Advances in Sustainable Polymer Composites

Advances in Sustainable Polymer Composites
Author: Md Rezaur Rahman
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 306
Release: 2020-09-02
ISBN 10: 0128203420
ISBN 13: 9780128203422
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Sustainable Polymer Composites Book Review:

Advances in Sustainable Polymer Composites reviews recent scientific findings on the production and use of sustainable polymers and composites as innovative new materials. The book discusses the importance of sustainable polymers in terms of current practices and how to address environmental and economic issues. Attention is focused on the physical, chemical and electrical properties of these composites. The book also looks at the lifecycle of both single and hybrid polymers and nanocomposites, with chapters covering the latest research findings on sustainable polymer composites with various filler loadings and their improvement on compatibility. From the viewpoint of polymer composites, this book covers not only well-known sustainable future trends in sustainable polymers and composites, but also advanced materials produced from micro, nano and pico-scale fillers that achieve better physical and mechanical results. Features advanced materials produced from micro, nano and pico-scale fillers Emphasizes the modeling and prediction of thermal, rheological and mechanical behavior Covers various types of fillers and different reinforcement agents Focuses on all aspects of fabrication, characterization and applications Addresses sustainability approaches and solutions

Sustainable Biopolymer Composites

Sustainable Biopolymer Composites
Author: Deepak Verma,Mohit Sharma,Kheng Lim Goh,Siddharth Jain,Himani Sharma
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2021-09-15
ISBN 10: 0128222921
ISBN 13: 9780128222928
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Biopolymer Composites Book Review:

Sustainable Biopolymer Composites: Biocompatibility, Self-healing, Modeling, Repair and Recyclability focuses on sustainable polymer composites also referred to as bio- composites. Vital aspects such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, repair and recyclability are discussed in detail. In addition, complexities like rapid and scalable processing, onsite repair, and minimal environmental effects are also covered along with the appropriateness of advanced polymer composites for structural applications in automotive, aviation and marine industries. This book will be an indispensable resource for scientists, engineers, physicists and chemists who are interested in the preparation, applications and repair analysis of bio-based composites and nano-composites for different types of applications. The composites repair process is extremely complex, hence it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of damage mechanisms to apply the most suitable repair technique. Damage assessment using onsite inspection, e.g., NDT, THz techniques and the automated repair process for reliability and repeatability, are vital parameters when executing bonded composite repair. Furthermore, overall integrity and structural health monitoring of composites repair is also necessary. Features detailed information on damage detection, failure analysis and repair of advanced bio-polymer composites Emphasizes biocompatibility, degradation and recyclability of these materials Features key chapters on molecular dynamics, multi-scale modeling and self-healing Presents a roadmap for materials selection, processing and industrial utilization for a broad range of applications

Advances in Sustainable Polymers

Advances in Sustainable Polymers
Author: Vimal Katiyar,Raghvendra Gupta,Tabli Ghosh
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 483
Release: 2019-11-05
ISBN 10: 9813298049
ISBN 13: 9789813298040
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Sustainable Polymers Book Review:

This book provides a systematic overview of the processing and applications of sustainable polymers. The volume covers recent advances in biomedical, food packaging, fuel cell, membrane, and other emerging applications. The book begins by addressing different sections of biomedical application including use of carbohydrate-based therapeutics, nanohybrids, nanohydrogels, bioresorbable polymers and their composites, polymer-grafted nanobiomaterials for biomedical devices and implants, nanofibres, and others. The second part of this book discusses various processing and packaging materials for food packaging applications. The last section discusses other emerging applications, including using microbial fuel cells for waste water treatment, microfluidic fuel cells for low power applications, among others. This volume will be relevant to researchers working to improve the properties of bio-based materials for their advanced application and wide commercialization.

Advances in Sustainable Polymers

Advances in Sustainable Polymers
Author: Vimal Katiyar,Raghvendra Gupta,Tabli Ghosh
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 483
Release: 2020-11-28
ISBN 10: 9789813298064
ISBN 13: 9813298065
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Sustainable Polymers Book Review:

This book provides a systematic overview of the processing and applications of sustainable polymers. The volume covers recent advances in biomedical, food packaging, fuel cell, membrane, and other emerging applications. The book begins by addressing different sections of biomedical application including use of carbohydrate-based therapeutics, nanohybrids, nanohydrogels, bioresorbable polymers and their composites, polymer-grafted nanobiomaterials for biomedical devices and implants, nanofibres, and others. The second part of this book discusses various processing and packaging materials for food packaging applications. The last section discusses other emerging applications, including using microbial fuel cells for waste water treatment, microfluidic fuel cells for low power applications, among others. This volume will be relevant to researchers working to improve the properties of bio-based materials for their advanced application and wide commercialization.

