Accident Tolerant Materials for Light Water Reactor Fuels

Accident Tolerant Materials for Light Water Reactor Fuels
Author: Raul B. Rebak
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 236
Release: 2020-01-06
ISBN 10: 0128175036
ISBN 13: 9780128175033
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Accident Tolerant Materials for Light Water Reactor Fuels Book Review:

Accident Tolerant Materials for Light Water Reactor Fuels provides a description of what an accident tolerant fuel is and the benefits and detriments of each concept. The book begins with an introduction to nuclear power as a renewable energy source and the current materials being utilized in light water reactors. It then moves on to discuss the recent advancements being made in accident tolerant fuels, reviewing the specific materials, their fabrication and implementation, environmental resistance, irradiation behavior, and licensing requirements. The book concludes with a look to the future of new power generation technologies. It is written for scientists and engineers working in the nuclear power industry and is the first comprehensive work on this topic. Introduces the fundamental description of accident tolerant fuel, including fabrication and implementation Describes both the benefits and detriments of the various Accident Tolerant Fuel concepts Includes information on the process of materials selection with a discussion of how and why specific materials were chosen, as well as why others failed

Ferritic Alloys as Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Material for Light Water Reactors

Ferritic Alloys as Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Material for Light Water Reactors
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 74
Release: 2014
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:925447425
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ferritic Alloys as Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Material for Light Water Reactors Book Review:

The objective of the GE project is to demonstrate that advanced steels such as iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys could be used as accident tolerant fuel cladding material in commercial light water reactors. The GE project does not include fuel development. Current findings support the concept that a FeCrAl alloy could be used for the cladding of commercial nuclear fuel. The use of this alloy will benefit the public since it is going to make the power generating light water reactors safer. In the Phase 1A of this cost shared project, GE (GRC + GNF) teamed with the University of Michigan, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the environmental and mechanical behavior of more than eight candidate cladding material both under normal operation conditions of commercial nuclear reactors and under accident conditions in superheated steam (loss of coolant condition). The main findings are as follows: (1) Under normal operation conditions the candidate alloys (e.g. APMT, Alloy 33) showed excellent resistance to general corrosion, shadow corrosion and to environmentally assisted cracking. APMT also showed resistance to proton irradiation up to 5 dpa. (2) Under accident conditions the selected candidate materials showed several orders of magnitude improvement in the reaction with superheated steam as compared with the current zirconium based alloys. (3) Tube fabrication feasibility studies of FeCrAl alloys are underway. The aim is to obtain a wall thickness that is below 400 μm. (4) A strategy is outlined for the regulatory path approval and for the insertion of a lead fuel assembly in a commercial reactor by 2022. (5) The GE team worked closely with INL to have four rodlets tested in the ATR. GE provided the raw stock for the alloys, the fuel for the rodlets and the cost for fabrication/welding of the rodlets. INL fabricated the rodlets and the caps and welded them to provide hermetic seal. The replacement of a zirconium alloy using a ferritic material containing chromium and aluminum appears to be the most near term implementation for accident tolerant nuclear fuels.

Electrochemical Behavior of Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials Under Simulated Light Water Reactor Conditions

Electrochemical Behavior of Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials Under Simulated Light Water Reactor Conditions
Author: Young-Jin Kim,Timothy B. Jurewicz
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 13
Release: 2019
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1251658844
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electrochemical Behavior of Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials Under Simulated Light Water Reactor Conditions Book Review:

After the Fukushima reactor accidents following Japan's March 2011 tsunami, the U.S. Department of Energy engaged with nuclear fuel vendors to develop improved fuels for the current fleet of light water power reactors. General Electric and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have proposed using iron-chrome-aluminum (FeCrAl) ferritic alloys as cladding material for the existing uranium dioxide fuel (UO2). This is a simple approach that leaves unchanged the present coolable geometry in the reactor. FeCrAl alloys have outstanding resistance, in accident conditions, to attack by superheated steam compared to the current zirconium alloys. Since ferritic FeCrAl alloys have not been used before in nuclear power reactors, extensive characterization has been performed to determine their behavior in light water reactor conditions (e.g., normal operation and accident). The present work deals with the electrochemical behavior of the newer alloys in high-temperature water (near 300°C) containing either excess hydrogen gas or excess oxygen. Results show that chromium-containing ferritic FeCrAl have similar electrochemical high-temperature behavior like other common existing reactor alloys containing chromium for passivation (such as X-750, Alloy 600, and Type 304SS). The use of FeCrAl alloy cladding would also eliminate existing common degradation mechanisms such as shadow corrosion in boiling water reactors.

Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics

Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2014
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:967919719
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics Book Review:

The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation's nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States' nuclear industry. As a result, continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to industry's success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) initiated an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Development program. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing qualitative attributes is critical to guide the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. This report summarizes a common set of technical evaluation metrics to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs. As used herein, "metrics" describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. Furthermore, this report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to assess the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 - zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed for lead test rod or lead test assembly insertion into a commercial reactor within the desired timeframe (by 2022).

Analysis of Options and Experimental Examination of Fuels for Water Cooled Reactors with Increased Accident Tolerance Actof

Analysis of Options and Experimental Examination of Fuels for Water Cooled Reactors with Increased Accident Tolerance  Actof
Author: International Atomic Energy Agency
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 179
Release: 2020-10-12
ISBN 10: 9789201141200
ISBN 13: 9201141203
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Analysis of Options and Experimental Examination of Fuels for Water Cooled Reactors with Increased Accident Tolerance Actof Book Review:

There is high interest in new fuel types with increased accident tolerance. These range from using an oxidation resistant coating on zirconium based cladding to alternate fuel and cladding materials. These new fuels/claddings under development must be licensed before being deployed industrially and therefore research is being undertaken to assess their behaviour in various conditions. This publication arises from an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) dealing with the acquisition of data through experiments on new fuel types and cladding materials and the development of modelling capacity to predict the behaviour of the components and the integral performance of accident tolerant fuel designs under normal and transient conditions. Demonstrations of improvements under severe accident conditions were documented. Several coated cladding materials were produced, tested, characterized and analysed in round robin tests carried out within the CRP. For improvement and validation of fuel performance codes, several benchmarks were organized to compare and analyse predictions of the extended codes. The findings and conclusions of the CRP are summarized in this publication.

State of the Art Report on Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuels

State of the Art Report on Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuels
Author: Nuclear Energy Agency
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 372
Release: 2018
ISBN 10: 9789264308343
ISBN 13: 9264308342
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

State of the Art Report on Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuels Book Review:

As part of a broader spectrum of collaborative activities underpinning nuclear materials research, the Nuclear Energy Agency is supporting worldwide efforts towards the development of advanced materials, including fuels for partitioning and transmutation purposes and accident-tolerant fuels (ATFs). This state-of-the-art report on ATFs results from the collective work of experts from 35 institutions in 14 NEA member countries, alongside invited technical experts from the People's Republic of China. It represents a shared and consensual position, based on expert judgment, concerning the scientific and technological knowledge related to ATFs. The report reviews available information on the most promising fuels and cladding concepts in terms of properties, experimental data and modelling results, as well as ongoing research and development activities. It also includes a description of illustrative accident scenarios that may be adopted to assess the potential performance enhancement of ATFs relative to the current standard fuel systems in accident conditions, a definition of the technology readiness levels applicable to ATFs, a survey of available modelling and simulation tools (fuel performance and severe accident analysis codes), and the experimental facilities available to support the development of ATF concepts. The information included in this report will be useful for national programmes and industrial stakeholders as an input to setting priorities, and helping them to choose the most appropriate technology based on their specific strategy, business case and deployment schedules.

