Advanced Oxidation Processes for Effluent Treatment Plants

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Effluent Treatment Plants
Author: Maulin P. Shah
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 342
Release: 2020-07-03
ISBN 10: 0128226250
ISBN 13: 9780128226254
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Effluent Treatment Plants Book Review:

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Effluent Treatment Plants provides a complete overview of the recent advances made in oxidation-based water treatment processes, including their limitations, challenges and potential applications in removing environmental pollutants. The book introduces new trends and advances in environmental bioremediation technology with a thorough discussion of recent developments in this field, with multiple biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes presented in detail. Additionally, every chapter explains the wastewater treatment plants that utilize these methods, illustrating them in terms of plant size, layout, design and installation location. New trends and advances in environmental bioremediation technology are also covered. This is the go-to resources for engineers and scientists requiring an introduction to the principles of environmental bioremediation technologies. Illustrates the importance of various advance oxidation processes in effluent treatment plants Highlights the reuse and recovery of resources from wastewater Examines the occurrence of novel micro-pollutants Emphasizes the role of nanotechnology in the bioremediation of pollutants Introduces new trends in environmental bioremediation

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment
Author: Mihaela I. Stefan
Publsiher: IWA Publishing
Total Pages: 710
Release: 2017-09-15
ISBN 10: 1780407181
ISBN 13: 9781780407180
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment Book Review:

Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) rely on the efficient generation of reactive radical species and are increasingly attractive options for water remediation from a wide variety of organic micropollutants of human health and/or environmental concern. Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment covers the key advanced oxidation processes developed for chemical contaminant destruction in polluted water sources, some of which have been implemented successfully at water treatment plants around the world. The book is structured in two sections; the first part is dedicated to the most relevant AOPs, whereas the topics covered in the second section include the photochemistry of chemical contaminants in the aquatic environment, advanced water treatment for water reuse, implementation of advanced treatment processes for drinking water production at a state-of-the art water treatment plant in Europe, advanced treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater, and green technologies for water remediation. The advanced oxidation processes discussed in the book cover the following aspects: - Process principles including the most recent scientific findings and interpretation. - Classes of compounds suitable to AOP treatment and examples of reaction mechanisms. - Chemical and photochemical degradation kinetics and modelling. - Water quality impact on process performance and practical considerations on process parameter selection criteria. - Process limitations and byproduct formation and strategies to mitigate any potential adverse effects on the treated water quality. - AOP equipment design and economics considerations. - Research studies and outcomes. - Case studies relevant to process implementation to water treatment. - Commercial applications. - Future research needs. Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment presents the most recent scientific and technological achievements in process understanding and implementation, and addresses to anyone interested in water remediation, including water industry professionals, consulting engineers, regulators, academics, students. Editor: Mihaela I. Stefan - Trojan Technologies - Canada

Advanced Oxidation Processes

Advanced Oxidation Processes
Author: Ciro Bustillo-Lecompte
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 182
Release: 2020-06-10
ISBN 10: 1789848903
ISBN 13: 9781789848908
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Oxidation Processes Book Review:

Advanced Oxidation Processes – Applications, Trends, and Prospects constitutes a comprehensive resource for civil, chemical, and environmental engineers researching in the field of water and wastewater treatment. The book covers the fundamentals, applications, and future work in Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) as an attractive alternative and a complementary treatment option to conventional methods. This book also presents state-of-the-art research on AOPs and heterogeneous catalysis while covering recent progress and trends, including the application of AOPs at the laboratory, pilot, or industrial scale, the combination of AOPs with other technologies, hybrid processes, process intensification, reactor design, scale-up, and optimization. The book is divided into four sections: Introduction to Advanced Oxidation Processes, General Concepts of Heterogeneous Catalysis, Fenton and Ferrate in Wastewater Treatment, and Industrial Applications, Trends, and Prospects.