Sustainable Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites

Sustainable Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites
Author: Inamuddin,Sabu Thomas,Raghvendra Kumar Mishra,Abdullah M. Asiri
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 1440
Release: 2019-02-01
ISBN 10: 3030053997
ISBN 13: 9783030053994
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites Book Review:

This book presents emerging economical and environmentally friendly polymer composites that are free of the side effects observed in traditional composites. It focuses on eco-friendly composite materials using granulated cork, a by-product of the cork industry; cellulose pulp from the recycling of paper residues; hemp fibers; and a range of other environmentally friendly materials procured from various sources. The book presents the manufacturing methods, properties and characterization techniques of these eco-friendly composites. The respective chapters address classical and recent aspects of eco-friendly polymer composites and their chemistry, along with practical applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, automotive and other sectors. Topics addressed include the fundamentals, processing, properties, practicality, drawbacks and advantages of eco-friendly polymer composites. Featuring contributions by experts in the field with a variety of backgrounds and specialties, the book will appeal to researchers and students in the fields of materials science and environmental science. Moreover, it fills the gap between research work in the laboratory and practical applications in related industries.

Advances in Bio Based Fiber

Advances in Bio Based Fiber
Author: Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa,Madhu Puttegowda,Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai,Suchart Siengchin,Sergey Gorbatyuk
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 834
Release: 2021-12-09
ISBN 10: 0128245441
ISBN 13: 9780128245446
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Bio Based Fiber Book Review:

Advances in Bio-Based Fibres: Moving Towards a Green Society describes many novel natural fibers, their specific synthesis and characterization methods, their environmental sustainability values, their compatibility with polymer composites, and a wide range of innovative commercial engineering applications. As bio-based fiber polymer composites possess excellent mechanical, electrical and thermal properties, along with highly sustainable properties, they are an important technology for manufacturers and materials scientists seeking to improve the sustainability of their industries. This cutting-edge book draws on the latest industry practice and academic research to provide advice on technologies with applications in industries, including packaging, automotive, aerospace, biomedical and structural engineering. Provides technical data on advanced material properties, including electrical and rheological Gives a comprehensive guide to appraising and applying this technology to improve sustainability, including lifecycle assessment and recyclability Includes advice on the latest modeling techniques for designing with these materials

Advances in Sustainable Polymers

Advances in Sustainable Polymers
Author: Vimal Katiyar,Amit Kumar,Neha Mulchandani
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 404
Release: 2020-03-03
ISBN 10: 9811512515
ISBN 13: 9789811512513
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Sustainable Polymers Book Review:

This book discusses synthesis and characterization of sustainable polymers. The book covers opportunities and challenges of using sustainable polymers to replace existing petroleum based feedstock. This volume provides insights into the chemistry of polymerization, and discusses tailoring the properties of the polymers at the source in order fit requirements of specific applications. The book also covers processing of these polymers and their critical assessment. The book will be of use to chemists and engineers in the industry and academia working on sustainable polymers and their commercialization to replace dependence on petroleum-based polymers.

Sustainable Composites for Aerospace Applications

Sustainable Composites for Aerospace Applications
Author: Mohammad Jawaid,Mohamed Thariq
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 388
Release: 2018-04-27
ISBN 10: 0081021380
ISBN 13: 9780081021385
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Composites for Aerospace Applications Book Review:

Sustainable Composites for Aerospace Applications presents innovative advances in the fabrication, characterization and applications of LDH polymer nanocomposites. It covers fundamental structural and chemical knowledge and explores various properties and characterization techniques, including microscopic, spectroscopic and mechanical behaviors. Users will find a strong focus on the potential applications of LDH polymer nanocomposites, such as in energy, electronics, electromagnetic shielding, biomedical, agricultural, food packaging and water purification functions. This book provides comprehensive coverage of cutting-edge research in the field of LDH polymer nanocomposites and future applications, and is an essential read for all academics, researchers, engineers and students working in this area. Presents fundamental knowledge of LDH polymer nanocomposites, including chemical composition, structural features and fabrication techniques Provides an analytical overview of the different types of characterization techniques and technologies Contains extensive reviews on cutting-edge research for future applications in a variety of industries

Sustainable Composites for Lightweight Applications

Sustainable Composites for Lightweight Applications
Author: Hom Nath Dhakal,Sikiru Oluwarotimi Ismail
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 310
Release: 2020-11-22
ISBN 10: 0128183179
ISBN 13: 9780128183175
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Composites for Lightweight Applications Book Review:

Carbon and glass fibre reinforced composite materials have been used for many years in several different types of applications. However, these conventional composites are derived from non-renewable reinforcements and they pose a significant threat to the environment. Government legislation and consumer behaviour have recently forced many industries to adapt sustainable composites. Industries such as automotive, marine and aerospace are now seeking sustainable lightweight composites with the aim to reduce the overall weight of the components with enhanced materials and design aspects. Therefore, there is high demand on research for the development of sustainable lightweight composites. This book presents a comprehensive review of lightweight composites with the central aim to increase their use in key industrial sectors such as automotive, marine and aerospace. There is no such book currently available that is dedicated to sustainable lightweight applications covering important topics such as key drivers for lightweight composites, mechanical properties, damage characterisation, durability and environmental aspects. Key topics that are addressed include: The roles of reinforcements and matrices in composite materials Sustainable natural fibre reinforcements and their morphological structures Lightweight applications and properties requirements Design, manufacturing processes and their effects on properties Testing and damage characterisation of composite materials Sustainable composites and techniques for property enhancement Future trends and challenges for sustainable composites in lightweight applications It will be a valuable reference resource for those working in material Science, polymer science, materials engineering, and industries involved in the manufacture of automotive and aerospace components from lightweight composite materials. Provides a comprehensive review of sustainable lightweight composites looking at key industrial applications such as automotive, marine, and aerospace and construction Important relationships between structure and properties are analysed in detail Enhancement of properties through hybrid systems, are also explored with emphasis on design, materials selection and manufacturing techniques

Environmentally Friendly Polymers and Polymer Composites

Environmentally Friendly Polymers and Polymer Composites
Author: Rafael Balart,Nestor Montanes,Franco Dominici,Sergio Torres-Giner
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 292
Release: 2021-03-17
ISBN 10: 3036500367
ISBN 13: 9783036500362
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmentally Friendly Polymers and Polymer Composites Book Review:

Continuous research advances have been observed in the field of environmentally-friendly polymers and polymer composites due to the dependence of polymers on fossil fuels and the sustainability issues related to plastic wastes. This book compiles the most recent research works in biopolymers, their blends and composites, and the use of natural additives, such as vegetable oils and other renewable and waste-derived liquids, with their marked environmental efficiency devoted to developing novel sustainable materials. Therefore, Environmentally Friendly Polymers and Polymer Composites provides an overview to scientists of the potential of these environmentally friendly materials and helps engineers to apply these new materials for industrial purposes.

Advanced Polymeric Materials for Sustainability and Innovations

Advanced Polymeric Materials for Sustainability and Innovations
Author: Sajith Thottathil,Sabu Thomas,Nandakumar Kalarikkal,Didier Rouxel
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 370
Release: 2018-10-01
ISBN 10: 135159205X
ISBN 13: 9781351592055
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Polymeric Materials for Sustainability and Innovations Book Review:

This informative volume discusses recent advancements in the research and development in synthesis, characterization, processing, morphology, structure, and properties of advanced polymeric materials. With contributions from leading international researchers and professors in academic, government and industrial institutions, Advanced Polymeric Materials for Sustainability and Innovations has a special focus on eco-friendly polymers, polymer composites, nanocomposites, and blends and materials for traditional and renewable energy. In this book the relationship between processing-morphology-property applications of polymeric materials is well established. Recent advances in the synthesis of new functional monomers has shown strong potential in generating better property polymers from renewable resources. Fundamental advances in the field of nanocomposite blends and nanostructured polymeric materials in automotive, civil, biomedical and packaging/coating applications are the highlights of this book.

Advances in Engine Tribology

Advances in Engine Tribology
Author: Vikram Kumar
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN 10: 9811683379
ISBN 13: 9789811683374
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Engine Tribology Book Review:

Environmentally Friendly Polymers and Polymer Composites

Environmentally Friendly Polymers and Polymer Composites
Author: Rafael Antonio Balart Gimeno,Nestor Montañés Muñoz,Franco Dominici,Sergio Torres-Giner,Teodomiro Boronat Vitoria
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2021
ISBN 10: 9783036500379
ISBN 13: 3036500375
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmentally Friendly Polymers and Polymer Composites Book Review:

Continuous research advances have been observed in the field of environmentally-friendly polymers and polymer composites due to the dependence of polymers on fossil fuels and the sustainability issues related to plastic wastes. This book compiles the most recent research works in biopolymers, their blends and composites, and the use of natural additives, such as vegetable oils and other renewable and waste-derived liquids, with their marked environmental efficiency devoted to developing novel sustainable materials. Therefore, Environmentally Friendly Polymers and Polymer Composites provides an overview to scientists of the potential of these environmentally friendly materials and helps engineers to apply these new materials for industrial purposes.