Assessment of Reactivity Equivalence for Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels in Light Water Reactors

Assessment of Reactivity Equivalence for Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels in Light Water Reactors
Author: Nathan Michael George
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 136
Release: 2015
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1016157267
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Assessment of Reactivity Equivalence for Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels in Light Water Reactors Book Review:

Thermal Hydraulics of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts and a Preliminary Demonstration of CASL s Coupled Tools for BWRs

Thermal Hydraulics of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts and a Preliminary Demonstration of CASL s Coupled Tools for BWRs
Author: Jacob Preston Gorton
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2018
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1083898035
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Thermal Hydraulics of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts and a Preliminary Demonstration of CASL s Coupled Tools for BWRs Book Review:

Since the 2011 accident at the Daiichi nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan, there has been a worldwide effort to develop so-called accident tolerant fuel (ATF) technologies to enhance safety during design basis and beyond design basis accidents. Part of the ATF development effort involves replacing much of the zirconium-based materials in light water reactors (LWRs). This is due to the accelerated oxidation rate of zirconium at high temperatures potentially experienced during severe accidents, which led to the build-up of hydrogen gas and eventual explosions that occurred at the Daiichi nuclear power plant. To be considered as a possible alternative to zirconium, an ATF candidate material must not only have greater oxidation resistance but must also have equal or better performance than zirconium in reactor operations and safety. Two candidate materials that may meet these requirements are iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys and silicon carbide fiber-reinforced, silicon carbide matrix composites (SiC/SiC). Two studies on ATF concepts are presented in this thesis, which focus on using computer simulations to evaluate the use of FeCrAl as the fuel rod cladding material in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the use of SiC/SiC as the fuel assembly channel box material in a boiling water reactor (BWR). Both of these studies are performed using computer modeling, which is one of the first steps for evaluating new design concepts and eventually integrating them into existing reactors. Developing tools that can accurately predict the performance of nuclear reactors with high fidelity is the goal of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Also included in this thesis is a preliminary demonstration of neutronic-to-thermal-hydraulic coupled BWR simulations performed using the CASL tools MPACT and CTF. In the first study, a model of a PWR fuel assembly was created to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) of FeCrAl fuel rod cladding during an imposed 50% overpower condition, which may be representative of an accident condition. CHF is a critical parameter to evaluate for ATF candidate materials because reaching CHF in a fuel rod can cause a rapid increase in temperature in the reactor that may lead to bursting of the cladding and a loss of ability to cool the core. Current correlations used for predicting flow boiling CHF in reactors are not dependent on material or surface characteristics, but this study showed that preliminary pool boiling results could be used to modify existing CHF correlations to make them more applicable to a given material, such as FeCrAl. Preliminary transient flow boiling experiments are also analyzed in this thesis for Inconel 600 and Stainless Steel 316, which pave the way for future flow boiling experiments using FeCrAl. In the second study, BWR fuel assembly models were created with a SiC/SiC channel box to predict a spatial temperature and fast neutron flux distribution in the channel box. The temperature and fast flux distributions were then used as boundary conditions for a finite element model of the channel box created by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the deflection of the channel box due to temperature and neutron flux gradients. It was found in this study that the deflection of the channel box, which was mainly a product of the nonuniform fast flux distribution causing a swelling gradient within the channel box, may lead to interference with control blades in BWR cores. The work presented in this thesis provides new information on two ATF concepts and helps lay the groundwork for future evaluations. Detailed computational evaluations are an important step in the progression and application of these concepts that have the potential to increase the safety of nuclear reactors. The development of high-fidelity computational tools like MPACT/CTF is important for providing accurate simulated results that can be used in advancing the development of ATF concepts.

Metrics for the Evaluation of Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel

Metrics for the Evaluation of Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2001
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:925449791
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Metrics for the Evaluation of Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Book Review:

The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation's nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry's success. Enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) development is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness, and economics of commercial nuclear power. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel in the integrated reactor system makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing desirable performance attributes is critical in guiding the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring multiple teams to develop ATF concepts within multiple national laboratories, universities, and the nuclear industry. Concepts under investigation offer both evolutionary and revolutionary changes to the current nuclear fuel system. This paper summarizes technical evaluation methodology proposed in the U.S. to aid in the optimization and down-selection of candidate ATF designs. This methodology will continue to be refined via input from the research community and industry, such that it is available to support the planned down-selection of ATF concepts in 2016.