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment
Author: Simon Parsons
Publsiher: IWA Publishing
Total Pages: 356
Release: 2004-01-01
ISBN 10: 1843390175
ISBN 13: 9781843390176
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment Book Review:

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewa

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment
Author: Suresh C Ameta,Rakshit Ameta
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 428
Release: 2018-02-19
ISBN 10: 0128105259
ISBN 13: 9780128105252
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment Book Review:

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Waste Water Treatment: Emerging Green Chemical Technology is a complete resource covering the fundamentals and applications of all Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). This book presents the most up-to-date research on AOPs and makes the argument that AOPs offer an eco-friendly method of wastewater treatment. In addition to an overview of the fundamentals and applications, it details the reactive species involved, along with sections on reactor designs, thus helping readers understand and implement these methods. Presents in-depth coverage of all types of Advanced Oxidation Processes, including Super Critical Water Oxidation, Photo-Fenton and Like Processes Includes a fundamental review, applications, reactive species and reactor designs Reviews applications across waste types, including industrial waste, domestic and municipal sewage, and hospital wastes

Advanced Water Treatment

Advanced Water Treatment
Author: Mika Sillanpaa
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 382
Release: 2020-01-08
ISBN 10: 0128192283
ISBN 13: 9780128192283
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Water Treatment Book Review:

Advanced Water Treatment: Electrochemical Methods reviews the current state-of-the-art in the electrochemical-based methods for water treatment, the effectiveness of the electrochemical oxidation technique in inactivating different primary biofilm forming paper mill bacteria, as well as sulfide and organic material in pulp and paper mill wastewater in laboratory-scale batch experiments. Various electrodes are described, including boron-doped diamond, mixed metal oxide, PbO2, and their impacts on inactivation efficiency of parameters, such as current density and initial pH or chloride concentration of synthetic paper machine water. The mechanisms of action of various electrodes in different systems are reported. The book is a source of information for environmental and chemical engineers due to the number of methods and industry-focused application cases and researchers who study the transition from a laboratory environment to practical applications. Includes the most recent research on advanced water treatment by electrochemical methods Describes the use of electrochemical cleaning of paper mill wastewaters Includes techniques for cleaning mining waters and removal of organic pollutants by electrochemical methods

Advanced Oxidation Processes AOPs in Water and Wastewater Treatment

Advanced Oxidation Processes  AOPs  in Water and Wastewater Treatment
Author: Aziz, Hamidi Abdul,Abu Amr, Salem S.
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 501
Release: 2018-08-03
ISBN 10: 1522557679
ISBN 13: 9781522557678
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Oxidation Processes AOPs in Water and Wastewater Treatment Book Review:

Population growth and industrial development have increased the amount of wastewater generated by urban areas, and one of the major problems facing industrialized nations is the contamination of the environment by hazardous chemicals. Therefore, to meet the standards, suitable treatment alternatives should be established. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) in Water and Wastewater Treatment is a pivotal reference source that provides vital research on the current, green, and advanced technologies for wastewater treatment. While highlighting topics such as groundwater treatment, environmental legislation, and oxidation processes, this publication explores the contamination of environments by hazardous chemicals as well as the methods of decontamination and the reduction of negative effects on the environment. This book is a vital reference source for environmental engineers, waste authorities, solid waste management companies, landfill operators, legislators, environmentalists, and academicians seeking current research on achieving sustainable management for wastewater treatment.

Toxicity of Micropollutants During Advanced Oxidation Processes

Toxicity of Micropollutants During Advanced Oxidation Processes
Author: Richard Jessica
Publsiher: Sudwestdeutscher Verlag Fur Hochschulschriften AG
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2014-04
ISBN 10: 9783838137995
ISBN 13: 383813799X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Toxicity of Micropollutants During Advanced Oxidation Processes Book Review:

The main source for the detection of organic micropollutants in surface water is their incomplete removal during conventional waste water treatment processes. The use of advanced oxidation processes might therefore be a useful method to overcome this problem, and to degrade micropollutnats by the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. This study was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological properties (cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and estrogenic) of several substances before and after ozonation or UV/H2O2 treatment in either waste water treatment plant effluents or HPLC-water using toxicological in vitro methods. In general it can be said that ozonation as well as the oxidation using a combination of UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide are two useful methods for the removal of the here tested substances from the effluents of waste water treatment plants in regard to their degradation and to prevent the formation of toxic oxidation by-products. The successful use of toxicological in vitro methods for the detection of biological effects of waste water treatment plant effluents in combination with advanced oxidation processes has also been shown.