Environmentally Friendly Polymer Nanocomposites

Environmentally Friendly Polymer Nanocomposites
Author: Suprakas Sinha Ray
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2013-07-31
ISBN 10: 0857097822
ISBN 13: 9780857097828
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmentally Friendly Polymer Nanocomposites Book Review:

Concerns about global warming and the depletion of oil reserves have led to significant research into more sustainable composite materials made from natural materials. Recently, research has focussed on the development of nanoscale reinforcements for this new group of composites, significantly improving and extending their range of desirable properties. Environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites summarises this wealth of research and its practical implications. After an introduction to the subject, part one looks at matrix and reinforcement materials as well as their characterisation. Part two reviews key properties such as tensile and dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stability. It also considers issues such as barrier properties, biodegradability, rheology, electrical and thermal conductivity. The book concludes by reviewing potential applications. This book is ideal for polymer and material scientists, researchers and engineers. It will also help industrial researchers and R&D managers who want to bring advanced eco-friendly polymer composite-based products into the market. Summarises the practical implications of the development of nanoscale reinforcements for sustainable composite materials made from natural materials Examines matrix and reinforcement materials and their characterisation and reviews key properties such as tensile and dynamic mechanical properties Considers barrier properties, biodegradability, rheology, electrical and thermal conductivity and potential applications

Handbook of Sustainable Polymers

Handbook of Sustainable Polymers
Author: Vijay Kumar Thakur,Manju Kumari Thakur
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 988
Release: 2016-01-05
ISBN 10: 9814613541
ISBN 13: 9789814613545
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Sustainable Polymers Book Review:

The 21st century offers vast challenges for researchers all around the globe, especially regarding the effective use of sustainable polymers and their materials for different applications. With this focus, sustainable polymers are now rising as one of the most feasible alternatives to traditional synthetic polymers/materials for a variety of industrial uses. This book is an archival reference for researchers and students working in the field of sustainable polymers and their applications in industry. It focuses on the processing and applications of diverse sustainable polymers procured from different biorenewable resources that have been rarely reported so far in a single book.

Design for Sustainability

Design for Sustainability
Author: S.M. Sapuan,Muhd Ridzuan Mansor
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 498
Release: 2021-03-13
ISBN 10: 0128194421
ISBN 13: 9780128194423
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Design for Sustainability Book Review:

Design for Sustainability: Green Materials and Processes provides fundamental and practical knowledge surrounding product development applications throughout the entire lifecycle of green materials, ranging from conceptual design, material and manufacturing process selection, and environmental lifecycle assessment. In addition, several topics covering recent advances in the application of sustainable design within the automotive, building and construction, packaging and consumer product industries are also included in this book to provide practical examples of this philosophy in current applications. Lastly, a section on implementation of design for sustainability in education is added to aid readers that wish to introduce this philosophy to younger students. This book will be beneficial to researchers, students in higher education institutions, design practitioners and engineers in private and public sector organization with aspirations to develop sustainable products in the future. Design for sustainability is one of the primary focuses in human advancement nowadays, with the aim of developing products and services that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Provides an overview on materials and process design for sustainability Discusses theoretical aspects about design for sustainability Includes a discussion of the most recent advances and applications in design for sustainability

Value Added Biocomposites

Value Added Biocomposites
Author: Malinee Sriariyanun,Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa,Suchart Siengchin,Hom Nath Dhakal
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 458
Release: 2021-09-06
ISBN 10: 1000454932
ISBN 13: 9781000454932
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Value Added Biocomposites Book Review:

Value-Added Biocomposites: Technology, Innovation, and Opportunity explores advances in research, processing, manufacturing, and novel applications of biocomposites. It describes the current market situation, commercial competition, and societal and economic impacts and advantages of substituting biocomposites for conventional composites, including natural fibers and bioplastics. FEATURES Discusses manufacturing and processing procedures that focus on improving physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical, and biological properties and achieving required specifications of downstream industries and customers Analyzes the wide range of available base materials and fillers of biocomposites and bioplastics in terms of the strength and weaknesses of materials and economic potential in the market Displays special and unique properties of biocomposites in different market sectors Showcases the insight of expert scientists and engineers with first-hand experience working with biocomposites across various industries Covers environmental factors, life cycle assessment, and waste recovery Combining technical, economic, and environmental topics, this work provides researchers, advanced students, and industry professionals a holistic overview of the value that biocomposites add across a variety of engineering applications and how to balance research and development with practical results.