Neutronic and Economic Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for Light Water Reactors

Neutronic and Economic Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for Light Water Reactors
Author: Ian Younker
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2015
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:915618402
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neutronic and Economic Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for Light Water Reactors Book Review:

Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) are designed to mitigate the detrimental interaction betweenzirconium-alloy cladding and high temperature steam found during beyond design basis accident conditions. Two ATF concepts under consideration are: (1) Coating the exterior ofzirconium-alloy cladding with thin ceramics to limit the zirconium available for reaction withhigh-temperature steam; (2) Replacing zirconium alloys with alternative materials possessingslower oxidation kinetics and reduced hydrogen production. ATF concepts are expected to workwithin the design framework of current and future light water reactors, and for that reason theymust match or exceed the neutronic and economic performance of conventional fuel. This studyanalyzed the neutronic performance and estimated the economic impact of the two previouslydescribed ATF concepts for use in both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling waterreactors (BWRs).For PWRs findings show ceramic coatings should remain 10-30 m thick to limit neutronicpenalty and reduce fuel costs. For alternative cladding materials, SiC features reduced absorptionwhile other alloys (FeCrAl, TZM, Alloy 33 , and HT-9) enhance absorption compared to reference.Parametric analyses conclude reference performance metrics can be met by employing 90-160m thick clad when the clad inner diameter remains constant or 210-280 m when clad outerdiameter remains constant. For cladding thicknesses between minimum and reference valuesenrichment must increase 0.39-1.74% depending on alloy and geometry. Alternative claddingmaterials may reduce nuclear power plant prot up to $623 M over the 40-year plant lifetime.When incorporated into BWRs, these ATF concepts double neutronic penalties due to largerquantities of zirconium alloy.

Development of Advanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for Commercial Light Water Reactors

Development of Advanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for Commercial Light Water Reactors
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 9
Release: 2014
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:925448393
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Development of Advanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for Commercial Light Water Reactors Book Review:

The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation's nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States' nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels remains central to industry's success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. Thanks to efforts by both the U.S. government and private companies, nuclear technologies have advanced over time to optimize economic operations in nuclear utilities while ensuring safety. One of the missions of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) is to develop nuclear fuels and claddings with enhanced accident tolerance. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, DOE-NE initiated Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) development as a primary component of the Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC). Prior to the unfortunate events at Fukushima, the emphasis for advanced LWR fuel development was on improving nuclear fuel performance in terms of increased burnup for waste minimization, increased power density for power upgrades, and increased fuel reliability. Fukushima highlighted some undesirable performance characteristics of the standard fuel system during severe accidents, including accelerated hydrogen production under certain circumstances. Thus, fuel system behavior under design basis accident and severe accident conditions became the primary focus for advanced fuels while still striving for improved performance under normal operating conditions to ensure that proposed new fuels will be economically viable. The goal of the ATF development effort is to demonstrate performance with a lead test assembly or lead test rod (LTR) or lead test assembly (LTA) irradiation in a commercial power reactor by 2022. Research and development activities are being conducted at multiple DOE national laboratories, universities and within industry with support from the DOE program. A brief program overview and status are provided.

Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:967919882
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel Book Review:

As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for Light Water Reactors

Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for Light Water Reactors
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 372
Release: 2016
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:961278959
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for Light Water Reactors Book Review:

"This publication provides a record of a Technical Meeting on Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for Light Water Reactors, held at Oak Ridge National Laboratories in 2014, to consider the early stages of research and development into accident tolerant fuel. Following the Fukushima Daiichi accident, a review of fuel behaviour has been initiated. Zirconium alloy clad fuel operates successfully to high burnup and is the result of 40 years of continuous development and improvement. However, under severe accident conditions, the high temperature zirconium-steam interaction can be a major source of damage to the power plant. This publication considers different ways to ameliorate this problem without sacrificing the good behaviour of fuel in normal operation. Options range from making the cladding more resistant to the high temperature steam oxidation through to completely new fuel designs with ceramic cladding and different fuel materials."--Publisher's description.

