Advanced Supramolecular Nanoarchitectonics

Advanced Supramolecular Nanoarchitectonics
Author: Katsuhiko Ariga,Masakazu Aono
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 306
Release: 2019-02-23
ISBN 10: 0128133422
ISBN 13: 9780128133422
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Supramolecular Nanoarchitectonics Book Review:

Advanced Supramolecular Nanoarchitectonics provides the latest information on design at the nanoscale, presenting a range of the new challenges that arise when the manipulation techniques that work at the macro- and micro-scale do not work at the nanoscale. Nanoarchitectonics approaches material design via a profound understanding of the interactions between individual nanostructures and their organization. This book presents the more advanced features of this research paradigm, focusing on the materials fabrication of self-defined nanostructures and demonstrating possible applications of these fabricated materials. Written by the team that coined the term nanoarchitectonics, providing a detailed explanation of the approach and techniques of supramolecular nanoarchitectonics Focuses on the fabrication of materials with defined structures via organized interactions at the nanoscale Demonstrates current and potential applications of nanoarchitected materials

Supra materials Nanoarchitectonics

Supra materials Nanoarchitectonics
Author: Katsuhiko Ariga,Masakazu Aono
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 346
Release: 2016-10-07
ISBN 10: 0323378307
ISBN 13: 9780323378307
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Supra materials Nanoarchitectonics Book Review:

Supra-materials Nanoarchitectonics provides the latest information on design at the nanoscale, presenting a range of the new challenges that arise as the manipulation techniques that work at the macro- and micro-scale do not work at the nanoscale. The term nanoarchitectonics, coined by Japan's National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), describes the organized interactions required at the nanoscale, replacing the traditional structure-building approach used in materials design. Nanoarchitectonics approaches material design via a profound understanding of the interactions between individual nanostructures and their organization. As the nanoarchitectonics paradigm fits well with the discipline of supramolecular chemistry, this book brings together these two approaches to demonstrate the potential of supramolecular nanoarchitectonics in the development of new materials, both at the nano- and macro-scale. Written by the team that coined the term nanoarchitectonics, providing a detailed explanation of the approach and techniques of supramolecular nanoarchitectonics Demystifies materials design via organized interactions at the nanoscale Explains this new paradigm via practical scientific techniques

Biomaterials Nanoarchitectonics

Biomaterials Nanoarchitectonics
Author: Mitsuhiro Ebara
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 362
Release: 2016-02-11
ISBN 10: 0323374999
ISBN 13: 9780323374996
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomaterials Nanoarchitectonics Book Review:

Biomaterials Nanoarchitectonics, written from the perspectives of authors form NIMS and other researchers worldwide, provides readers with an explanation of the theory and techniques of nanoarchitectonics, exploring its applications in biomedical fields, including regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and diagnostic and treatment systems based on pathogenic mechanisms. The book also explains the use of nanomaterials that enable 'materials therapy', in which the materials themselves elicit a sustainable, curative effect from living tissue. Authored by the team that coined the term nanoarchitectonics, who explain their approach to the design of smart/functional nanomaterials and their applications in the biomedical arena Explores how materials designed and produced with nanoarchitectonics methods can be used to enhance the natural regenerative power of the human body Enables scientists and researchers to gain a deeper understanding of the specific challenges of materials design at the nanoscale

Manipulation of Nanoscale Materials

Manipulation of Nanoscale Materials
Author: Katsuhiko Ariga,Harry Kroto,Paul O'Brien
Publsiher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Total Pages: 473
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 1849734151
ISBN 13: 9781849734158
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Manipulation of Nanoscale Materials Book Review:

Techniques and strategies for the production of nanomaterials and nanostructures have developed to an advanced level. However, the concepts and methods needed to correctly architect these materials into viable applications remains seriously lacking. This book introduces the concept of "Nanoarchitechtonics", a term introduced by Dr Masakazu Aono to describe the correct manipulation of nanoscale materials in the creation of nano-devices and applications. With contributions from across the globe, Manipulation of Nanoscale Materials presents a broad spectrum of nanomaterials and their applications. Following an introductory chapter prepared by the editors, the book is divided into three further sections of chapters, detailing Nanoarchitectonics for Materials Development, Materials Nanoarchitechtonics for Bio-Conjugates and Bio-Applications, Materials Nanoarchitechtonics for Advanced Devices. The first book in its field, this is essential reading for anyone creating or deploying nanomaterials. Fully referenced to the primary literature, this title presents an excellent source of information, and inspiration, to the reader and should appeal to experienced materials scientists, nanotechnologists and postgraduate students. Dr. Katsuhiko Ariga is the Director of Supermolecules Group and Principal Investigator of World Premier International (WPI) Research Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS). Dr Masakazu Aono is Director General of MANA and group leader of the nano-system organiszation group MANA, NIMS.

Templated DNA Nanotechnology

Templated DNA Nanotechnology
Author: Thimmaiah Govindaraju
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 426
Release: 2019-01-28
ISBN 10: 0429767668
ISBN 13: 9780429767661
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Templated DNA Nanotechnology Book Review:

Nucleic acids have structurally evolved over billions of years to effectively store and transfer genetic information. In the 1980s, Nadrian Seeman’s idea of constructing a 3D lattice from DNA led to utilizing DNA as nanomolecular building blocks to create emergent molecular systems and nanomaterial objects. This bottom-up approach to construct nanoscale architectures with DNA marked the beginning of a new field, DNA nanotechnology, contributing significantly to the broad area of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The molecular architectonics of small "designer" molecules and short DNA sequences through complementary binding interaction engenders well-defined functional nanoarchitectures with realistic applications in areas ranging from biology to materials science and is termed "DNA nanoarchitectonics." This book discusses novel approaches adapted by leading researchers from all over the world to create functional nucleic acid molecular systems and nanoarchitectures. Individual chapters contributed by active practitioners provide fundamental and advanced knowledge emanated from their own and others’ work. Each chapter includes numerous illustrations, historical perspectives, case studies and practical examples, critical discussions, and future prospects. This book can serve as a practical handbook or as a textbook for advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level students of nanotechnology and DNA nanotechnology, supramolecular chemistry, and nanoarchitectonics and researchers working on macromolecular science, nanotechnology, chemistry, biology, and medicine, especially those with an interest in sensors, biosensors, nanoswitches and nanodevices, diagnostics, drug delivery, and therapeutics.

Materials Nanoarchitectonics

Materials Nanoarchitectonics
Author: Katsuhiko Ariga,Mitsuhiro Ebara
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2018-05-29
ISBN 10: 3527342907
ISBN 13: 9783527342907
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Materials Nanoarchitectonics Book Review:

A unique overview of the manufacture of and applications for materials nanoarchitectonics, placing otherwise hard-to-find information in context. Edited by highly respected researchers from the most renowned materials science institute in Japan, the first part of this volume focuses on the fabrication and characterization of zero to three-dimensional nanomaterials, while the second part presents already existing as well as emerging applications in physics, chemistry, biology, and biomedicine.

Nano Drug Delivery Strategies for the Treatment of Cancers

Nano Drug Delivery Strategies for the Treatment of Cancers
Author: Awesh K. Yadav,Umesh Gupta,Rajeev Sharma
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 374
Release: 2020-09-03
ISBN 10: 0128197943
ISBN 13: 9780128197943
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nano Drug Delivery Strategies for the Treatment of Cancers Book Review:

Nano Drug Delivery Strategies for the Treatment of Cancers discusses several current and promising approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer by using the most recent developments in nanomedical technologies. The book presents introductory information about the biology of different types of cancer in order to provide the reader with knowledge on their specificities. In addition, it discusses various novel drug delivery systems, detailing their functionalities, expected outcomes and future developments in the field, focusing on brain, mouth and throat, breast, lung, liver, pancreas, stomach, colon, bool, skin and prostate cancers. The book is a valuable source for cancer researchers, oncologists, pharmacologists and nanotechnologists who are interested in novel drug delivery systems and devices for treatment of various types of cancer that take advantage of recent advances in this exciting field. Discusses a wide range of promising approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer using the latest advancement in cutting-edge nanomedical technologies Provides foundational information on different types of cancer and their biology to help the reader choose the best nano drug delivery system for patients Presents novel drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles, microparticles, liposomes, self-assembling Micelles and block copolymer micelles

Nanobiotechnology in Diagnosis Drug Delivery and Treatment

Nanobiotechnology in Diagnosis  Drug Delivery and Treatment
Author: Mahendra Rai,Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh,Avinash P. Ingle
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2020-11-10
ISBN 10: 1119671795
ISBN 13: 9781119671794
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanobiotechnology in Diagnosis Drug Delivery and Treatment Book Review:

Presents nanobiotechnology in drug delivery and disease management Featuring contributions from noted experts in the field, this book highlights recent advances in the nano-based drug delivery systems. It also covers the diagnosis and role of various nanomaterials in the management of infectious diseases and non-infectious disorders, such as cancers and other malignancies and their role in future medicine. Nanobiotechnology in Diagnosis, Drug Delivery and Treatment starts by introducing how nanotechnology has revolutionized drug delivery, diagnosis, and treatments of diseases. It then focuses on the role of various nanocomposites in diagnosis, drug delivery, and treatment of diseases like cancer, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and many others. Next, it discusses the application of a variety of nanomaterials in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal tract disorders. The book explains the concept of nanotheranostics in detail and its role in effective monitoring of drug response, targeted drug delivery, enhanced drug accumulation in the target tissues, sustained as well as triggered release of drugs, and reduction in adverse effects. Other chapters cover aptamer-incorporated nanoparticle systems; magnetic nanoparticles; theranostics and vaccines; toxicological concerns of nanomaterials used in nanomedicine; and more. Provides a concise overview of state-of-the-art nanomaterials and their application like drug delivery in infectious diseases and non-infectious disorders Highlights recent advances in the nano-based drug delivery systems and role of various nanomaterials Introduces nano-based sensors which detect various pathogens Covers the use of nanodevices in diagnostics and theranostics Nanobiotechnology in Diagnosis, Drug Delivery and Treatment is an ideal book for researchers and scientists working in various disciplines such as microbiology, biotechnology, nanotechnology, pharmaceutical biotechnology, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, and nanomedicine.

Nanosensors for Environmental Applications

Nanosensors for Environmental Applications
Author: Satish Kumar Tuteja,Divya Arora,Neeraj Dilbaghi,Eric Lichtfouse
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2020-04-28
ISBN 10: 3030381013
ISBN 13: 9783030381011
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanosensors for Environmental Applications Book Review:

This book provides a comprehensive overview on the most important types of nanosensor platforms explored and developed in the recent years for efficient detection of environmental/clinical analytes. The chapters cover basic aspects of functioning principles and describe the technologies and challenges of present and future pesticide, metal ions, toxic gases analytical sensing approaches and environmental sensors. Nanosensors are nanoscale miniature devices used for sensing of analyte in ultra-low range. These have gained considerable interest in environmental applications such as environmental chemistry and functionalization approaches, environmental engineering, sustainability, green technology for sensing, environmental health monitoring, pesticide detection, metal and ions detection using electrochemical and wireless sensor.

Concepts and Design of Materials Nanoarchitectonics

Concepts and Design of Materials Nanoarchitectonics
Author: Katsuhiko Ariga,Omar Azzaroni
Publsiher: ISSN
Total Pages: 450
Release: 2021-03-19
ISBN 10: 9781788018029
ISBN 13: 1788018028
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Concepts and Design of Materials Nanoarchitectonics Book Review:

This book covers introductory features underlying the field of nanoarchitectonices, presenting a unifying overview of the theoretical aspects and emerging applications that are changing the capability to understand and design advanced functional materials.