Tribology of Polymer Composites

Tribology of Polymer Composites
Author: Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa,Suchart Siengchin,Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai,Klaus Friedrich
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2020-09-22
ISBN 10: 0128231734
ISBN 13: 9780128231739
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Tribology of Polymer Composites Book Review:

Tribology of Polymer Composites: Characterization, Properties, and Applications provides an exhaustive overview of the latest research, trends, applications and future directions of the tribology of polymer composites. Covering novel methods for the synthesis of polymer composites and their properties, the book starts by reviewing the fabrication techniques, wear and frictional properties of polymer composite materials. From there, it features chapters looking at the tribological behavior and properties of specific polymer composite materials such as synthetic fiber-reinforced, cellulose fiber-reinforced, wood fiber, synthetic fiber, mineral fiber-reinforced, and thermosetting composites. Final chapters cover the tribology of polymer nanocomposites and particulate polymer composites and their metal coatings. Applied examples spanning a wide range of industries are emphasized in each chapter. Demonstrates the potential of polymer composites and their applications Covers novel methods for the synthesis of polymer composites and their properties Reviews the fabrication techniques, wear and frictional properties of polymer composite materials

Lignin in Polymer Composites

Lignin in Polymer Composites
Author: Omar Faruk,Mohini Sain
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2015-10-24
ISBN 10: 0323355668
ISBN 13: 9780323355667
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lignin in Polymer Composites Book Review:

Lignin in Polymer Composites presents the latest information on lignin, a natural polymer derived from renewable resources that has great potential as a reinforcement material in composites because it is non-toxic, inexpensive, available in large amounts, and is starting to be deployed in various materials applications due to its advantages over more traditional oil-based materials. This book reviews the state-of-the-art on the topic and their applications to composites, including thermoplastic, thermosets, rubber, foams, bioplastics, nanocomposites, and lignin-based carbon fiber composites. In addition, the book covers critical assessments on the economics of lignin, including a cost-performance analysis that discusses its strengths and weaknesses as a reinforcement material. Finally, the huge potential applications of lignin in industry are explored with respect to its low cost, recyclable properties, and fully biodegradable composites, and the way they apply to the automotive, construction, and packaging industries. Reviews the state-of-the-art on the topic and their applications to composites, including thermoplastic, thermosets, rubber, foams, bioplastics, nanocomposites, and lignin-based carbon fiber composites Presents the essential processing and properties information for engineers and materials scientists, enabling the use of lignin in composites Provides critical insight into the applications and future trends of lignin-based composites, including advantages, shortcomings, and economics Includes a thorough coverage of extraction, modification, processing, and applications of the material

Processing and Characterization of Sustainable Polymers

Processing and Characterization of Sustainable Polymers
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:829999684
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Processing and Characterization of Sustainable Polymers Book Review:

This Ph.D. study aims to advance the understanding and know-how of sustainable polymers and composites to reduce their environmental impact and enhance their utilization. This can be done through recycling post-consumer plastics, using biodegradable polymers made from renewable resources, and reducing material usage in final products through foaming or stronger polymer composites. To evaluate the performance of these polymers and composites, the mechanical, thermal, rheological, morphological properties, and other relevant properties have been characterized. The first chapter deals with recycling poly(ethylene terephthalate) (RPET), a commonly used material for beverage bottles. Melt-compounding and injection molding of RPET with various additives were performed. The addition of chain extenders greatly enhanced the moldability and mechanical properties of RPET. While the RPET and thermoplastic elastomer blends showed improved mechanical properties, the improvement was less significant and the blends were often immiscible due to the difference in polarities between the RPET and the thermoplastic elastomer. Replacing non-biodegradable polymers with renewable/biodegradable polymers, e.g., poly(lactic acid) (PLA), was studied and reported in the second chapter. The injection molded PLA, after annealing treatment, offered several benefits such as a higher glass tran€sition temperature, better heat resistance, and greater storage modulus and tensile strength. This study pointed to a new post-molding treatment that could enhance the heat resistance, which is one of the major weaknesses of PLA components. The degree of crystallinity after long annealing times resembled those observed at higher temperatures, suggesting a time-temperature super€position relationship. The study reported in chapters three and four reduced material usage by developing polymer composites or employing foaming. Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) from newable resources was used as a filler in both hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), and hydrophobic polymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate, PHBV). An NFC fiber suspension was stirred with PVOH in water, followed by casting. PHBV powders were mixed with an NFC fiber suspension in water, freeze-dried, and melt compounded. NFC had a reinforcing effect and served as a nucleating agent but led to greater thermal degradation for both polymers. The addition of NFC yielded finer foamed morphologies in PVOH films but inhibited foaming in PHBV.