Materials Inventory Database for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

Materials Inventory Database for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:967920111
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Materials Inventory Database for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Book Review:

Scientific research involves the purchasing, processing, characterization, and fabrication of many sample materials. The history of such materials can become complicated over their lifetime - materials might be cut into pieces or moved to various storage locations, for example. A database with built-in functions to track these kinds of processes facilitates well-organized research. The Material Inventory Database Accounting System (MIDAS) is an easy-to-use tracking and reference system for such items. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS), which seeks to advance the long-term reliability and productivity of existing nuclear reactors in the United States through multiple research pathways, proposed MIDAS as an efficient way to organize and track all items used in its research. The database software ensures traceability of all items used in research using built-in functions which can emulate actions on tracked items - fabrication, processing, splitting, and more - by performing operations on the data. MIDAS can recover and display the complete history of any item as a simple report. To ensure the database functions suitably for the organization of research, it was developed alongside a specific experiment to test accident tolerant nuclear fuel cladding under the LWRS Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels Pathway. MIDAS kept track of materials used in this experiment from receipt at the laboratory through all processes, test conduct and, ultimately, post-test analysis. By the end of this process, the database proved to be right tool for this program. The database software will help LWRS more efficiently conduct research experiments, from simple characterization tests to in-reactor experiments. Furthermore, MIDAS is a universal tool that any other research team could use to organize their material inventory.

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems Water Reactors

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems     Water Reactors
Author: John H. Jackson,Denise Paraventi,Michael Wright
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 2532
Release: 2018-12-20
ISBN 10: 3030046397
ISBN 13: 9783030046392
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems Water Reactors Book Review:

This two-volume set represents a collection of papers presented at the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems – Water Reactors. The purpose of this conference series is to foster an exchange of ideas about problems and their remedies in water-cooled nuclear power plants of today and the future. Contributions cover problems facing nickel-based alloys, stainless steels, pressure vessel and piping steels, zirconium alloys, and other alloys in water environments of relevance. Components covered include pressure boundary components, reactor vessels and internals, steam generators, fuel cladding, irradiated components, fuel storage containers, and balance of plant components and systems.

Evaluation Metrics Applied to Accident Tolerant Fuels

Evaluation Metrics Applied to Accident Tolerant Fuels
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2014
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:925447320
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Evaluation Metrics Applied to Accident Tolerant Fuels Book Review:

The safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation's nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States' nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry's success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and have yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. One of the current missions of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is to develop nuclear fuels and claddings with enhanced accident tolerance for use in the current fleet of commercial LWRs or in reactor concepts with design certifications (GEN-III+). Accident tolerance became a focus within advanced LWR research upon direction from Congress following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal of ATF development is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness and economics of commercial nuclear power. Enhanced accident tolerant fuels would endure loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer period of time than the current fuel system while maintaining or improving performance during normal operations. The U.S. DOE is supporting multiple teams to investigate a number of technologies that may improve fuel system response and behavior in accident conditions, with team leadership provided by DOE national laboratories, universities, and the nuclear industry. Concepts under consideration offer both evolutionary and revolutionary changes to the current nuclear fuel system. Mature concepts will be tested in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory beginning in Summer 2014 with additional concepts being readied for insertion in fiscal year 2015. This paper provides a brief summary of the proposed evaluation process that would be used to evaluate and prioritize the candidate accident tolerant fuel concepts currently under development.