Supramolecular Chemistry of Biomimetic Systems

Supramolecular Chemistry of Biomimetic Systems
Author: Junbai Li
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 394
Release: 2017-10-10
ISBN 10: 9811060592
ISBN 13: 9789811060595
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Supramolecular Chemistry of Biomimetic Systems Book Review:

This book investigates the latest developments in supramolecular assembly systems for mimicking biological structures and functions. Consisting of 14 chapters, it covers various assembly systems, such as polysaccharides, peptides, proteins, biopolymers, natural materials and various hybrid systems. Further, it focuses on different types of supramolecular systems with particular functions or structures that are relevant to living systems. A number of modern techniques used to study the supramolecular systems, such as total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) and two-photon confocal microscopy, are also introduced in detail. Unlike conventional books on supramolecular assemblies, this book highlights the functions of the assembly systems, particularly their biological applications. As such, it offers a valuable resource for experienced researchers, as well as graduate students working in the field of supramolecular chemistry and biomimetic systems.

Chiral Nanomaterials

Chiral Nanomaterials
Author: Zhiyong Tang
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2018-02-05
ISBN 10: 3527337571
ISBN 13: 9783527337576
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chiral Nanomaterials Book Review:

Thorough and up-to-date, this book presents recent developments in this exciting research field. To begin with, the text covers the fabrication of chiral nanomaterials via various synthesis methods, including electron beam lithography, ion beam etching, chemical synthesis and biological DNA directed assembly. This is followed by the relevant theory and reaction mechanisms, with a discussion of the characterization of chiral nanomaterials according to the optical properties of metal nanoparticles, semiconductor nanocrystals, and nanoclusters. The whole is rounded off by a summary of applications in the field of catalysis, sensors, and biomedicine. With its comprehensive yet concise coverage of the whole spectrum of research, this is invaluable reading for senior researchers and entrants to the field of nanoscience and materials science.

DNA in Supramolecular Chemistry and Nanotechnology

DNA in Supramolecular Chemistry and Nanotechnology
Author: Eugen Stulz,Guido H. Clever
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 521
Release: 2015-09-28
ISBN 10: 1118696867
ISBN 13: 9781118696866
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

DNA in Supramolecular Chemistry and Nanotechnology Book Review:

This book covers the emerging topic of DNA nanotechnology and DNA supramolecular chemistry in its broader sense. By taking DNA out of its biological role, this biomolecule has become a very versatile building block in materials chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and bio-nanotechnology. Many novel structures have been realized in the past decade, which are now being used to create molecular machines, drug delivery systems, diagnosis platforms or potential electronic devices. The book combines many aspects of DNA nanotechnology, including formation of functional structures based on covalent and non-covalent systems, DNA origami, DNA based switches, DNA machines, and alternative structures and templates. This broad coverage is very appealing since it combines both the synthesis of modified DNA as well as designer concepts to successfully plan and make DNA nanostructures. Contributing authors have provided first a general introduction for the non-specialist reader, followed by a more in-depth analysis and presentation of their topic. In this way the book is attractive and useful for both the non-specialist who would like to have an overview of the topic, as well as the specialist reader who requires more information and inspiration to foster their own research.