The Future of Effluent Treatment Plants

The Future of Effluent Treatment Plants
Author: Maulin P. Shah,Susana Rodriguez-Couto,Kavit Mehta
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 804
Release: 2021-05-28
ISBN 10: 0128231041
ISBN 13: 9780128231043
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Future of Effluent Treatment Plants Book Review:

The Future of Effluent Treatment Plants: Biological Treatment Systems is an advanced and updated version of existing biological technologies that includes their limitations, challenges, and potential application to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD), refractory chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), color removal and environmental pollutants through advancements in microbial bioremediation. The book introduces new trends and advances in environmental bioremediation with thorough discussions of recent developments. In addition, it illustrates that the application of these new emerging innovative technologies can lead to energy savings and resource recovery. The importance of respiration, nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphorus removal processes in the development of a fruitful and applicable solution for the removal of toxic pollutants from wastewater treatment plants is highlighted. Equally important is the knowledge and theoretical modeling of water movement through wastewater ecosystems. Finally, emphasis is given to the function of constructed wetlands and activated sludge processes. Considers different types of industrial wastewater Focuses on biological wastewater treatments Introduces new trends in bioremediation Addresses the future of WWTPs

Emerging Technologies in Environmental Bioremediation

Emerging Technologies in Environmental Bioremediation
Author: Maulin P. Shah,Susana Rodriguez-Couto,S. Sevinc Sengor
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 498
Release: 2020-04-18
ISBN 10: 0128198613
ISBN 13: 9780128198612
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emerging Technologies in Environmental Bioremediation Book Review:

Emerging Technologies in Environmental Bioremediation introduces emerging bioremediation technologies for the treatment and management of industrial wastes and other environmental pollutants for the sake of environmental sustainability. Emerging bioremediation approaches such as nano-bioremediation technology, electro-bioremediation technology, microbial fuel cell technology, Modified Ludzack-Ettinger Process, Modified Activated Sludge Process, and phytotechnologies for the remediation of industrial wastes/pollutants are discussed in a comprehensive manner not found in other books. Furthermore, the book includes updated information as well as future directions for research in the field of bioremediation of industrial wastes. This book will be extremely useful to students, researchers, scientists and professionals in the field of microbiology and biotechnology, Bio (chemical) engineers, environmental researchers, eco-toxicology, and many more. Includes the recovery of resources from wastewater Describes the importance of microorganisms in environmental bioremediation technologies Points out the reuse of treated wastewater through emerging technologies Pays attention to the occurrence of novel micro-pollutants Emphasizes the role of nanotechnology in pollutant bioremediation

Enhanced Removal of Trace Organic Chemicals from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Using UV based Advanced Oxidation Processes

Enhanced Removal of Trace Organic Chemicals from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Using UV based Advanced Oxidation Processes
Author: David B. Miklos
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2018
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1198013691
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Enhanced Removal of Trace Organic Chemicals from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Using UV based Advanced Oxidation Processes Book Review:

Food Industrial Processes

Food Industrial Processes
Author: Benjamin Valdez
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 426
Release: 2012-02-22
ISBN 10: 9533079053
ISBN 13: 9789533079059
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Food Industrial Processes Book Review:

The global food industry has the largest number of demanding and knowledgeable consumers: the world population of seven billion inhabitants, since every person eats! This population requires food products that fulfill the high quality standards established by the food industry organizations. Food shortages threaten human health and are aggravated by the disastrous, extreme climatic events such as floods, droughts, fires, storms connected to climate change, global warming and greenhouse gas emissions that modify the environment and, consequently, the production of foods in the agriculture and husbandry sectors. This collection of articles is a timely contribution to issues relating to the food industry. They were selected for use as a primer, an investigation guide and documentation based on modern, scientific and technical references. This volume is therefore appropriate for use by university researchers and practicing food developers and producers. The control of food processing and production is not only discussed in scientific terms; engineering, economic and financial aspects are also considered for the advantage of food industry managers.