Light Water Reactor Fuel Enrichment Beyond the Five Per Cent Limit Perspectives and Challenges

Light Water Reactor Fuel Enrichment Beyond the Five Per Cent Limit  Perspectives and Challenges
Author: International Atomic Energy Agency
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 56
Release: 2020-10-12
ISBN 10: 9789201109200
ISBN 13: 9201109202
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Light Water Reactor Fuel Enrichment Beyond the Five Per Cent Limit Perspectives and Challenges Book Review:

The limitation of 235U enrichment is a current concern among IAEA Member States. In response, work has been undertaken to provide a platform to facilitate a comprehensive review of the current status, prospects and challenges associated with the use of fuels having enrichments higher than 5 % 235U in light water reactors. This publication is the outcome of two technical meetings and compiles the results and conclusions in terms of benefits to be obtained from the use of high assay low enriched uranium (HALEU) fuel, with due consideration of safety issues that arise from its use. It details technological options and corresponding issues regarding fuel and core design, safety analysis and assessments relevant to manufacturing, handling, transportation, storage, irradiation, and performance in normal and accident conditions.

Analysis of the FeCrAl Accident Tolerant Fuel Concept Benefits During BWR Station Blackout Accidents

Analysis of the FeCrAl Accident Tolerant Fuel Concept Benefits During BWR Station Blackout Accidents
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2015
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:946825176
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Analysis of the FeCrAl Accident Tolerant Fuel Concept Benefits During BWR Station Blackout Accidents Book Review:

Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are being considered for fuel concepts with enhanced accident tolerance. FeCrAl alloys have very slow oxidation kinetics and good strength at high temperatures. FeCrAl could be used for fuel cladding in light water reactors and/or as channel box material in boiling water reactors (BWRs). To estimate the potential safety gains afforded by the FeCrAl concept, the MELCOR code was used to analyze a range of postulated station blackout severe accident scenarios in a BWR/4 reactor employing FeCrAl. The simulations utilize the most recently known thermophysical properties and oxidation kinetics for FeCrAl. Overall, when compared to the traditional Zircaloy-based cladding and channel box, the FeCrAl concept provides a few extra hours of time for operators to take mitigating actions and/or for evacuations to take place. A coolable core geometry is retained longer, enhancing the ability to stabilize an accident. Finally, due to the slower oxidation kinetics, substantially less hydrogen is generated, and the generation is delayed in time. This decreases the amount of non-condensable gases in containment and the potential for deflagrations to inhibit the accident response.

Systematic Technology Evaluation Program for SiC SiC Composite based Accident tolerant LWR Fuel Cladding and Core Structures

Systematic Technology Evaluation Program for SiC SiC Composite based Accident tolerant LWR Fuel Cladding and Core Structures
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 51
Release: 2015
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:925452015
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Systematic Technology Evaluation Program for SiC SiC Composite based Accident tolerant LWR Fuel Cladding and Core Structures Book Review:

Fuels and core structures in current light water reactors (LWR's) are vulnerable to catastrophic failure in severe accidents as unfortunately evidenced by the March 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This vulnerability is attributed primarily to the rapid oxidation kinetics of zirconium alloys in a water vapor environment at very high temperatures. Zr alloys are the primary material in LWR cores except for the fuel itself. Therefore, alternative materials with reduced oxidation kinetics as compared to zirconium alloys are sought to enable enhanced accident-tolerant fuels and cores.

Report on Status of Execution of SiC Step Document

Report on Status of Execution of SiC Step Document
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 18
Release: 2015
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:925456399
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Report on Status of Execution of SiC Step Document Book Review:

Advanced fuel claddings made entirely or mainly of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics and/or composites are considered very attractive elements of the accident-tolerant fuels for the light water reactors. In order to translate the promise of SiC composite materials into a reliable fuel cladding, a coordinated program of component level design and materials development must be carried out with many key feasibility issues addressed a-priori to inform the process. With the primary objective of developing a draft blueprint of a technical program that addresses the critical feasibility issues; assesses design and performance issues related with manufacturing, operating, and off-normal events; and advances the technological readiness levels in essential technology elements, a draft plan for the Systematic Technology Evaluation Program for SiC/SiC Composite Accident-Tolerant LWR Fuel Cladding and Core Structures was developed in the FY-14 Advanced Fuels Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycles Research and Development Program. This document summarizes the status of execution of the technical plan within the activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.