Nanomaterials and Nanoarchitectures

Nanomaterials and Nanoarchitectures
Author: M. Bardosova,T. Wagner
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 343
Release: 2015-08-31
ISBN 10: 9401799210
ISBN 13: 9789401799218
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanomaterials and Nanoarchitectures Book Review:

The current work consists of nine contributions describing recent progress in the interdisciplinary of Nanoscience, which involves physics, chemistry, engineering, biology and medicine and one essay outlining some important historical and socioeconomic factors pertaining to recent developments in nanoscale science and technology. All 10 chapters have been written by eminent experts in their respective fields. The authors employ the terms ‘nanomaterials’ as building blocks of a range of materials, ‘nanoarchitecture’ represents the design and ‘nanotechnology’ the means to produce a particular device or functionality. Two of the chapters are devoted to novel materials and two others focus on analyzing techniques, which can be used to enable molecular control of the film architecture. Additionally, the reader will find material devoted to photonic and hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystals as well as sections which address their applications, such as the use of plasmonic particles and nanostructures for new sensing concepts and ultrasensitive detection techniques. This work will be of interest to graduate students, researchers and practitioners alike.

Bioorganic Chemistry

Bioorganic Chemistry
Author: H. Dugas,C. Penney
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 508
Release: 2013-03-13
ISBN 10: 1468400959
ISBN 13: 9781468400953
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioorganic Chemistry Book Review:

Springer Advanced Texts in Chemistry New textbooks at all levels of chemistry appear with great regularity. Some fields like basic biochemistry, organic reaction mechanisms, and chemical ther modynamics are well represented by many excellent texts, and new or revised editions are published sufficiently often to keep up with progress in research. However, some areas of chemistry, especially many of those taught at the graduate level, suffer from a real lack of up-to-date textbooks. The most serious needs occur in fields that are rapidly changing. Textbooks in these subjects usually have to be written by scientists actually involved in the research which is advancing the field. It is not often easy to persuade such individuals to set time aside to help spread the knowledge they have accumulated. Our goal, in this series, is to pinpoint areas of chemistry where recent progress has outpaced what is covered in any available textbooks, and then seek out and persuade experts in these fields to produce relatively concise but instructive introductions to their fields. These should serve the needs of one semester or one quarter graduate courses in chemistry and biochemistry. In some cases the availability of texts in active research areas should help stimulate the creation of new courses. New York, New York CHARLES R.

Chemistry of Polymeric Metal Chelates

Chemistry of Polymeric Metal Chelates
Author: Gulzhian I. Dzhardimalieva,Igor E. Uflyand
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 1020
Release: 2018-02-13
ISBN 10: 3319560247
ISBN 13: 9783319560243
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chemistry of Polymeric Metal Chelates Book Review:

This book deals with the chemistry of polymeric metal chelates. The main results and the production and chemical structure of polymers with chelate units as well as the specificity of metal complex binding of different structure are presented here. This book also reveals the transformations which components undergo in the course of chelation. Special attention is paid not only to synthetic but also to natural (including living) systems. The usage of polymeric metal chelates and their development are examined. The related research was performed for chelates with chain structure. This book is useful to researchers being active in synthesis and design of macromolecular metal chelates

Metallo Supramolecular Polymers

Metallo Supramolecular Polymers
Author: Masayoshi Higuchi
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 89
Release: 2019-11-12
ISBN 10: 4431568913
ISBN 13: 9784431568919
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Metallo Supramolecular Polymers Book Review:

This book introduces the synthesis, electrochemical and photochemical properties, and device applications of metallo-supramolecular polymers, new kinds of polymers synthesized by the complexation of metal ions and organic ditopic ligands. Their electrochemical and photochemical properties are also interesting and much different from conventional organic polymers. The properties come from the electronic intra-chain interaction between the metal ions and the ligands in the polymer chain. In this book, for example, the electrochromism that the Fe(II)-based metallo-supramolecular polymer exhibits is described: the blue color of the polymer film disappears by the electrochemical oxidation of Fe(II) ions to Fe(III) and the colorless film becomes blue again by the electrochemical reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). The electrochromism is explained by the disappearance/appearance of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer absorption. The electrochromic properties are applicable to display devices such as electronic paper and smart windows.