Enhanced Emoval of Trace Organic Chemicals from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Using UV based Advanced Oxidation Processes

Enhanced Emoval of Trace Organic Chemicals from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Using UV based Advanced Oxidation Processes
Author: David Barna Miklos
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2018
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1100038794
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Enhanced Emoval of Trace Organic Chemicals from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Using UV based Advanced Oxidation Processes Book Review:

Removal of Refractory Pollutants from Wastewater Treatment Plants

Removal of Refractory Pollutants from Wastewater Treatment Plants
Author: Maulin P. Shah
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 582
Release: 2021-10-08
ISBN 10: 1000435261
ISBN 13: 9781000435269
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Removal of Refractory Pollutants from Wastewater Treatment Plants Book Review:

This book discusses new and innovative trends and techniques in the removal of toxic and or refractory pollutants through various environmental biotechnological processes from wastewater, both at the laboratory and industrial scale. It focuses primarily on environmentally-friendly technologies which respect the principles of sustainable development, including the advanced trends in remediation through an approach of environmental biotechnological processes from either industrial or sewage wastewater. Features: Examines the fate and occurrence of refractory pollutants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the potential approaches for their removal. Highlights advanced remediation procedures involving various microbiological and biochemical processes. Assesses and compares the potential application of numerous existing treatment techniques and introduces new, emerging technologies. Removal of Refractory Pollutants from Wastewater Treatment Plants is suitable for practicing engineers, researchers, water utility managers, and students who seek an excellent introduction and basic knowledge in the principles of environmental bioremediation technologies.

Electrokinetic Remediation for Environmental Security and Sustainability

Electrokinetic Remediation for Environmental Security and Sustainability
Author: Alexandra B. Ribeiro,Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 720
Release: 2021-03-22
ISBN 10: 111967011X
ISBN 13: 9781119670117
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electrokinetic Remediation for Environmental Security and Sustainability Book Review:

Electrokinetic Remediation for Environmental Security and Sustainability Explore this comprehensive reference on the remediation of contaminated substrates, filled with cutting-edge research and practical case studies Electrokinetic Remediation for Environmental Security and Sustainability delivers a thorough review of electrokinetic remediation (EKR) for the treatment of inorganic and organic contaminants in contaminated substrates. The book highlights recent progress and developments in EKR in the areas of resource recovery, the removal of pollutants, and environmental remediation. It also discusses the use of EKR in conjunction with nanotechnology and phytoremediation. Throughout the book, case studies are presented that involve the field implementation of EKR technologies. The book also includes discussions of enhanced electrokinetic remediation of dredged co-contaminated sediments, solar-powered bioelectrokinetics for the mitigation of contaminated agricultural soil, advanced electro-fenton for remediation of organics, electrokinetic remediation for PPCPs in contaminated substrates, and the electrokinetic remediation of agrochemicals such as organochlorine compounds. Other topics include: A thorough introduction to the modelling of electrokinetic remediation An exploration of the electrokinetic recovery of tungsten and removal of arsenic from mining secondary resources An analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater treatment plants with a discussion of electrochemical advanced oxidation as an on-site treatment A review of rare earth elements, including general concepts and recovery techniques, like electrodialytic extraction A treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in cold climate conditions Perfect for environmental engineers and scientists, geologists, chemical engineers, biochemical engineers, and scientists working with green technology, Electrokinetic Remediation for Environmental Security and Sustainability will also earn a place in the libraries of academic and industry researchers, engineers, regulators, and policy makers with an interest in the remediation of contaminated natural resources.

Physico Chemical Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery

Physico Chemical Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery
Author: Robina Farooq,Zaki Ahmad
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 278
Release: 2017-05-03
ISBN 10: 953513129X
ISBN 13: 9789535131298
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physico Chemical Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery Book Review:

The book on Physico-Chemical Treatment of Wastewater and Resource Recovery provides an efficient and low-cost solution for remediation of wastewater. This book focuses on physico-chemical treatment via advanced oxidation process, adsorption, its management and recovery of valuable chemicals. It discusses treatment and recovery process for the range of pollutants including BTX, PCB, PCDDs, proteins, phenols, antibiotics, complex organic compounds and metals. The occurrence of persistent pollutants poses deleterious effects on human and environmental health. Simple solutions for recovery of valuable chemicals and water during physico-chemical treatment of wastewater are discussed extensively. This book provides necessary knowledge and experimental studies on emerging physico-chemical processes for reducing water pollution and resource recovery.

