohol dependency and its effects