Fullerene Nanowhiskers

Fullerene Nanowhiskers
Author: Kun'ichi Miyazawa,Masaru Tachibana,Tadahiko Mashino,Tokushi Kizuka,Yuichi Ochiai
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 242
Release: 2016-04-19
ISBN 10: 9814267635
ISBN 13: 9789814267632
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fullerene Nanowhiskers Book Review:

This book provides detailed knowledge about fullerene nanowhiskers and the related low-dimensional fullerene nanomaterials. It introduces tubular nanofibers made of fullerenes, fullerene nanotubes, and single crystalline thin film made of C60, called fullerene nanosheet. Since the discovery of C60 in 1985, various fullerene molecules, including higher fullerenes such as C70, endohedral fullerenes, and fullerene derivatives have been synthesized. In 2001, a new form of crystalline carbon nanofiber, fullerene nanowhisker, was discovered. This book is the first publication featuring the fullerene nanowhiskers made of C60, C70, and C60 derivatives. The synthetic method (liquid–liquid interfacial precipitation method) and the physical and chemical properties such as electrical, mechanical, optical, magnetic, thermodynamic, and surface properties are shown for the fullerene nanowhiskers, including their electronic device application.

Surface Chemistry of Nanobiomaterials

Surface Chemistry of Nanobiomaterials
Author: Alexandru Grumezescu
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 528
Release: 2016-02-03
ISBN 10: 0323428843
ISBN 13: 9780323428842
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Surface Chemistry of Nanobiomaterials Book Review:

Surface Chemistry of Nanobiomaterials brings together the most recent findings regarding the surface modification of currently used nanomaterials, which is a field that has become increasingly important during the last decade. This book enables the results of current research to reach those who wish to use this knowledge in an applied setting. Leading researchers from around the world present various types of nanobiomaterials, such as quantum dots (QDs), carbon nanotubes, silver nanoparticles, copper oxide, zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, magnetite, hydroxyapatite and graphene, and discuss their related functionalization strategies. This book will be of interest to postdoctoral researchers, professors and students engaged in the fields of materials science, biotechnology and applied chemistry. It will also be highly valuable to those working in industry, including pharmaceutics and biotechnology companies, medical researchers, biomedical engineers and advanced clinicians. An up-to-date and highly structured reference source for researchers, practitioners and students working in biomedical, biotechnological and engineering fields A valuable guide to recent scientific developments, covering major and emerging applications of nanomaterials in the biomedical field Proposes novel opportunities and ideas for developing or improving technologies in nanomedicine and nanobiology

Functional Organic Liquids

Functional Organic Liquids
Author: Takashi Nakanishi
Publsiher: Wiley-VCH
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2019-04-01
ISBN 10: 3527341900
ISBN 13: 9783527341900
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Functional Organic Liquids Book Review:

The first book to comprehensively cover the burgeoning new class of soft materials known as functional organic liquids Functional organic liquids, a new concept in soft matter materials science, exhibit favorable properties compared to amorphous polymers and ionic liquids. They are composed of a functional core unit and a side chain, which induces fluidity even at room temperature. Due to their fluidity, functional organic liquids can adopt any shape and geometry and fulfill their function in stretchable and bendable devices for applications in photovoltaics, organic electronics, biomedicine, and biochemistry. Presented in five parts, this book starts with an overview of the design methods and properties of functional organic liquids. The next three parts focus on the applications of this exciting new class of soft materials in the fields of energy conversion, nanotechnology, and biomaterials. They study the liquids for energy conversion, those containing inorganic nanoclusters, and solvent-free soft biomaterials. Functional Organic Liquids concludes with a comparison in terms of properties and application potential between functional organic liquids and more conventional soft matter such as ionic liquids and liquid metals. -Examines the current state of science and technology for functional organic liquids -Focuses on potential and already realized applications such as functional organic liquids for energy conversion -Stimulates researchers to move forward on future development and applications Functional Organic Liquids is an excellent book for materials scientists, polymer chemists, organic chemists, physical chemists, surface chemists, and surface physicists.