Combined Application of Physico Chemical Microbiological Processes for Industrial Effluent Treatment Plant

Combined Application of Physico Chemical   Microbiological Processes for Industrial Effluent Treatment Plant
Author: Maulin Shah,Aditi Banerjee
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 407
Release: 2020-03-30
ISBN 10: 9811504970
ISBN 13: 9789811504976
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Combined Application of Physico Chemical Microbiological Processes for Industrial Effluent Treatment Plant Book Review:

In recent decades, scientific insight into the chemistry of water has increased enormously, leading to the development of advanced wastewater and water purification technologies. However, the quality of freshwater resources has continually deteriorated worldwide, both in industrialized and developing countries. Although traditional wastewater technologies focus on the removal of suspended solids, nutrients and bacteria, hundreds of organic pollutants occur in wastewater and urban surface waters. These new pollutants are synthetic or naturally occurring chemicals that are not often monitored in the environment but have the potential to enter the environment and cause known or suspected adverse ecological and / or human health effects. Collectively referred to as the "emerging contaminants," they are mostly derived from domestic use and occur in trace concentrations ranging from pico to micrograms per liter. Environmental contaminants are resistant to conventional wastewater treatment processes and most of them remain unaffected, leading to the contamination of the receiving water. As such, there is a need for advanced wastewater treatment process that is capable of removing environmental contaminants to ensure safe fresh water supplies. This book explains the biological and chemical wastewater treatment technologies. The biological wastewater treatment processes presented include: (1) bioremediation of wastewater such as aerobic and anaerobic treatment; (2) phytoremediation of wastewater using engineered wetlands, rhizofiltration, rhizodegradation, phytodegradation, phytoaccumulation, phytotransformation and hyperaccumulators; and (3) mycoremediation of wastewater. The chemical wastewater treatment processes discussed include chemical precipitation, ion exchange, neutralization, adsorption and disinfection. In addition, the book describes wastewater treatment plants in terms of plant size, layout and design as well as installation location. Also presenting the latest, innovative effluent water treatment processes, it is a valuable resource for biochemical and wastewater treatment engineers, environmental scientists and environmental microbiologists.

Frontiers in Wastewater Treatment and Modelling

Frontiers in Wastewater Treatment and Modelling
Author: Giorgio Mannina
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 745
Release: 2017-05-04
ISBN 10: 3319584219
ISBN 13: 9783319584218
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Frontiers in Wastewater Treatment and Modelling Book Review:

This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contributions were selected by means of a rigorous peer-review process and highlight many exciting ideas that will spur novel research directions and foster multidisciplinary collaboration among different water specialists.

Emerging and Nanomaterial Contaminants in Wastewater

Emerging and Nanomaterial Contaminants in Wastewater
Author: Ajay Kumar Mishra,Hossain Md Anawar,Nadjib Drouiche
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 378
Release: 2019-11-01
ISBN 10: 0128146745
ISBN 13: 9780128146743
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emerging and Nanomaterial Contaminants in Wastewater Book Review:

Emerging and Nanomaterial Contaminants in Wastewater: Advanced Treatment Technologies describes the state-of-the-art of remediation technologies, such as those involving nanotechnology, filtration devices (e.g. membranes), strategies involving adsorption and precipitation processes, development of new sorbents, nanosorbents, biosorbents, green technology, bio-electrokinetics, degradation of pollutants, advanced oxidative process, oxidative electrochemical and photocatalytic processes, catalytic degradation, and emerging hybrid technologies, such as photocatalyst membrane photoreactors using TiO2. Scientists and researchers in academia and industry will benefit from this comprehensive resource on the fundamental science behind the mechanisms at which wastewater sources can be purified from emerging contaminants. Provides a fundamental understanding of emerging contaminants to help readers select appropriate remediation technologies Discusses, in detail, new and advanced green technologies that remove emerging contaminants from wastewater Shows how to ensure water quality and save public health by protecting water resources from contaminants

Phenolic Compounds

Phenolic Compounds
Author: Marcos Soto-Hernández,Mariana Palma Tenango,Rosario García-Mateos
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 456
Release: 2017-03-15
ISBN 10: 9535129570
ISBN 13: 9789535129578
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phenolic Compounds Book Review:

Phenolic compounds as a large class of metabolites found in plants have attracted attention since long time ago due to their properties and the hope that they will show beneficial health effects when taken as dietary supplements. This book presents the state of the art of some of the natural sources of phenolic compounds, for example, medicinal plants, grapes or blue maize, as well as the modern methods of extraction, quantification, and identification, and there is a special section discussing the treatment, removal, and degradation of phenols, an important issue in those phenols derived from the pharmaceutical or petrochemical industries.